Hippoboscidae

Reeves, Will K., Adler, Peter H., Grogan, William L. & Super, Paul E., 2004, Hematophagous and Parasitic Diptera (Insecta) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA, Zootaxa 483, pp. 1-44: 20-21

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.157582

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:21B79402-B2DD-44D9-8A17-76E64785DE9C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A6E95B-FFA3-FFC5-E37F-10FCD86FFA86

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hippoboscidae
status

 

Family Hippoboscidae 

The Hippoboscidae  , or flat flies and keds, are ectoparasites of birds and mammals. Males and females feed exclusively on blood. Hippoboscids are biological vectors of Haemoproteus  blood parasites of birds and can transfer phoretic bird lice and mites from one bird to another. They are primarily tropical in distribution and species richness in the Park is relatively low.

Icosta americana (Leach) 

Collections: North Carolina, Swain Co., Big Cove  , 23 September 1943, ex great horned owl, coll. A. Stupka; Tennessee, Sevier Co. Dudley Creek, 1 September 1943, ex great horned owl, coll. A. Stupka; Elkmont (664 meters, 35.6536 °N, 83.5806 °W), 12 March 1940, ex great horned owl, coll. A. Stupka; Park Headquarters, 26 march 1976, ex great eastern screech owl, coll. D. DeFoe.

Icosta americana  is primarily an ectoparasite of the Accipitridae  , Phasianidae  , and Strigidae ( Maa 1969)  . The Park records represent flies captured during raptor studies. While there are only four records, I. americana  probably occurs throughout the Park on owls and other birds of prey. With the recent introduction of West Nile virus and its fatal infections in raptors, the vector potential of I. americana  should be of interest to wildlife managers. Brimley (1938) stated that I. americana  is the most common hippoboscid in North Carolina  .

Ornithoica vicina (Walker) 

Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob  , 24 July 2000, ex slatecolored junco, coll. P. Super, 1 August 2002, ex song sparrow, coll. P. Super; Swain Co., near Oconaluftee River, 25 June 2001, ex house finch, coll. P. Super; Gregory's Bald (1508 meters, 35.5202 °N, 83.8661 °W), 23 July 2001, ex slate­colored junco, coll. P. Super; Tennessee, Blount Co., Gregory's Bald, 23 July 2001, ex slate­colored junco, coll. P. Super.

Ornithoica vicina  is the smallest bird­biting hippoboscid known from the Park. Maa (1966, 1969) reported collections of O. vicina  from 86 genera, 25 families, and 10 orders of birds, although only the Strigiformes  and Passeriformes  are believed to be primary hosts. Ornithoica vicina  is a potential vector of blood parasites and lice but is not yet known to transmit either ( Lloyd 2002). A single bird louse, Philopterus  sp. (Mallophaga: Philopteridae  ), was attached to the hind leg of a fly removed from a house finch. Maa (1966, 1969) reported chewing lice on the wings and abdomens of O. vicina  in the USA and Ecuador.

Ornithomyia anchineura Speiser 

Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob  , 23 June 2002, ex eastern phoebe  , coll. P. Super; 26 June 2002, ex eastern phoebe  , coll. P. Super; 5 July 2002, ex slate­colored junco, coll. P. Super; 8 July 2002, ex eastern towhee and song sparrow, coll. P. Super; 16 July 2002, ex Carolina  wren, coll. P. Super; Swain Co., Newfound Gap (1538 meters, 35.6108 °N, 83.4256 °W), 15 June 2000, slate­colored junco, coll. P. Super; near Oconaluftee River, 25 June 2001, ex house finch, coll. P. Super; Tennessee, Blount Co., Gregory's Bald, 23 July 2001, ex slate­colored junco, coll. P. Super; Tremont Institute, 26 May 2001 and 6 June 2001, ex American robin, coll. P. Super.

Ornithomyia anchineura  was the most frequently collected hippoboscid in the Park. However, it is larger than O. vicina  and might have been easier to notice and collect. This fly has been reported from 68 genera, 22 families, and 7 orders of birds ( Maa 1969). Ornithomyia anchineura  could be a subspecies of O. chloropus Bergroth  , a Palaearctic hippoboscid ( Maa 1969). Ornithomyia anchineura  is a potential vector of bird­blood parasites but has never been demonstrated to transmit pathogens.

Ornithomyia bequaerti Maa 

Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob  , 18 July 2002, ex song sparrow, coll. P. Super; Swain Co., near Oconaluftee River, 25 June 2001, ex house finch, coll. P. Super; Tennessee, Blount Co., Tremont Institute, 19 June 2002, ex wood thrush, coll. P. Super.

Maa (1969) indicated that O. bequaerti  is underreported as a species because it is nearly identical to O. anchineura  . Only intact adult specimens could be differentiated, but O. bequaerti  appears to be less frequently collected in the Park. Alternatively, it might feed on bird species that were not mist netted. Ornithomyia bequaerti  is restricted to small passerine birds ( Maa 1969). It is a potential vector of bird­blood parasites.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Hippoboscidae

Loc

Hippoboscidae

Reeves, Will K., Adler, Peter H., Grogan, William L. & Super, Paul E. 2004
2004
Loc

Strigidae (

Maa 1969
1969