Leucosolenia salpinx, Van, Rob W. M., 2017

Van, Rob W. M., 2017, Sponges of the Guyana Shelf, Zootaxa 1, pp. 1-225: 200

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.272951

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scientific name

Leucosolenia salpinx

sp. nov.

Leucosolenia salpinx  sp. nov.

Figures 126View FIGURE 126 a –d, 127a –e

Material examined. Holotype RMNH Por. 9743, Guyana, ‘Luymes’ Guyana Shelf Expedition, station 73, 6.7667°N 57.2667°W, depth 27.5 m, benthic sledge, muddy sandy bottom, 31 August 1970 (type material includes two light microscopic slides).GoogleMaps 

Paratype RMNH Por. 9744, Guyana, ‘Luymes’ Guyana Shelf Expedition, station 112, 7.4°N 57.6°W, depth 39 m, triangular dredge, 5 September 1970GoogleMaps  .

Description. ( Figs 126View FIGURE 126 a –d) Groups of tiny, individual, olynthus-type tubes attached to the tails of Tetilla pentatriaena  specimens. Shape trumpet-like ( Figs 126View FIGURE 126 a –b), tapering from a wide apical aperture to a thin attachment tail. Apical aperture surrounded by a fringe of trichoxeas ( Fig. 126View FIGURE 126 d). Tube body hairy ( Fig. 126View FIGURE 126 a), with long single trichoxeas and microdiactines protruding at right or oblique angles from the body. Length of tubes 2–3 mm, width of the tubes 200–250 µm. Color in alcohol transparent-whitish.

Skeleton. ( Figs 126View FIGURE 126 c –d) Undifferentiated skeleton consisting of tangential sagittal triactines, tetractines and long thin trichoxeas, together forming the wall of the ascon-type sponge body. Long trichoxeas curve out from the skeleton and protrude far beyond the surface. Microdiactines are lodged in the skeleton between the triactines. Towards the thin tapering end, long thin trichoxeas become proportionally dominant, and at the end only trichoxeas are found in the skeleton.

Spicules. ( Figs 127View FIGURE 127 a –e) Triactines, tetractines, trichoxeas, microdiactines.

Triactines, sagittal, with straight, long, unpaired actine, divisible more or less clearly into (1) those with short, recurved, paired actines and the longest unpaired actines ( Fig. 127View FIGURE 127 a,a1), which are also slightly fusiform, unpaired actines 281– 337 –452 x 2 – 4.4 –6 µm, paired actines 36– 46 – 59 x 1.5– 3.1 –4 µm, and (2) those with variable lengths of unpaired actines ( Figs 127View FIGURE 127 b,b1,b2), which are straight and not fusiform, and possess relatively longer paired actines, which are more gradually curved, unpaired actines 51– 169 –315 x 2.5– 3.9 –5 µm, paired actines 27– 74 – 99 x 2.5– 3.4 –5 µm.

Tetractines ( Figs 127View FIGURE 127 c,c1,c2), of variable form, with straight unpaired actines much shorter than those of the triactines, apical actine usually much shorter than the basal and paired actines, usually slightly sagittal but occasionally almost equiradiate, unpaired actines 42– 154 –282 x 3 – 3.9 –6 µm, paired actines 24– 75 – 96 x 3 – 3.3 –4 µm, apical actines 14– 24 – 32 x 2 – 2.9 –4 µm.

Long trichoxeas ( Figs 127View FIGURE 127 d,d1), curved, in a large size variation, those of the main body and the fringe apparently indistinguishable, but those oblique to the surface of the wall and of the thinly tapering distal end of the body clearly longer than the others, with pointed ends frequently finely spined, 310– 468 –984 x 1.5– 1.8 –2.5 µm

Microdiactines ( Figs 127View FIGURE 127 e,e1), straight, entirely spined, 72– 151 –270 x 1.5– 2.0 –3 µm.

Distribution and ecology. Guyana Shelf, on soft bottom at 27.5–39 m depth.

Etymology. Salpinx  (Gr.), a noun in apposition, meaning trumpet, referring to the shape of the body.

Remarks. The genus assignment of this new species is not certain. At first I thought this was likely a species of Soleneiscus Borojevic, Boury-Esnault, Manuel & Vacelet, 2002a  (subclass Calcinea) because of the olynthuslike habitus. Although Soleneiscus  species were reported to possess exclusively tetractines as the structural spicules supporting the tube walls, recently Azevedo et al. (2015) described a Soleneiscus  from Peru with triactines, S. pedicellatus Azevedo, Condór-Luján, Willenz, Hajdu, Hooker & Klautau, 2015  . The present specimens somewhat resemble S. pedicellatus  , but in addition to the triactines, there are also tetractines and diactines, making the new species clearly different. One of the reviewers convinced me that the material described here fits much better in Leucolosenia (combination of sagittal tri-and tetractines and trichoxeas, presence of spined microdiactines), and accordingly I assigned the new species to that genus. The new species is distinct among the few known Central West Atlantic Leucosolenia  species by the habitus of single ascon tubes, lacking any side tubes. Florida species L. horrida (Schmidt in Haeckel, 1872)  is a globular cluster of anastomosed tubes spined by protruding lanceolate giant diactines, quite dissimilar to the new species.


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis