Epigomphus pechumani Belle, 1970

Bota-Sierra, Cornelio A., Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo & Amaya-Vallejo, Vanessa, 2017, The rediscovery and redescription of Epigomphus pechumani Belle, 1970 (Odonata: Gomphidae), with a description of its female from the Western Colombian Andes, Zootaxa 4306 (3), pp. 419-427: 420-426

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4306.3.8

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A3DC16E7-8B42-46C2-8282-6506A368E7E2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A887BB-0E28-FFA8-FF22-BA34FE0FB2CE

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Epigomphus pechumani Belle, 1970
status

 

Epigomphus pechumani Belle, 1970 

Figures 1View FIGURE 1 a–c, 2a–g, 3a–g, 4.

Material deposited at CEUA: 16 males and 2 females. 1 ♀: COLOMBIA, Risaralda Department, Pueblo Rico Municipality , Santa Cecilia , Alto Amurrupa reserve, Ranas de Cristal Creek (N 5.32033° W 76.17357°; elev. 650 m), 7 February 2017, C. Bota & J. Sandoval legGoogleMaps  . 3♂, Same data except (N 5.33003° W 76.14935°, elev. 405m) 4, 17 and 21 February 2017GoogleMaps  . 1♂, El Silencio township (N 5.35405° W 76.13991°, elev. 530m), 10 February 2017, B. Cárdenas, J. Sandoval & C. Bota legGoogleMaps  . 1♀, PNN Tatamá , Montebello township , small arm of the Taiba River (N 5.22021° W 76.08099°, elev. 1430 m), 18 May–25 June 2015, J. Forero, R. Rodríguez & C. Bota. Same data except: 1♂, 25 July 2016, J. Sandoval & C. Bota legGoogleMaps  . 2♂ May–June 2015, J. Forero, R. Rodríguez & C. Bota leg. 1♂, 19 June 2016, A. Orejuela & C. Bota leg. 2♂, 25 July 2016, F. García, J. Sandoval & C. Bota leg. 3♂, 16 August 2016 J. Sandoval & C. Bota. 2♂, El Pencil area (N 5.24813° W 76.08253° 1170), 18–25 April 2015, C. Bota legGoogleMaps  . 1♂ Valle del Cauca Department, Farallones de Cali National Park, Dagua Municipality, Anchicayá , Hydroelectric Facility, road to La Riqueza (N 3.59651°, W 76.89001°, elev. 551 m), 18 October 2016, C. Flores & C. Bota leg.GoogleMaps 

Redescription. Male: Medium size dragonfly, in life thorax brown with creamy pale stripes ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 a–b), (greenish-yellow in preserved material); abdomen blackish-brown with creamy pale spots ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 a), (greenishyellow in preserved material; abdominal appendages strongly robust.

Head. Eyes in life brilliant blue ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 a–b); labium cream colored, grayish-blue medially, with long dark setae; base of mandibles, genae pale bluish; labrum (as in Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 b) blackish-brown with a large, rounded pale blue, spot on each side; anteclypeus dark brown, postclypeus dark brown, with two pale yellow spots, one on each side; frons dark brown with a large, transverse, dorsal blue spot on each side of midline, not contiguous ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 a–b, 2a); antennae dark brown. Vertex and occiput dark brown, with one pale stripe behind each lateral ocellus ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 a), rear of head yellowish-brown ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 a); occiput ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 a) thick and swollen at sides, with long, scattered brown setae along entire width, posterior surface undulate. Rear of head moderately tumid near upper margin of compound eyes ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 a).

Thorax. Pronotum ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 a) with anterior and middle lobes mostly light brown, middle lobe pale yellow laterally, and a small yellow, twin-spot on middorsum; posterior lobe brown with long, brown erect setae. Pterothorax ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 a–b) dark brown with greenish-yellow pale stripes; anterior, transverse mesothoracic keel (collar) with minute spinules; middorsal carina usually brown, sometimes with pale dashes, mesepisternum brown with first antehumeral pale stripe not connected to pale collar anteriorly, not reaching antealar crest posteriorly; second pale antehumeral stripe represented only by one (upper) or two small pale spots, one inferior spot close to mesothoracic collar, one superior spot close to antealar crest; mesepimeron dark brown with a pale stripe more or less of same width its full-length, bifurcating at superior end and touching antealar crest, occasionally connected superiorly to metepisternal pale stripe by a very thin pale line; metepisternum and metepimeron mostly pale with a brown stripe on metapleural suture; venter of pterothorax pale, grayish-yellow. Coxae greenish-yellow; femora with basal 0.65 of external (dorsal) surface light brown, distal 0.35 black; tibiae and tarsi black, pretarsal claws reddish brown with distinct supplementary tooth; femur spines short on ventral surface ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 f); protibiae with modified spines (scale-like) on distal half of anterior (internal) border, without lamina tibialis ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 a, g); mesotibia with long, slender spines on anterior and posterior borders, metatibia with long, slender spines on posterior (external) border, anterior (internal) border with a row of peg-like spines ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 f); pro- and mesotarsi with slender spines, first and second tarsomeres of metatarsi with slender spines on posterior (external) border and peg-like- spines on anterior (internal) border, third tarsomere with slender spines on both borders ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 f). Wings slightly tinged brown. Venation dark brown; width of hindwing 0.28 its length. Basal subcostal crossvein present (one male with two crossveins on left Fw). Second primary antenodal crossvein 7th in Fw, 6th or 7th in Hw. Antenodal crossveins: Fw 19–20 (left), 18–21 (right); Hw 14–16. Postnodal crossveins: Fw 12–17; Hw 12–15. Three to four (Fw) and two (Hw) cubito-anal crossveins in addition to inner side of subtriangle. Crossveins in space between sectors of arculus and point of branching of RP on Hw 3 (right) or 4 (left). Supratriangles, triangles and subtriangles free from crossevins. Pterostigma reddish-brown, covering about 6.5–7 (left), 6 (right) cells in Fw, 6 (left), 5.5–7 (right) cells in Hw.

Abdomen ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 a). Predominantly blackish-brown. Width of S1 3 mm, S2 posterior to auricles 2 mm, S3–7 slender (1.5– 1.2 mm) widening at S8 from 1.7 mm at base to 3.2 mm posteriorly, S9 3.0 –3.3, S10 3.0 – 3.7 mm wide. S1–2 pale greenish-yellow, brown on dorsum except for a narrow pale yellow mid-dorsal stripe; auricle of S2 swollen on dorsal half with a transverse, thick, incomplete ridge at middle, posterior surface with about five vertical rows of small, stout spines; S3–5 with a narrow, pale yellow mid-dorsal line, S6 only with a pale, basodorsal spot; sides of S3 with a latero-basal greenish-yellow triangle at basal 3/4 length of segment, interrupted at its half by dark brown at submedian transverse carina; sides of S4–6 with a basolateral, rectangular greenishyellow spot at basal 0.30 of each segment; S7 dorsally pale on basal 0.50, laterally pale on basal 0.70, remaining blackish-brown; S8–9 blackish brown, S10 reddish-brown dorsally, armed with black spinules, brown with a large, semicircular, mediobasal yellow spot on venter ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 a). Anterior hamule hidden below posterior hamule, dark brown, short, divided at upper half, upper and lower branches hook-like ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 c); posterior hamule thick ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 c), directed caudoventrally, anterior surface with rows of small black denticles, latero-external surface with long, brown bristle-like setae, apex widely rounded. Vesica spermalis ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 c–d): segment 1 brown, triangular, its ventral surface deeply concave, borders thick ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 c); segment 2 reddish-brown; segment 3 ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 d) reddishbrown on basal 0.60, apical 0.40 whitish, ending posteriorly in two triangular, roundly pointed horns directed ventrally; segment 4 ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 d) the shortest, prepuce rounded and diaphanous, lateral lobe strongly bulging dorsally, with a slender projection directed posteriorly and parallel to cornua; cornua short. Cercus ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 a–d) dark reddish-brown; in dorsal view ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 c) widening gradually to apex, extreme base with a small tooth on internal margin directed medially, medial margin slightly concave and longer than external margin, inner apical angle widely rounded, outer apical angle obtuse; cercus in ventrolateral view ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 a) wider basally, gradually narrowing to apex, dorsal margin slightly convex at basal 0.80 then abruptly and strongly decurved at apical 0.20 ending in a strong tooth, dorsal surface on apical 0.20 with a large, shallow depression; ventral margin concave with a ventral, stout tooth at basal 0.80, distal margin of cercus notched between both teeth; cercus in caudal view as in Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 d. Epiproct ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 a–d) blackish-brown, widely V-shaped, slightly longer than cerci ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 c); branches of epiproct, in dorsal view ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 c), with surface deeply concave at basal 0.60, thick on apical 0.40; in mediodorsal view ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 b), ending in a spine directed dorsally, and with a dorsal, subapical, triangular stout tooth; in ventrolateral view with a stout, rounded, baso-ventral tooth ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 a).

Measurements (mm). TL 48–57, Ab 36–44, FwL 33–38, HwL 31–37, FwPt 3.2–4, HwPt 3.5–4.3, Hw width at nodus 8–9.5, head width 7.3–7.9, Hf 6.8–7.1, cercus 2.1–2.4.

Female: Medium size dragonfly, in life thorax brown with creamy pale stripes ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 c), (dull green in preserved material); abdomen blackish-brown, in life with creamy pale spots (yellowish-green preserved material).

Head. As in male but base of mandibles greenish-yellow; labrum brown with a large, rounded pale green, spot on each side; anteclypeus brown, postclypeus brown with anterolateral corners black; frons brown with a grayish spot on antero-dorsal corners ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 b). Vertex and occiput reddish-brown ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 b), rear of head mostly yellowishbrown becoming blackish-brown above; vertex with a concavity behind each lateral ocellus, and a pair of low posteromedial tubercles ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 b); occiput with one dorsal conical tubercle on each side, posterior surface undulate ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 b). Rear of head strongly tumid near upper margin of compound eyes, with a vertical, external postgenal groove on each side that likely receives the male cerci, during copulation as stated by Calvert (1920).

Thorax. As described for male but second pale antehumeral stripe represented only by one small pale superior spot close to the antealar crest ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 c). Coxae grayish; femoral spines long and slender, apical spine of external border largest; metatibia with long, slender spines on both inner and outer border; all metatarsomeres with slender spines on both sides. Wings hyaline. Width of hind wing 0.24 its length (right Hw broken and lost). Basal subcostal crossvein present. Second primary antenodal crossvein 6th or 7th in Fw (left), 6th or 8th (right), 6th or 7th in Hw (left). Antenodal crossveins: Fw 18 or 21 (left), 21 or 23 (right); Hw 14 or 15 (left). Postnodal crossveins: Fw 14; Hw 13 (left) or 16. Three (Fw) and two (Hw) cubito anal crossveins in addition to inner side of subtriangle. Pterostigma reddish-brown, covering about 8 cells in Fw, 6.5 cells in Hw (left).

Abdomen ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 c). Predominantly blackish-brown, slender, as described for male but S1 pale greenish-yellow, brown on dorsum except for a narrow pale yellow mid-dorsal stripe; S2 mostly dark with a narrow a pale yellow mid-dorsal line, a lateral, longitudinal greenish-yellow stripe the full-length of segment; auricle of S2 swollen, rounded, smooth; sides of S4–6 with a basolateral, triangular greenish-yellow spot at basal 0.30 of each segment; S7 dorsally pale on basal 0.35, laterally pale on basal 0.25, remaining blackish-brown; S8–10 black. Vulvar lamina ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 e), in ventral view, V-shaped, reaching basal 0.44 length of lateral margin of S9, branches splitting at basal 0.60 length of vulvar lamina, tips rounded. Cerci black, left cercus with dorsal and ventral margins parallel on basal 0.70, strongly convergent distally ending in a sharply pointed tip ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 f); right cercus with dorsal margin irregular and strongly convex on basal 0.75, then converging linearly forming a large, sharply pointed tip ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 g) (probably representing a deformity). Epiproct black, in dorsal view triangular, roundly pointed, polished dorsally, with long, stiff bristles on ventral surface, about as long as cerci ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 f–g).

Measurements (mm). TL 57.7–58, AL 44.3–44.5, Fw 41.5–42.0, Hw 39.0–39.5, Hw width at nodus 9.5, Fw Pt 4–4.2, Hw Pt 4.5, head width 8.2, Hf 6.2–6.5, cercus 0.9–1.0, vulvar lamina 0.5–0.7.

Remarks. Epigomphus pechumani  belongs to the group of species with the second antehumeral stripe reduced to one or two spots. Belle (1970) considered E. crepidus Kennedy, 1936  , as the nearest ally of E. pechumani  with no supporting information. We do not agree with Belle’s point of view, both species are quite different in many respects, mainly on: occiput thicker and tumid in E. pechumani  ; second antehumeral stripe complete in E. crepidus  ; anterior lamina wider and more extended laterally in E. crepidus  ; inferior hook of anterior hamuli well developed in E. pechumani  ; segment 1 of vesica spermalis ventrally deeper in E. pechumani  ; S10 and caudal appendages are more robust and bulky in E. pechumani  ; epiproct quite larger than cerci in E. crepidus  ; epiproct branches widely separated each other, slender and narrower in E. crepidus  ; both species are more or less alike only in the shape of cerci. We consider it premature to establish relationships among species pending a generic revision including all known species. However, E. pechumani  can be distinguished from other species by the following combination of features: second pale antehumeral stripe reduced to two pale spots (upper and inferior) ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 a–b); anterior hamuli divided at upper half, upper and lower branches hook-like ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 c); cercus ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 a–d), in dorsal view, widening gradually to apex with the inner apical angle widely rounded, and outer apical angle obtusely produced; in caudal view, with distal margin notched between two teeth; branches of epiproct in dorsal view with surface deeply concave at basal 0.60, ending in a spine directed dorsally, and with a dorsal, subapical, triangular stout tooth.

Biology. Males of this species were seen during sunny days along little branches of the rivers perching on branches or standing on stones and guarding territories ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 a); they were also observed on first order streams inside forest or at forest edge. Some were collected during bright sunny days perching on the ground in trails inside the forest. Females were rarely seen; only three were seen during more than one year of field sampling; we suspect they probably forage high in the forest canopy and rarely descend to the ground.

Distribution. Epigomphus pechumani  is recorded at only three localities on the Pacific slope of the western Colombian Andes, Cordillera Occidental, between 400 and 1400 m above sea level, in the departments of Risaralda and Valle del Cauca ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Odonata

Family

Gomphidae

Genus

Epigomphus