Pedinotus variegatus Marsh, 2002,

Belokobylskij, Sergey A., Castro, Clóvis Sormus De, Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio, Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro, Penteado-Dias, Angélic, 2017, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical species of the braconid wasp genus Pedinotus Szépligeti, 1902 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae), Zootaxa 4327 (1), pp. 1-102: 97-100

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Pedinotus variegatus Marsh, 2002


Pedinotus variegatus Marsh, 2002 

( Figs 49, 50)

Pedinotus variegatus Marsh, 2002: 172  ; Felix and Penteado-Dias, 2004: 2; Castro et al., 2010: 1104; Yu et al., 2012.

Material examined. Costa Rica: 1 female (holotype of P. variegatus  ), “ Costa Rica : Puntar., Golfo Dulce, 3km S Rincón, 10 m, III–V.1989, Hanson” ( UWIM)  ; 1 female (paratype of P. variegatus  ), “ Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Santa Rosa Natl. Park , 300m, ex Malaise trap Site #5, Date: XI.29–XII.20.1986, I.D. Gauld & D. Janzen ” ( UWIM)  ; 1 female (paratype of P. variegatus  ), similar first label, but “ Ian Gauld , 31.I–21.II. 1987 ”, “Bosque Humedo, Mature dry forest, high proportion Evergreen species, Full Shade” ( UWIM)  ; 1 female (paratype of P. variegatus  ) “ Costa Rica: Heredia Pr: La Selva Biol. Sta. 3km S Pto. Viejo, 10º26' N 84º01' W /, H.A. Hespenheide ” ( UWIM)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female (paratype of P. variegatus  ), same first label, “OTS, fogging Pentaclethia macroloba, FPM. 18, 8.I.1994 ” ( UWIM)  ; 25 females, 12 males, “ Costa Rica: Guanacaste, Santa Rosa Natl. Park, 300m, ex Malaise trap, I. Gauld & D. Janzen ”, several dates from 1985 to 1987 ( UWIM)  ; 1 male, “ Costa Rica, Guanacaste, ACT, Bagaces, P. N. Palo Verde Sec. P. Verde, 0–50 m, Extremo E Campo Aterrizaje , Malaise trap, #53258, 16.vii–17.viii.1999, I. Jimenez, L.N. 260952-385030” ( UWIM)  ; 2 females, Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Golfo Dulce , 3 km S Rincón, 1989, P. Hanson & I. Gauld ( UWIM)  ; 1 female, “ Costa Rica 67118, CNIN 1491 (GenBank accession no. KT851887View Materials)” ( UNAM)  ; 1 female, “ Costa Rica 67118”, “P. sp. 2 04” ( ZISP)  . French Guiana: 1 female, “ Guyane Française, Nouragues, Saut Parraré , x.2009 (Piege Malaise), Rec.: S.E.A.G.”, “DNA PE 6-2” ( UNAM)  ; 1 female, “ Guyane française, Montagne de Kaw, Relais Patawa , xi.2000 (Malaise, 4˚32'42.20'' N–52˚09'09.19''W), A.E.I. Guyane - J. Cerda legs”, “DNA PE 3-2” ( UNAM)  ; 1 female, “ French Guiana, Regina Road, Roura Kaw , 37.5± 1.7 km. 4°33'20'' N 52°08'19'' W, Alt. 217 m., Kaw Mt. , IVl 2004, J.A. Cerda Leg ” ( UNAM)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female, “ French Guiana , MTK (massif du Mitaraka)—SLAM, 14-III-2015, La Planète Revisitée—MNHN / PNI Guyane 2015 ( APA 973- 1)” ( MNHN)  ; 1 female, “ French Guiana , MTK (massif du Mitaraka)—SLAM, 6-III-2015, La Planète Revisitée— MNHN / PNI Guyane 2015 ( APA 973-1)” ( ZISP)  ; 1 female, “ French Guiana , MTK (massif du Mitaraka)—SLAM, 1-III-2015, La Planète Revisitée—MNHN / PNI Guyane 2015 ( APA 973-1)” ( MNHN)  . Panama: 2 females, “ Panama, Las Cumbres, Canal Zone , IV.1982, H. Wolda ” ( CNCI)  ; 1 female, same data, but “ III.1979 ” ( CNCI)  .

Redescription. Female. Body length 3.7–7.2 mm; fore wing length 2.8–5.1 mm.

Head width (dorsal view) 1.4–1.5 × its median length, 1.2–1.3 × maximum width of mesoscutum. Head behind eyes (dorsal view) roundly narrowed. Eye 1.55–1.75 × longer than temple (dorsal view). Ocelli small-sized, arranged in almost equilateral triangle, with anterior ocellus round and weakly smaller than lateral oval ocelli. POL 0.8–1.2 × Od, 0.4–0.5 × OOL. Frons strongly concave, with distinct median longitudinal carina extending until antennal sockets. Eye glabrous, 1.2–1.3 × higher than broad (front view). Face width 0.7–0.8 × height of eye and 0.9–1.0 × height of face and clypeus combined. Malar space 0.4–0.5 × height of eye, 0.8–1.0 × as long as basal width of mandible. Hypoclypeal depression width almost equal to shortest distance between depression and inner border of eye and about 0.5 × width of face.

Antennae slender, almost filiform, with 34–42 antennomeres. Scape 1.35–1.45 × longer than its maximum width. First flagellomere 5.0–6.0 × longer than its apical width, 1.0–1.1 × longer than second segment. Submedian flagellomeres 3.7–4.5 × longer than their maximum width.

Mesosoma 2.0–2.1 × longer than its maximum height. Pronotum distinctly convex dorsally (lateral view) and with fine submedian pronotal carina (dorsal view). Median lobe of mesoscutum protruding forwards and anteriorly weakly convex, without median longitudinal furrow. Median length of mesoscutum 1.0–1.2 × its maximum width. Notauli complete, deep anteriorly and shallow posteriorly, entirely weakly crenulated. Prescutellar depression (scutellar sulcus) rather deep, usually with three distinct carinae, 0.35–0.40 × as long as scutellum medially. Precoxal sulcus (sternaulus) shallow, but distinct, short, smooth or weakly crenulated, running along anterior 0.5– 0.6 length of lower part of mesopleuron.

Wings. Fore wing 3.8–4.2 × longer than maximum width. Vein r (first radial abscissa) arising almost from middle of pterostigma. Vein 3RSa (second radial abscissa) 2.0–2.3 × longer than vein r (first radial abscissa), 0.33– 0.35 × as long as the straight vein 3RSb (third radial abscissa), 1.3–1.4 × longer than vein 2RS (first radiomedial). Second submarginal (radiomedial) cell 2.2–2.4 × longer than maximum width, 0.7–0.8 × as long as first subdiscal (brachial) cell. Vein (RS+M)a (first medial abscissa) weakly sinuate. Vein 1m-cu (recurrent) antefurcal, subparallel to vein 1M (basal). Vein 1cu-a (nervulus) postfurcal, 0.1–0.3 × as long as distance between veins 1M (basal) and nervulus (1cu-a). Hind wing vein M+CU (first submedial abscissa) 0.3 × as long as vein 1-M (second submedial abscissa). Vein m-cu (recurrent) almost straight and antefurcal.

Legs. Hind femur 3.1–3.4 × longer than maximum width. Hind tarsus 0.9–1.0 × as long as hind tibia. Second segment of hind tarsus 0.5 × as long as basitarsus, 1.3–1.4 × longer than fifth segment (without pretarsus).

Metasoma 1.0–1.1 × as long as mesosoma and head combined. First tergite with wide and low basolateral lobes, without spiracular tubercles, linearly widened from subbase to apex. Length of first tergite 0.7–0.9 × its maximum (subapical) width; maximum width 1.5–1.6 × its minimum (basal) width. First and second tergites perhaps immovable fused, its suture dorsally rather deep and wide. Second tergite with wide, shallow, short, almost parallel sublateral furrows; median length of second tergite 0.3 × its basal width at spiracular level, 0.6–0.7 × median length of third tergite. Suture between second and third tergites entirely deep and rather narrow, distinctly sinuate, with not strong sublateral bends. Third tergite with distinct wide transverse crenulated sulcus in basal third. Ovipositor sheath 0.7–0.9 × as long as metasoma, 1.0–1.3 × longer than mesosoma, 0.7–0.8 × as long as fore wing.

Sculpture and pubescence. Vertex smooth; frons with transverse curved striation, sometimes partly smooth; face coarse rugose with curved striation laterally and below. Mesoscutum mainly smooth, rugose in medioposterior subtriangular or subrectangular area. Mesopleuron mainly smooth. Metapleuron mainly finely rugulose to almost smooth. Propodeal areas more or less distinctly delineated by carinae; basolateral areas at least partly smooth anteriorly, reticulate-areolate posteriorly, usually with rugosity along carinae; areola pentagonal and rugulose, sometimes weakly delineated; basomedian carina about as long as anterior fork of areola. Hind coxa and femur mainly smooth. First metasomal tergite coarsely areolate-rugose to rugose with curved striation mediobasally, with distinct sublateral longitudinal carinae. Second tergite coarsely and densely areolate-rugose. Third to fifth tergites very densely and small reticulate-punctate to punctate in basal 0.7–0.5, smooth apically; sixth tergite densely punctate in basal half and smooth in apical half. Vertex mainly glabrous, with a few sparse short setae laterally and posteriorly. Mesoscutum mostly glabrous, with short, rather sparse and semi-erect pale setae along notauli, on medioposterior sculptured area and laterally. Dorsal side of hind tibia with long, rather sparse and semi-erect pale setae, their length 0.5–0.9 × as long as maximum width of tibia.

Colour. Body colour varying from almost entirely black dorsally, with black parts on pronotum and mesopleuron, to almost completely yellow; propodeum always mainly dark reddish brown or black. Head completely yellow, mostly dark brown at frons, vertex and part of face, with eye orbits, malar space and lower face always yellow. Mesosoma very rarely almost entirely orange (in specimens from Costa Rica). Legs varying from almost entirely brown to almost entirely yellow; in all specimens at least middle of trochanters and subbasal band or marking on all tibiae whitish; most specimens have at least tip of hind femur dark brown. Tegula light yellow. Wings faintly evenly infuscate. Pterostigma entirely black to brown, paler in basal third.

Male. Body length 2.7–6.0 mm; fore wing length 2.0– 3.8 mm. Head behind eyes (dorsal view) weakly convex in anterior half and roundly narrowed in posterior half. Eye 1.4–1.5 × longer than temple (dorsal view). Face 1.1– 1.3 × wider than its height with clypeus. Scape 1.1–1.2 × longer than wide. Length of mesosoma 2.2–2.5 × its height. Precoxal sulcus (sternaulus) present at anterior half of mesopleuron, shallow and smooth. Propodeal areas distinctly delineated by carinae, basolateral areas mainly smooth. Hind femur shorter, 2.9–3.0 × longer than wide. Metasoma narrow, distinctly transformed, Rhaconotus  -shaped. First tergite weakly widened from subbase to apex; length of first tergite 1.1–1.4 × its maximum (subapical) width; maximum width 1.3–1.4 × its minimum (basal) width. Second tergite without sublateral furrows, its median length 0.7–1.0 × basal width, 0.7–0.8 × length of third tergite. First and second tergites entirely coarsely rugose. Suture between second and third tergites weakly sinuate, without sublateral bends. Third tergite basally with distinct wide transverse crenulated sulcus. Fourth to sixth tergites with deep and crenulated transverse basal furrow. Sixth tergite 1.1–1.3 × longer than fifth tergite. Third to sixth tergite mainly very dense and small granulate-punctate, smooth on narrow apical transverse stripes. Body yellow; metasoma and legs lighter yellow; all fifth tarsal segments brown; antenna light yellow darkening toward apex; wings almost hyaline; pterostigma mostly brown with basal 0.25–0.3 yellow.

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama, French Guiana.

Comparative diagnosis. This species belongs to the morphological group with mainly glabrous mesoscutum. Pedinotus variegatus Marsh  shares most of its diagnostic characters with P. ferrugineus Enderlein. The  only morphological difference between these two species is the colour of propodeum in females, which is mainly black or dark reddish brown in P. variegatus  and mainly yellow or light reddish brown to orange in P. ferrugineus  . The difference between these species is also supported by the COI data set (see below).

Remarks. P. Marsh (2002) commented in his description of P. variegatus  that it could only be distinguished from P. ferrugineus  based on the colour of propodeum in females. This author mentioned that the 24 type specimens of P. variegatus  have a black (dark) propodeum, at least partially, whereas in eight specimens of P. ferrugineus  the propodeum is “usually orange”. Our examination of specimens assigned to P. variegatus  from Costa Rica revealed a wider range of colour variation, with specimens having an almost entirely black or dark brown dorsally to completely yellow (in males). However, the only sequence that we have of a specimen assigned to P. ferrugineus  has a considerable COI distance with respect to the specimen assigned to P. variegatus  (12.4 %). Further morphological and molecular studies will help to confirm the taxonomic status of these two taxa.

We also found 13 entirely pale males in the same locality where females of P. variegatus  were collected, all of which have all the diagnostic characters of the species except body colour. Similar to most males of Pedinotus  species, the median area on the second tergite is absent, the metasomal third to sixth tergites are strongly convex dorsally (lateral aspect) and with very dense granulate-coriaceus sculpture. We could not obtain sequences of these males and thus additional material will be needed to confirm whether they belong to P. variegatus  .


Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico


Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Canadian National Collection Insects














Pedinotus variegatus Marsh, 2002

Belokobylskij, Sergey A., Castro, Clóvis Sormus De, Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio, Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro, Penteado-Dias, Angélic 2017

Pedinotus variegatus

Castro, C. S. & Nunes, J. F. & Penteado-Dias, A. M. 2010: 1104
Felix, F. C. & Penteado-Dias, A. M. 2004: 2
Marsh, P. M. 2002: 172