Euarestoides acutangulus ( Thomson, 1869 )

Savaris, Marcoandre, Norrbom, Allen L., Marinoni, Luciane & Lampert, Silvana, 2019, Revision of the genus Euarestoides Benjamin (Diptera: Tephritidae), Zootaxa 4551 (3), pp. 299-329: 305-307

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4551.3.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0328F818-3527-4D59-87DC-B8E02258FBE3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AA4A7D-C045-FFF0-7F96-95A0FAB46299

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Euarestoides acutangulus ( Thomson, 1869 )
status

 

Euarestoides acutangulus ( Thomson, 1869) 

Figs. 4–6View FIGURES 2‒13, 18–21View FIGURES 14‒25, 39View FIGURES 38‒43, 45View FIGURES 44‒49, 51View FIGURES 50‒55, 58View FIGURE 58

Trypeta acutangula Thomson 1869: 583  [description; California]; Coquillett 1899: 265 [as synonym of E. abstersus  ].

Tephritis acutangula: Loew 1873: 335  [n. comb.]; Woodworth 1913: 137 [California]; Cresson 1931: 4 [review]; Knowlton & Harmston 1937: 145 [Utah].

Trypeta (Tephritis) acutangula: Osten Sacken 1878: 194  [catalog].

Trupanea acutangula: Schwitzgebel & Wilbur 1943: 5  [biology].

Trupanea (Euarestoides) acutangula: Benjamin 1934: 58  [classification, status].

Euarestoides acutangula: Hering 1941: 165  [ Peru]; Aczél 1950: 293 [catalog]; Quisenberry 1951: 59 [taxonomy]; Foote 1958: 291 [review]; Foote & Blanc 1963: 23 [review, California]; Lipp & Schulz 1970: 27 [ecology].

Euarestoides acutangulus: Foote 1965: 669  [catalog]; Foote 1967: 24 [catalog]; Harris & Piper 1970: 134 [host plant]; Wasbauer 1972: 114 [host plant]; Goeden & Ricker 1974: 831 [host plants]; Goeden & Ricker 1975: 304 [host plant]; Goeden & Ricker 1976a: 49 [host plant]; Goeden & Ricker 1976b: 926, 927, 929 [host plants]; Goeden & Ricker 1976c: 1174 [host plant]; Piper 1976: 381 [biology]; Hilgendorf & Goeden 1982: 152 [host plant]; Goeden 1986: 326 [host plant]; Goeden & Ricker 1986: 42 [host plant]; Palmer 1987: 192 [host plants]; Foote et al. 1993: 158, 159, 160 [taxonomy, distribution, host plants]; Headrick & Goeden 1995: 199 [behavior]; Norrbom et al. 1999: 146 [catalog]; Headrick & Goeden 1999: 694 [behavior].

Trypeta abstersa: Cockerell 1898: 155  [New Mexico]; Cockerell 1902: 347 [New Mexico] [misidentifications].

Urellia abstersa: Doane 1899: 192  [distribution]; Wulp 1900: 426 [ Mexico]; Snow 1903: 219 [Kansas]; Snow 1904: 345 [Arizona]; Tucker 1907: 105 [Colorado]; Aldrich 1913: 218 [Great Basin] [misidentifications].

Euaresta abstersa: Johnson 1903: 106  [New Mexico]; Cresson 1907: 106 [New Mexico, Texas]; Cole 1912: 158 [California]; Woodworth 1913: 137 [California] [misidentifications].

Trypanea abstersa: Hendel 1914: 81  [ Chile, Peru records] [misidentification].

Tephritis abstersa: Janes & Thomas 1932: 103  [Utah] [misidentification].

Euarestoides abstersa: Hering 1941: 164  [ Chile, Peru records] [misidentification].

Trupanea abstersa: Stuardo 1946: 135  [ Chile] [misidentification].

Diagnosis. This species differs from E. bimaculatus  and E. rionegrensis  in having a completely darkened border on the anterodistal margin of the reticulate area between the pterostigma and crossvein r-m. It differs from E. abstersus  and E. pereirai  in having the apical ray in cell r 1 much narrower than the subapical ray, and from E. abstersus  and E. dreisbachi  in having the reticulate area between the pterostigma and crossvein r-m discontinuous, interrupted by large hyaline spots ( Figs. 4–6View FIGURES 2‒13). It further differs from E. dreisbachi  in having the aculeus with the lateral margin serrate, and the apical lobe of the acrophallus parallel-sided. It further differs from E. pereirai  in lacking a distinct dark spot in cell r 4+5 within the stellate mark, the medial prensiseta straight, and the acrophallus with a projecting apical lobe.

Description. Body length 2.60–4.45 mm, dark brown in ground color. Setae generally pale brown to brown.

Head: Slightly higher (0.74–0.92 mm) than long (0.46–0.54 mm). Generally yellowish, frons yellow to orange, ocellar tubercle brown to dark brown, and occiput brown medially and with broad brown mark sublaterally extended nearly to vertical setae. Frons length (0.36–0.40 mm) less than width at vertex (0.42–0.58 mm), slightly narrowed to anterior margin (0.46–0.48 mm). Gena with few small yellowish setulae on middle and ventral margin; genal seta acuminate, pale brown; gena height to eye long diameter ratio 0.20–0.21. Eye ovoid, long diameter 0.61–0.80 mm, width 0.46–0.52 mm. Antenna testaceous, usually yellow (rarely dark), first flagellomere longer than wide. Maxillary palpus pale brown at apex with 3 distinct acuminate setulae.

Thorax: Length 1.02–1.65 mm, ground color of scutum dark brown, of scutellum dark brown with apical margin yellow.

Wing ( Figs. 4–6View FIGURES 2‒13): Length 3.27–3.83 mm, width 1.19–1.32 mm. Area between pterostigma and crossvein r-m pale brown to gray reticulate, but with markings discontinuous, interrupted by large hyaline spots, with completely darkened border along anterodistal margin ending anteriorly on vein R 1 or in apex of pterostigma. Pterostigma subhyaline to yellowish, occasionally with anteromedial brown spot. Cell r 1 with 3 rays in marginal part, most proximal ray narrow, medial ray broad, most distal as narrow as or subequal to proximal ray; rays bordering 3 marginal hyaline marks: largest immediately distad of pterostigma, oblique and reaching to or almost to vein R 4+5; second mark triangular, usually extending to beyond vein R 2+3; and small rounded or triangular subapical mark usually reaching vein R 2+3. Cell r 2+3 with 2 marginal hyaline marks (with complete or sometimes incomplete medial dark ray). Cell r 4+5 with apical rays complete, distinctly broader distally; without distinct medial dark spot reaching vein R 4+5 near base of apical rays within the subapical stellate mark; subbasal hyaline spot near anterior end of crossvein dm-m large, more than ¾ width of cell. Cells bm and cu a mostly hyaline. Cells br, dm, and m 4 and anal lobe pale brown to gray reticulate with large hyaline spots, markings mostly narrowly connected. Dark ray over crossvein dm-m and 2 dark rays crossing cell m 1 all reaching posterior wing margin. Basal marginal hyaline mark in cell m 1 usually reaching vein M 1 (first ray and ray on dm-m sometimes faintly connected). Halter yellow.

Legs: Entirely yellow.

Abdomen: Ground color usually dark brown (sometimes base of syntergite 1+2 yellowish).

Female terminalia: Oviscape yellow to brown, length 0.77–0.90 mm, width 0.66–0.70 mm at base and 0.24–0.26 mm at apex; basal half with setulae lanceolate, white, and apical half with setulae acuminate, brown. Eversible membrane ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 14‒25) length 0.81–0.84 mm. Aculeus ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 14‒25) pale brown, length 0.70–0.75 mm, lateral margin serrate from proximal to opening of cloaca to subapically, tip ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 14‒25) triangular with elongate apex, length 0.17–0.19 mm. Spermathecae ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 14‒25) subspherical, length 0.19–0.22 mm.

Male terminalia: Medial surstylus with prensisetae equal and straight ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 38‒43). Phallapodeme 0.37–0.39 mm long. Glans ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 50‒55) 0.23–0.25 mm long, acrophallus with straight, cylindrical apical lobe; vesica ca. ¼ length of internal sclerites.

Distribution. Nearctic and Neotropical. Central Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan), Chile (Antofagasta, Coquimbo, Santiago, Tarapacá), Colombia (Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Valle del Cauca), Cuba (Artemisa), Dominican Republic (Pedernales, San Cristóbal), Ecuador (Azuay, El Oro, Loja), Mexico (Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas), Peru (Arequipa, Cusco, Huánuco, Ica, La Libertad, Lima, Tacna), Puerto Rico (Isabela), Trinidad & Tobago ( Trinidad), central and western USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming), and western Venezuela (Lara, Mérida, Trujillo) ( Fig. 58View FIGURE 58). Elevational records range from 457 to 3900 m. The gap in distribution in Central America suggests that this species may have been introduced to South America.

Biology. This species has been reared from flowerheads of at least 21 species of Asteraceae  . The reported host plants are mainly in the tribe Heliantheae, including: Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook. ( Goeden & Ricker 1974)  , A. ambrosioides (Delpino) W. W. Payne ( Piper 1976)  , A. chamissonis (Less.) Greene  (= Franseria villosa Rydb.  ) ( Foote 1958; Wasbauer 1972; Piper 1976; Goeden 1986), A. chenopodiifolia (Benth.) W. W. Payne  ( Foote 1958; Foote & Blanc 1963; Goeden & Ricker 1976), A. confertiflora  DC. ( Goeden & Ricker 1975), A. deltoidea (Torr.) W. W. Payne ( Piper 1976)  , A. dumosa (A. Gray) W. W. Payne  (Goeden & Ricker 1976; Headrick & Goeden 1995), A. eriocentra (A. Gray) W. W. Payne (Goeden & Ricker 1976)  , A. ilicifolia (A. Gray) W. W. Payne (Goeden & Ricker 1976)  , A. psilostachya  DC. (Goeden & Ricker 1976; Piper 1976), A. salsola (Torr. & A. Gray) Strother & B. G. Baldwin  ( Foote 1958; Goeden & Ricker 1986; Headrick & Goeden 1995, as Hymenoclea salsola  ), Dicoria canescens A. Gray ( Goeden & Teerink 1993)  , Heliomeris  sp. (new data, 1 male reared), Iva axillaris Pursh ( Goeden & Teerink 1993)  , and I. hayesiana A. Gray ( Wasbauer 1972)  , Parthenium hysterophorus  L. (new data), Xanthium strumarium  L. ( Foote 1958, as X. canadense  , unclear if record based on reared specimens) and Xanthium  sp. ( Foote 1958; Foote & Blanc 1963). However, several non-Heliantheae hosts also have been reported, including: Anaphalis margaritacia  (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ( Gnaphalieae  ) ( Wasbauer 1972); Arnica chamissonis Less. subsp. foliosa (Nutt.) Maguire (Madieae)  ( Foote & Blanc 1963); Gaillardia aristata Pursh ( Foote 1958)  , and Helenium autumnale  L. (Helenieae) ( Wasbauer 1972). Ericameria paniculata (Gray) Rydb.  ( Astereae  ) ( Foote 1958; Wasbauer 1972, as Chrysanthemum  [presumably error for Chrysothamnus] paniculatus  ), Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby ( Astereae  ) ( Foote 1958), and Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii  (DC.) B. L. Turner & T. M. Barkley (Senecioneae) ( Foote 1958, record probably based on California specimens listed by Foote & Blanc 1963: 23 “ex” this plant and probably not reared) also have been reported as hosts, but the status of these records is questionable as they may have been based on adults collected on the plants. Asparagus officinalis L. (as asparagus), Medicago sativa  L. (as alfalfa), Prunus virginiana  L. (as chokecherry), Sesuvium sessile Pers.  , Sisymbrium  sp., Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Cav.) G. Don  and Zizania  sp. (as rice) have been erroneously reported as hosts ( Foote 1958). Adults have been collected in May-July in Canada, in February-September and November in Mexico, in February, April, May, August, October and November in Chile, in January, May and July in Colombia, in March in Ecuador, in July and September in Venezuela, in February, June, August, October and November in Peru, in July and August in the Dominican Republic, in January in Puerto Rico, and in August in Trinidad.

Type data. Thomson (1869) described this species from an unstated number of male specimens from “ California ”. The lectotype male, designated by inference of holotype by Foote (1958: 291), according to Foote is labeled “ California ” [white] / “Kinb.” [white] / “Typus” [white] / “ Trypeta acutangula Thoms.  ” [white] / “74, 56” [red]. It is deposited in the NRS.

Specimens examined. CANADA: Alberta: Medicine Hat , 1 Jun 1952, A. R. Brooks, 1♂ 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Onefour , 4 Jun 1955, J. R. Vockeroth, 1♀ ( CNC)  . Manitoba: Bald Head Hills , 20.9 km N of Glenboro , Betula occidentalis  (ex), sand dunes, 21 Jun 1958, J. F. McAlpine, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Boissevain , 17 Jul 1953, Brooks & Kelton, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Forrest, 14.4 km N, Prairie slough (wooded), 29 Jul 1958, J. G. Chillcott, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Shilo, 4.8 km S, Leafy spurge (ex), 30 Jun 1958, R. L. Hurley, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Shilo, 8 km SW, Floodplain community nr. Tamarack Bog , 22 Jul 1958, J. G. Chillcott, 1♀ ( CNC)  . Saskatchewan: Elbow , 26 Jun 1960, A. R. Brooks, 2♂ ( CNC)  ; Great Sand Hills , 27 May 1955, J. R. Vockeroth, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Val Marie , 11 Jun 1955, J. R. Vockeroth, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Val Marie , 13 Jun 1955, A. R. Brooks, 1♂ ( CNC)  . CHILE: Antofagasta: Chinino, Camino Talabre , 6 Oct 1955, L. E. Peña, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Pocos , Des  . Atacama, 2800 m, Apr 1954, L. Peña, 8♂ 12♀ ( CNC)  1♂ 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00262608- 09)  . Coquimbo: La Serena Beach, associated to flowers of Ambrosia  ( Franseria  like), 20 May 1992, C. Garcia, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00105361)  ; La Serena, Atualsol, on Potato , 20 Feb 1932, M. Kisliuk & C. E. Cooley, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00105362)  . Santiago: Jamaica , 2000 m, 2 Aug 1975, C. Forter, 1♀ ( USNM)  . Tarapacá: Azapa , 9 Nov 1955, L. E. Peña, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Azapa , 8-10 Nov 1955, L. E. Peña, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Codpa , 2000 m, 2 Aug 1975, C. Porter, 1♀ ( IML)  . COLOMBIA: Boyacá: V. de Leiva, 30 Jul 1991, on flowers Ambrosia cumanensis, C. Garcia  , 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00105365)  . Cundinamarca: Funza , papa, 3 Jun 1958, E. Idrobo, 3♂ ( ICAT)  1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00105363)  ; Funza , papa, 22 Jan 1957, M. Revalo 1♂ ( ICAT)  . Valle del Cauca: La Combre, 18 May 1914, H. S. Parish, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00105366)  . CUBA: Artemisa: San Antonio de los Baños, J. Bequaert, 3♀ ( MCZ)  . DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Pedernales: " Las Abejas" 7.3 km NE Las Mercedes, 18°19'N, 71°38'W 1100-1150 m, 20 Aug 1983, F. M. Harrington, J. D. Weintraub, 1♂ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; La Abeja , 38 km NNW Cabo Rojo, 18°09'N, 71°38'W, 1250 m, 15 July 1987, J. E. Rawlins, R. L. Davidson, 1♀ ( CMP)GoogleMaps  ; Cabo Rojo , 23.5 km N, 18°6'N 71°38'W, 540 m, deciduous forest; intercept trap, 13-19 Jul 1990, L. Masner, J. Rawlins & C. Young, 1♀ ( CMP)GoogleMaps  ; Cabo Rojo , 26 km N, 18°6'N 71°38'W, 760 m, 17 Jul 1987, J. Rawlins & R. Davidson, 2♂ ( CMP CMNH-353, 601, 731)GoogleMaps  . San Cristóbal: San Cristóbal , Jul 1969, J. Maldonado C., 2♂ ( USNM USNMENT00105367-68)  . ECUADOR: Azuay: Tarqui-S. Isabel road, 2200-2800 m, 10-13 Mar 1965, L. E. Peña, 4♂ 1♀ ( CNC)  . El Oro: Tres Cerritos , 17-18 Feb 1965, L. E. Peña, 1♂ ( CNC)  . Loja: Loja, 2500 m, 23-25 Mar 1965, L. E. Peña, 7♂ 3♀ ( CNC)  . MEXICO: Baja California: Colonet , 3.5 km SW, 9 May 1985, Carter, Bloomfield & Faulkner, 1♀ ( SDNHM)  ; El Condor , 3.8 km S, 13 May 1981, Faulkner & Brown, 1♀ ( SDNHM)  ; El Crucero , 29°15'N 114°8'W, sweeping Atriplex  sp., 4 Apr 1976, J. Doyen, 2♂ 4♀ ( UCB)GoogleMaps  ; El Rosario , 48.7 km E, 29°45'N 114°45'W, 24 Mar 1981, Faulkner & Andrews, 1♂ ( SDNHM)GoogleMaps  ; Los Frailes , 18 Mar 1953, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Las Encinas, 3.2 km W, 1585 m, 18 Mar 1972, J. Powell, 1♂ ( UCB)  ; Mission San Bonja , 457 m, 31 Mar 1973, J. Doyen & J. Powell, 1♀ ( UCB)  ; Puertocitos , 20.9 km S, 4 Apr 1973, J. Doyen, J. Powell & S. L. Szerlip, 2♂ ( UCB)  ; Rancho Santa Ines , 9 km NW, 29°46'N 114°46'W, 550 m, 6 Apr 1985, Clark & Blom, 2♀ ( LACM)GoogleMaps  ; San Felipe , 41.8 km S, 30°45'N 114°45'W, 15 Apr 1965, D. Q. Cavagnaro, C. E. & E. S. Ross, 1♂ ( CAS)GoogleMaps  ; same, 31°N 114°52'W, 20 Feb 1954, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 2♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 31°N 114°52'W, 24 Mar 1963, G. I. Stage, 1♂ 1♀ ( UCB)  ; San Juanico , 9.3 km S, 30 Mar 1985, Bloomfield & Faulkner, 1♂ ( SDNHM)  ; Santa Ines , 1.6 km E, 6 Apr 1985, Bloomfield & Faulkner, 1♂ ( SDNHM)  ; Sierra Juarez, Cantillas Canyon, "Narrows" mouth, 21 Mar 1967, J. Powell, 1♂ ( UCB)  . Baja California Sur: Isla San Marcos , 31 Mar 1953, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♂ ( CAS)  ; Santa Maria Bay , 14 Mar 1953, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♀ ( CAS)  ; 3.7 km W Mexico 1 on Bahia Tortugas road, 19 Mar 1981, Faulkner & Andrews, 1♂ ( SDNHM)  ; 131 km W Mexico 1 on Bahia Tortugas road, 18 Mar 1981, Faulkner & Andrews, 4♂ 11♀ ( SDNHM)  ; Arroyo San Miguel , 44.5 km NE of, 26°21'N 112°37'W, 1 Apr 1985, Bloomfield & Faulkner, 1♂ ( SDNHM)GoogleMaps  ; Agua Verde Bay , 26 Mar 1953, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♀ ( CAS)  ; La Paz , 24°10'N 110°18'W, 20 Feb 1974, G. E. Bohart, 1♀ ( LACM)GoogleMaps  ; same, 21 Feb 1974, G. E. Bohart, 1♀ ( LACM)  . Chiapas: Ocozocoautla , 11.2 km SW, 2500 m, 1 Aug 1974, O'Brien & Marshall, 1♂ ( CAS)  ; San Cristobal de Las Casas , 16°45'N 92°38'W, P. J. Spangler, 4♂ 1♀ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; same, 2 Aug 1956, J. W. MacSwain & D. D. Linsdale, 1♀ ( UCB)  ; same, 2134-2287 m, 20 Aug 1963, H. V. Weems, Jr., 1♀ ( FSCA USNMENT00214924)  ; same, 2161 m, 16 May 1969, B. V. Peterson, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; same, 2195 m, 1 Jun 1969, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; same, 3.2 km E, 29 Jul 1957, J. Chemsak & B. J. Rannells, 16♂ 20♀ ( UCB)  ; same, 11.2 km SE, 2134 m, 26 May 1969, H. J. Teskey, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; same, 12.8 km SE, 10 Jul 1956, J. W. MacSwain, 3♂ 2♀ ( UCB)  ; Teopisca, Hwy . 39.7 km SW, 23 May 1969, B. V. Peterson, 1♀ ( CNC)  . Chihuahua: Camargo , 21 Sep 1970, G. E. & R. M. Bohart, 1♂ ( LACM)  ; Juarez , 30 Jan 1965, B. A. Young, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Juarez , 20.9 km S, 18 Aug 1952, E. E. Gilbert & C. D. MacNeil, 3♂ ( UCB)  ; Juarez , 96.5 km S, 30°30'N 106°30'W, 20 Aug 1970, D. W. Davis, 2♂ ( LACM)GoogleMaps  . Durango: Alamillo , 19.3 km N, 21 Feb 1953, R. C. Bechtel & E. I. Schlinger, 2♀ ( UCB)  ; Durango, 24°2'N 104°40'W, 1829-1982 m, 13 May 1965, H. V. Weems, Jr., 1♂ ( FSCA USNMENT00214923)GoogleMaps  . Michoacán: San Jose Purua , Jun 1965, N. L. H. Krauss, 3♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  . Nayarit: San Blas , La Bajada, 20-21 Mar 1983, W. J. Hanson, 1♀ ( LACM)  . Oaxaca: Mitla , 4.8 km W, 9 Apr 1953, R. C. Bechtel, 1♂ ( UCB)  . San Luis Potosí: C. del Maiz , 64.3–80.4 km NW, 20 Nov 1948, E. S. Ross or H. B. Leech, 4♂ 1♀ ( CAS)  ; San Luis Potosi, 40.2 km NE, 9 Sep 1972, G. F. & S. Hevel, 1♀ ( USNM)  . Sinaloa: Los Mochis , 6 May 1953, R. C. Bechtel & E. I. Schlinger, 1♀ ( UCB)  . Sonora: Bahia San Carlos , 27°58'N 111°4'W, 18 Feb 1963, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♀ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; Choya Bay , 27 Mar 1949, G. M. Bradt, 1♀ ( AMNH)  ; Gulf of California, Isla San Esteban , 28°42'N 112°36'W, 2 Apr 1953, P. H. Arnaud, 3♀ ( CAS)GoogleMaps  ; Obregon , 19 Dec 1952, J. S. Caldwell, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Punta Penasco , 10 Apr 1963, F. G. Andrews, 1♂ ( UCR)  ; San Jose Guaymas , 27°59'N 110°54'W, 10 Apr, L. O. Howard, 2♂ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; Sonoyta , 32 km W, M.S. Mulla, 3♂ 2♀ ( UCR)  ; Sonora, 21 Apr 1947, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Sonoyta , near, 31°51'N 112°50'W, D. Veirs, 1♀ ( LACM)GoogleMaps  . Tamaulipas: El Limon, 32.1 km N, 10 Nov 1946, E. S. Ross, 1♂ ( CAS)  . Tlaxcala: Apizaco , 19 Jul 1965, Flint & Ortiz, 1♀ ( USNM)  . Veracruz: Tampico , 25 Feb 1972, F. Parker & D. Miller, 1♂ 2♀ ( USNM)  . Zacatecas: Fresnillo , 8 km S, 7 Aug 1954, E. G. Linsley, J. W. MacSwain & R. F. Smith, 1♂ 1♀ ( UCB)  ; Fresnillo , 14.4 km S, 10 Aug 1954, E. G. Linsley, J. W. MacSwain & R. F. Smith, 1♂ ( UCB)  ; Salinas , 30.5 km E, 10 Sep 1973, W. J. Hanson & B. A. Haws, 1♀ ( LACM)  . PERU: Arequipa: Arequipa, 26 Aug, Cockerell, 2♀ ( USNM)  . Cusco: Cusco, 3500 m, 12 Jun 1905, [C. A. W. Schnuse expedition], 1♂ ( SMT)  ; Cusco, Aug 1973, B. V. Ridout, 2♂ 1♀ ( BMNH)  ; Cusco, 7-8 Jun 1984, B. Malkin, 1♂ 1♀ ( MZUSP)  ; Sacsayhuaman , 3900 m, 5 Aug 1971, C.& M. Vardy, 1♀ ( BMNH)  ; Urcos , 9 Feb 1978, P. M. Marsh, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00105373-74)  . Huánuco: 11 km N of Huánuco, Espensa , 5 Feb 1984, W. N. Mathis, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00262602)  ; Tingo María , 18 Aug, Cockerell, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  . La Libertad: Trujillo , 29 Jun 1960, D. A. Young, sweeping weeds, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00262500)  . Lima: Chontay , Sep 1970, R. Garcia, 1♀ ( MZUSP)  ; Chosica , Nov 1961, N. L. H. Krauss, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00105372)  . Tacna: Tacna, 22 Oct 1902, [C. A. W. Schnuse expedition], 1♀ ( SMT)  . PUERTO RICO: Isabela: Punta Rosario , 14 Jan 1963, P. J. Spangler, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00105364)  . TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: Trinidad: Curepe , on flowers of Parthenium hysterophorus  L., Aug 1976, F. D. Bennett, 1♂ ( FSCA USNMENT00214922)  ; Curepe , reared from flowerheads of Parthenium, Jun 1970  , R. Cruttwell, 3♀ ( USNM USNMENT00105369-71)  . UNITED STATES: Arizona: Cochise Co., Carr Canyon, Huachuca Mountains , 19 Aug 1969, J. G. & B. L. Rozen, 1♂ ( AMNH)  ; Cave Creek, Chiricahua Mountains, nr. Portal , Juglans  sp. (fr foliage), 3 Oct 1966, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 3♂ 5♀ ( CAS)  ; Paradise , unident. composite (swept), 26 Aug 1987, F. L. Blanc, 1♂ 1♀ ( FLB)  ; Ramsey Canyon , 24.1 km S Sierra Vista, 26 May 1967, Sternitzky, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; same, Malaise trap, 4–10 Apr 1967, R. F. Sternitzky, 6♂ 3♀ ( CNC)  ; Tombstone , 27 km W, swept in dry grass, 24 Sep 1981, L. L. Cedarholm, 1♂ 1♀ ( ZIL)  ; Coconino Co., Flagstaff , 22.5 km N, 35°25'N 111°39'W, 17 Jul 1967, S. M. Anderson, 1♀ ( NAU)GoogleMaps  ; Flagstaff, 26 km NW, 35°21'N 111°47'W, Swept , grass & herbs under pines, 21 Sep 1981, L. L. Cederholm, 1♂ ( ZIL)GoogleMaps  ; Flagstaff , 35°11'53"N 111°39'2"W, 8 Jul 1941, R. H. Beamer, 1♂ (UKaL USNMENT00215366)GoogleMaps  ; Oak Creek Canyon, 14.4 km N of Sedona, 35°N 111°45'W, 23 Mar 1967, A. J. Banta, 1♀ ( NAU)  ; San Francisco mountains , 31 May 1965, R. S. Beal, 1♂ ( NAU)  ; Maricopa Co., Avondale , 8 km SW, 1 Apr 1967, G. I. Stange, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Buckeye , 12.8 km S, 10 Apr 1965, M. Irwin, 1♂ ( UCR)  ; Gila Bend , 24.1 km E, 32°57'N 112°28'W, 16 Feb 1953, E. I. Schlinger, 6♂ 16♀ ( CIS)GoogleMaps  ; Glendale , 1 Apr 1911, E. G. Smythe, 2♂ ( CIS)  ; Pima Co., Tucson , 32°13'18"N 110°55'33"W, 12 Apr 1941, B. P. Bliven, 1♂ ( CAS)GoogleMaps  ; Tucson , 17 Jun 1917, J. M. Aldrich, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  , same, 6 Sep 1933, Bryant, 1♂ 3♀ ( USNM)  , same, 15 Apr 1933, Bryant, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Tuscon , 10 Oct 1943, J. Hendrickson, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Sentinel Peak , W of Tucson, 2 Mar 1966, R. F. Sternitzky, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Pinal Co., Florence , 25 Mar 1951, B. P. Blevin, 1♂ ( CAS)  ; Superior , 13 Apr 1935, A. L. Melander 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Santa Cruz Co., Santa Rita mountains, Mt. Wrightson , 31°41'46"N 110°50'52"W, 28 Aug 1962, H. E. Milliron, 1♀ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; Washington mountains, near Nogales , 7 Sep 1927, J. A. Kusche, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Yavapai Co., Congress , 34°9'45"N 112°51'W, 23-26 Apr 1967, D. M. Wood, 2♂ 3♀ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; Cottonwood , 9.6 km NE of, 34°47'N 111°55'W, 2 May 1967, C. D. Johnson, 1♂ ( NAU)GoogleMaps  ; Drake , 4.8 km S, Black light trap, 10 Jul 1971, J. Beloy, 1♀ ( NAU)  ; Oak Creek Valley road, 4 May 1978, R. C. Miller, 1♂ ( UCD)  ; Rimrock , 22 Apr 1967, D. M. Wood, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Yuma Co., Telegraph Pass, Gila mountains , 25 Feb 1965, R. S. Funk, 2♀ ( NAU)  ; Yuma , 37 km N, 33°5'N 114°38'W, 2 Apr 1967, D. M. Wood, 1♂ 5♀ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; Yuma , 32°43'31"N 114°37'25"W, 19 Feb 1965, R. S. Funk, 1♂ ( NAU)GoogleMaps  ; same, 32°43'31"N 114°37'25"W, 9 Jan 1966, R. S. Funk, 3♂ ( NAU)GoogleMaps  . California: Alameda Co., Oakland , 37°47'N 122°12'W, Baccharis pilularis consanguinea (DC.) C. B. Wolf (swept), 11 Nov 1983, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♂ ( CAS)GoogleMaps  ; Alameda Co., Sunol (4.8 km N), 28 Aug 1983, T. W. Davies, 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Contra Costa Co., Sherman Is., Helianthus annuus  , 14 Aug 1979, E. G. & J. M. Linsley, 2♂ ( EGL)  ; Death Valley, Furnace Creek Ranch, 22 Mar 1970, E. J. Rogers, 1♀ ( EJR)  ; Del Norte Co., Requa , 41°32'49"N 124°3'55"W, 4 Aug 1920, C. D. Duncan, 1♀ ( SJS)GoogleMaps  ; Del Norte Co., Steven's Camp , 5 Aug 1970, L. Apigian, 2♂ 2♀ ( CAS)  ; Fresno Co., Coalinga (8 km S), Jacalitos Cyn. , 17 Mar 1975, P. A. Rude, 1♂ ( CIS)  ; Fresno Co., Marshall Sta. , 21 Apr 1983, D. J. Burdick, 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Fresno Co., Mendota (28.9 km SW), Ciervo Hills , Ephydra californica  , 18 Mar 1975, P. A. Rude, 1♂ ( CIS)  ; Helendale , 18 May 1955, W. R. Mason, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Humboldt Co., Gold Bluff Beach, nr. Orick , Achillea borealis  , 24 Jul 1976, 1♀ ( UCD)  ; Imperial Co., Davies Canyon entrance, 32°42'33"N 115°58'26"W, 23 Feb 1979, J. W. Brown & D. K. Faulkner, 3♂ 3♀ ( SDNHM)GoogleMaps  ; Davies Valley , 32°40'N 116°W, 16 Apr 1976, D. K. Faulkner, 1♂ ( SDNHM)  ; Fish Creek Mountains , 20 Apr 1955, W. R. Richards, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Glamis , 24.1 km NE of, 33°10'N 114°54'W, Encelia farinosa  (ex), 17 Apr 1969, R. R. Pinger, 1♀ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; Glamis , 3.2 km N, 33°2'N 115°4'W, Oenothera deltoides  (on), 27 Jan 1977, P. A. Rude, 1♂ 2♀ ( CIS)GoogleMaps  ; same, Dithyrea californica  , San Bernardino Co. Joshua Tree Nat. Mon., Indian Cove Camp , 25-26 Mar 1981, S. E. Miller, P. M. Mercer, 2♀ ( USNM)  ; Smith River, on flowers of Franseria villosa  Ryd'b. , 8 Jul 1930, J. M. Alderich, 1♂ 6♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 23 Jul 1932, J. M. Alderich 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Glamis , 32°59'51"N 115°4'16"W, 19 May 1977, D. K. Faulkner, 1♂ ( SDNHM)GoogleMaps  ; same, 21 Sep 1975, B. Villegas, 1♂ 1♀ ( UCD)  ; Kane Springs, Westmorland , 14 Feb 1955, W. R. Mason, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Ogilby road, 4.8 km S Jct.Hwy 78, 20-22 Mar 1978, Wasbauer, Slandky & Adams, 1♀ ( CDFA)  ; Ogilby , Encelia  sp. (on), 6 Apr 1977, L. Bezark, 1♀ ( SJS)  ; Inyo Co., Death Valley Jct. (48.2 km W), 25 Mar 1975, R. W. Brooks, 8♂ 2♀ ( UCD)  ; Deep Springs (3.2 km E), 14 May 1979, L. D. French & N. J. Smith, 1♀ ( UCD)  ; same, 16 May 1966, Fisher & Orth, 1♀ ( UCR)  ; Panamint City (8 km W), Sunrise Cyn. , Encelia farinosa  (colld. from), 6 Apr 1961, R. P. Allen, 1♂ 1♀ ( FLB)  ; Salsberry Pass , SW of Shoshone, Encelia farinosa  (swept), 9 Apr 1990, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 9♂ 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Westgard Pass (3.2 km W), Prunus andersonii  , 16 May 1969, P. Welles, 1♂ ( CIS)  ; Kern Co., Berts Canyon , base, 8 km NW Walker Pass, 35.7228°N 118.0742°W, marsh runoff from Coyote Spring, 1250 m, 25 Apr 2002, S. D. Gaimari, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00104224)GoogleMaps  ; Blackwell Corner (7.5 km W), 24 Mar 1981, A. Hardy & R. Aalbu, 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Frazier Park, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (on), 25 Apr 1956, R. F. Wilkey, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Mojave (16 km W), 24 Mar 1947, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 4♂ 1♀ ( PHA)  ; Mojave, Des Piut Butte , 6 May 1949, A. L. Melander, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Mojave Desert, Love Joy Spring , 10 May 1944, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Shafter , 21 May 1938, F. D. Horn, 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Kern Co., Taft , 21 May 1938, F. D. Horn, 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Tehachapi , 29 Mar 1942, C. D. Duncan, 2♂ ( SJS)  ; Tupman (1.6 km NW), Amsinckia  sp. (on), 19 Mar 1975, J. A. Powell, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Lassen Co., Hallelujah Junction , 29 Jun 1976, Montgomery & Bortfeld, 1♂ 1♀ ( UCD)  ; Herlong (3.2 km SW), 11 Sep 1983, J. B. Whitfield, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Susanville , alfalfa (swept), 18 May 1927, C. C. Wilson, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Litchfield , 22 Jun 1937, B. P. Bliven, 1♀ ( CAS)  . Los Angeles Co., Los Angeles, Griffith Observatory , yellow cruciferae (swept), 23 Mar 1972, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 3♂ 4♀ ( CAS)  ; Marin Co., Point Reyes National Seashore, North Beach , 38°8'35"N 122°57'W, Ambrosia chamissonis  , 3 Jun 1978, J. A. Powell, 1♀ ( CIS)GoogleMaps  ; Mendocino Co., Inglenook Fen , N of Cleone, 39°30'57"N 123°46'30"W, dunes, 24 Jul 1975, J. A. Powell, 2♀ ( CIS)GoogleMaps  ; Modoc Co., Buck Creek Ranger Station , Cirsium cymosum  , 5-7 Jun 1970, J. T. Doyen, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Fort Bidwell (8 km SE), Surprise Val. dunes, 9 Jun 1970, P. A. Rude, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Willow Ranch (4.8 km E), Isatis tinctoria  , 10 Jun 1970, J. A. Powell, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Sonora Pass , 2.4 km E, 14 Jul 1988, F. L. Blanc, 1♀ ( FLB)  . Monterey Co., Salinas River , dunes S of mouth, 36°44'58"N 121°48'9"W, Ambrosia chamissonis  , 15 Jul 1976, J. A. Powell, 1♂ ( CIS)GoogleMaps  ; Napa Co., Angwin , 27 Jul 1976, A. G. Lui, 2♀ ( CAS)  ; Lake Hennesy , 27 Jul 1976, L. Eighme, 3♀ ( CAS)  ; Needles (40.2 km NW), 8 Apr 1971, F. L. Blanc, 2♂ 3♀ ( FLB)  ; Nevada Co., Boca , 23 Jun 1978, M. A. Roese, 1♀ ( UCD)  ; Hobart Mills , 27 Jun 1980, L. A. West, 1♀ ( UCD)  ; Sagehen Creek , 20 Jun 1976, G. M. Streett, 1♀ ( UCD)  ; Truckee , 25 Jun 1943, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 2♀ ( PHA)  ; Newberry , 14 Mar 1955, W. R. Mason, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Placer Co., Blue Canyon road 8 km W Imigrant Gap, 29 Jul 1974, E. L. Smith, 1♂ ( CAS)  ; Rancho Mirage , 6 Apr 1955, W. R. Mason, 9♂ 5♀ ( CNC)  ; Riverside Co., Agua Caliente Ind. Res., Palm Cyn. , 24 Feb 1970, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Andreas Canyon , 33°45'44"N 116°32'10"W, 19 Apr 1979, J. C. Hall, 1♀ ( UCR)GoogleMaps  ; Blythe , 33°36'37"N 114°35'44"W, 1 May 1955, W. R. Richards, 1♂ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; Boyd Deep Desert Research Center, Coyote Wash , Phacelia distans  , 5 Apr 1978, R. W. Brooks, 9♂ 6♀ ( UCD)  ; Chuckwalla Spring , 14.4 km NW, 33°28'35"N 115°12'40"W, Encelia  sp. (swept), 24 Mar 1975, E. J. Rogers, 5♂ 3♀ ( EJR)GoogleMaps  ; Deep Cyn. Research Sta. , 8 Apr 1978, A. J. & M. E. Gilbert, 3♂ 4♀ ( AJG)  ; Joshua Tree National Monument, Cottonwood Canyon , 33°41'50"N 115°48'2"W, 7 Apr 1967, D. M. Wood, 2♂ 1♀ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; same, 7 Apr 1957, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; La Quinta , 7 Mar 1955, J. E. H. Martin, 16♂ 14♀ ( CNC)  ; Palm Desert , 33°43'20"N 116°22'25"W, 8 Mar 1952, N. A. Lewis, 14♂ ( SJS)GoogleMaps  ; Palm Springs , 33°49'49"N 116°32'40"W, Larrea tridentata  , 8 Apr 1974, P. D. Hurd, 1♂ ( CIS)GoogleMaps  ; same, 28 Mar 1974, E. J. Rogers, 2♂ ( EJR)  ; same, 11 Apr 1955, W. R. Mason, 18♂ 15♀ ( CNC)  ; same, 7 Jan 1954, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 1♀ ( CAS)  ; Thermal , 9 Apr 1955, W. R. Mason, 3♀ ( CNC)  ; Thousand Palms , 6 Mar 1955, J. E. H. Martin, 9♂ 7♀ ( CNC)  ; same, 7 Mar 1951, J. C. Hall, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00213156)  ; Tin Mine Canyon , Salvia mellifera  , 6 Apr 1968, R. Hobza, 1♂ ( UCR)  ; White Water , 33°55'30"N 116°38'15"W, 13 Mar 1955, W. R. Mason, 1♀ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; same, 17 Mar 1955, W. R. Mason, 1♂ 2♀ ( CNC)  ; White water Canyon , 34°21'21"N 118°21'10"W, Encelia  sp. (on), 4 Apr 1977, L. Bezark, 2♂ ( SJS)GoogleMaps  ; same, 11 Nov 1944, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; White water, Snow Creek , 22 Mar 1955, W. R. Mason, 3♀ ( CNC)  ; San Bernardino Co., Baker (24.1 km W), Chiopsis linearis, 6 May 1977, R. W. Brooks, 1♀ ( UCD)  . Barstow & Baker, rest stop between, 24 Mar 1992, P. H. Arnaud, Jr., 2♂ ( CAS)  ; Bonanza Springs, Clipper mountains , 2 Apr 1975, S. Szerlip & J. Hafernik, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Danby (4.8 km NW), 2 Apr 1975, S. S zerlip & J. Hafernik, 1♂ ( CIS)  ; Granite Pass , 34°3'56"N 115°11'45"W, Prunus fasiculata  (on), 27 Apr 1968, R. Hobza, 2♂ 2♀ ( UCR)GoogleMaps  ; Hidden Valley, San Bernardino , mountains, 5 May 1958, A. L. Melander, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Indian Cove Campground, Josh. Tr. N. Mon. , 25-26 Mar 1981, S. E. Miller & P. M. Mercer, 2♂ ( USNM)  ; Kingston Peak, E. side, 38.6 km NNW of Hwy. 15 & Cima road, 35°43'37"N 115°50'1"W, 20 Apr 1984, D. Sandri, 1♂ ( UCB)GoogleMaps  ; Kramer Hills, Machaeranthera tortifolia, 8 May 1978, R. W. Brooks, 1♀ ( UCD)  ; Mentone , 4 May 1955, H. S. McGill, 1♂ ( UCR)  ; New York mountains, Keystone Canyon , 35°16'18"N 115°16'29"W, 11-12 Jun 1979, D. K. Faulkner, 1♂ ( SDNHM)GoogleMaps  ; Pearblossom (19.3 km E), 26 May 1980, N. J. Smith, 1♂ ( UCD)  ; Rainbow Basin , 14 Apr 1972, S. Frommer, 1♀ ( UCR)  ; Trona (near), 22 Mar 1970, E. J. Rogers, 3♂ 2♀ ( EJR)  ; Victorville , 24 May 1955, W. R. Mason, 1♂ 1♀ ( CNC)  ; San Diego Co., Borrego Desert, Palm Canyon , 33°16'15"N 116°24'45"W, Encelia  sp., 1 Apr 1946, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; same, Borrego Springs , 33°15'21"N 116°22'27"W, 1 Apr 1978, D. K. Faulkner, 3♂ 2♀ ( SDNHM)GoogleMaps  ; same, Tubb Canyon , 33°12'49"N 116°24'39"W, 1 Apr 1978, D. K. Faulkner, 1♂ 2♀ ( SDNHM)GoogleMaps  ; same, Carriso Gorge , 24 Mar 1978, D. K. Faulkner, 1♀ ( SDNHM)  ; same, Escondido , 19 Dec 1954, B. Bailey, 2♀ ( SDNHM)  ; same, Julian , 2 May 1959, D. Bagert, 2♀ ( UCR)  ; same, Sweeny Pass (4.8 km S), 1 Apr 1978, D. K. Faulkner, 8♂ 7♀ ( SDNHM)  ; San Mateo Co., Half Moon Bay , 37°27'49"N 122°25'39"W, Franseria chamissonis bipinnatisecta  (swept), 28 Jun 1960, F. L. Blanc, 6♂ 6♀ ( FLB)GoogleMaps  ; Santa Barbara Co., Santa Cruz Is. , Christi Beach , 34°1'36"N 119°52'30"W, reared from flowerheads of Ambrosia chamissonis  , 8 Oct 1985, R. D. Goeden, 6♂ 8♀ ( UCR)GoogleMaps  ; Shasta Co., Sacramento River , 10 Aug 1969, E. J. Rogers, 1♂ ( EJR)  ; Siskiyou Co., Coffee Creek (19.3 km W), Big Flat Cpgd. , 12 Aug 1977, S. Kuba, 4♀ ( CAS)  ; Rattlesnake Meadow , 9 Aug 1970, L. Eighme, 1♂ ( CAS)  ; Young's Valley , 6 Aug 1970, L. Eighme, 2♂ ( CAS)  ; Solamint , 28 Apr 1955, W. R. Mason, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Solano Co., Ryer Is. Ferry, Fennel (on flrs), 7 Aug 1976, L. Bezark, 1♀ ( SJS)  ; Stanislaus Co., La Grange, 2 Aug 1987, R. P. Allen, 1♂ ( CAS)  ; Sutter Co., Nicolaus (along Feather Riv. ), 11 Oct 1982, J. B. Whitfield, 2♂ 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Tehama Co., Red Bluff , Frick trap (amm.carb.), 11 Sep 1974, T. R. Haig, 1♀ ( CDFA)  ; Thousand Palms, Willis Palm Oasis , 3 Apr 1955, W. R. Mason, 10♂ 6♀ ( CNC)  ; Tulare Co., Summit Lake , 1961, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Tagus , Helianthus annuus  , 28 Oct 1979, E. G. & J. M. Linsley, 1♂ ( EGL)  ; Yolo Co., Dixon (16 km SE), Yolo Bi-Pass , 16 Apr 1978, W. W. Middlekauff, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Palo Verde , Cal. Imperial Co. 7 Mar 1949, W.W. Wirth, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Sacramento, swept from flowering Actomipcia hetereplylla, 29 Jul 1958; Palm Springs Riverside Co. 25-Feb 1954, P. H. Arnaud, 4♂ 3♀ ( USNM)  ; Phelan, Shp Crk Can , 5 May 1949, A. L. Melander, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Truckee , 8 Aug 1915, H. G. Dyer, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Cherry Valley , 11 Jan 1938, Christenson, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; San Ysidro , 24 Apr 1948, E. D. Algert, 20♂ 13♀ ( USNM)  ; San Ysidro , ex. Franseria chenopodiifolia  , 28 Apr 1948, E. D. Algers, 2♂ 5♀ ( USNM)  ; San Ysidro , Rd— Xanthium  flr, 29 Aug 1949, 7♂ 7♀ ( USNM)  ; Long Beach , 14 Aug 1949, A. L. Melander, 2♂ ( USNM)  ; Palm Springs , 29 Apr 1949, A. L. Melander, 5♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 26 Feb 1935, A. L. Melander, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 23 Feb 1954, P. H. Arnaud, 24♂ 18♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 22 Nov 1943, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; same, 15 Mar 1955, A. L. Melander, 1♂ 3♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 25 Feb 1954, A. L. Melander, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 29 Mar 1955, A. L. Melander, 3♂ 3♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 19 Nov 1957, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; same, 28 Feb 1956, A. L. Melander, 2♂ ( USNM)  ; same, 12 Nov 1944, A. L. Melander, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; same, 15 Mar 1955, A. L. Melander, 4♂ ( USNM)  ; same, 23 Apr 1944, A. L. Melander, 2♂ ( USNM)  ; same, 24 Apr 1944, A. L. Melander, 2♂ ( USNM)  ; Riverside Co., Whitewater , 3 Mar 1956, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00213157)  ; San Francisco, Mt. Little Spring , 11 Jul 1913, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  . Colorado: Alamosa Co., Hooper , 5 Aug 1957, C. D. Michener, 1♂ (UKaL USNMENT00215374)  ; Alamosa Co., Mosca , 24.1 km E, on Cleome serrulata  , 6 Aug 1957, C. D. Michener, 1♂ 6♀ (UKaL USNMENT00215367–73)  ; Boulder Co., Boulder, Chataqua Park , 39°59'32.4"N 105°17'18.7"W, 20 Aug 2006, A. L. Norrbom, 1♀ ( DNA sample ALN-2006-136); Boulder , 8 km S, 16 Jun 1961, C. H. Mann, 2♂ 1♀ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; Reservoir , in marsh, 30 May 1961, B. H. Poole, 1♂ 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Valmont Butte , 7 Jun 1961, C. H. Mann, 1♂ 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Nederland, Science Lodge , 39°57'41"N 105°30'37"W, 3 Jul 1961, A. A. Bucknell, 1♂ ( CNC)GoogleMaps  ; El Paso, Manitou Springs , 5-10 Sep 1980, G. F. & J. F. Hevel, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Great Sand Dunes Nat. Mon. , 1 Aug 1968, E. C. Becker, 1♂ 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Jackson, Rabbit Ears Pass , 7 Jul 1961, J. G. Chillcott, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Kit Carson, Denver, 180 km E, on Hwy . I-70, swept among dry grass, 2 Oct 1981, L. L. Cedarholm, 2♀ ( ZIL)  ; Larimer Co., Fort Collins , 24 Jul 1902, L. A. Titus, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; I-25 + Rt. 1 exit 278, 40°42'12"N 104°59'55"W, 1596 m, sweeping Helianthus  sp., 9 Jul 2009, A. L. Norrbom, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00745593)GoogleMaps  ; Nederland (8 km E), 2 Jul 1961, J. G. Chillcott, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; same, Caribou , 18 Jun 1961, C. H. Mann, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Douglas Co. Roxborough St. Park, 39°28'N 105°07'W, reared ex flowers Heliomeris  sp., 29 Aug 1992, A. L. Norrbom, 1♂ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  . Idaho: Curlew National Grasslands , 23 Jun 1971, Knowlton, Hanson & Bohart, ( LACM)  ; Oneida, Curlew Valley Reservoir , 27 May 1969, Knowlton, Hanson & Bohart, ( LACM)  ; same 30 Jul 1969, Knowlton, Hanson & Bohart, ( LACM)  ; same, Ireland Canyon , 2 Sep 1969, Knowlton, Hanson & Bohart, ( LACM)  . Kansas: Kansas City (107 km W), swept among fresh grass, 3 Oct 1981, L. L. Cedarholm, 1♀ ( ZIL)  ; Labette Co., Oswego , at light, 31 May 1966, G. F. Hevel, 1♀ ( USNM)  . Michigan: Ingham Co., East Lansing , 17 May 1936, C. W. Sabrosky, ( USNM)  ; Lenawee Co., Blissfield, Trap in alfalfa, 21 Nov 1978, W. A. Martin, 1♀ ( CUIC)  ; Wayne Co., Grosse Isle , 31 May 1949, R. R. Dreisbach, 1♂ ( USNM)  . Minnesota: Clay Co., Dilworth (6.4 km E), 4 Sep 1967, J. S. Wong, 1♀ ( CIS)  . Mississippi: Lafayette Co., [unspecified locality], 1975, F. M. Hull, 1♂ 3♀ ( CNC)  . Nebraska: Fremont , 1♀ ( CUIC)  ; Sutherland , 4 Jun 1961, C. H. Mann, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Clark, Jean , 25 Apr 1978, N. J. Smith, 1♂ ( UCD)  . Nevada: Clark, Lake Mead , 23 Apr 1978, N. J. Smith, 1♀ ( UCD)  ; same, Mountain Springs Summit (4.8 km S), 9 May 1965, R. C. Bechtel, 1♂ 3♀ ( NDA)  ; Nye, Beatty (4.8 km S), Lycium pallidum var. oligospermum  , 29 Mar 1963, R. C. Bechtel, 8♂ 1♀ ( NDA)  ; same, Mercury , 36°39'38"N 115°59'37"W, 10 Jun 1965, BYU-AEC-NTS, 1♀ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  ; Mercury , BYU-AEC-NTS, 24 Jun 1965, 3♂ ( USNM)  ; Pershing, Seven Devils Springs , 19 May 1965, R. C. Bechtel, 1♂ ( NDA)  ; Washoe, Nixon , 29 Jun 1927, E. P. VanDuzee, 11♀ ( CIS)  ; Las Vegas, 335.2 m, June 2001, Cockerell, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  . New Mexico: Bernalillo Co., Sandia Ski Area , Helianthus annuus  (on), Aug-Sep 1981, G. Dodson, 6♂ 6♀ (Dodson); Bernalillo, Univ. of  New Mexico Campus, Senecio douglassii  (on), Sep 1981, G. Dodson, 1♀ (Dodson); Guadalupe , Santa Rosa , 23 Jun 1941, B. Hogden, 1♀ (UKaL USNMENT00215378)  ; Hidalgo Co., Cotton City , 14.4 km N, 32°5'18"N 108°52'43"W, Wislizenia refracta  , 11 Aug 1978, R. W. Brooks, 1♀ ( UCD)GoogleMaps  ; same, Lordsburg , 32°21'1"N 108°42'29"W, Larrea tridentata  , 23 May 1973, P. D. Hurd, 1♀ ( CIS)GoogleMaps  ; Lincoln Co., Lincoln Natl. Forest, White Mt. Wilderness, head of Mills Canyon Trail along Rio Bonito , 33°27'5"N 105°41'46"W, 2134 m, 10 Jun 1995, S. D. Gaimari, 1♂ 1♀ ( INHS USNMENT00056109–10)GoogleMaps  ; San Miguel, Sapello , taken on oak, 25 Jul 1950, P. P. Cook, 1♀ (UKaL USNMENT00215377)  ; Sandoval Co., Valles Caldera National Preserve, Redondito Peak , weather station, 35°53'1.5"N 106°33'10.3"W, 26 Jun 2007, A. L. Norrbom, L. H. Rodriguez, J. J. Gulbransen, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00212125, USNMENT00212127)GoogleMaps  ; Sierra, Truth or Consequences (4.8 km N), Bahia sp. (on), 29 Sep 1962, P. H. Timberlake, 1♂ ( UCR)  ; Nevada: Mercury , BYU-AEC-NTS, 24 Jun 1965, 3 ♂ ( USNM)  ; Las Cruces, on Sisymbrium  , 17 Apr 1995, N. M. Cockerell, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; Las Cruces, 13.3 km NM, Townsend, on Solidago arizonica, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 14 Jun 1917, J. M. Aldrich, 1♀ ( USNM)  ; same, 16 Jun 1917, J. M. Aldrich, 1♀ ( USNM)  . New York: Honeoye Falls , 16 Jun 1914, M. D. Leonard, 1♀ ( CUIC)  . North Dakota: Mercer Co., Grassland R 84W, T144N, Sec 22, grassland, 6 Jul 1972, A. C. F. Hung, 1♀ (Kannowski)  . Richland Co., Walcot (17.7 km W), 4 Sep 1970, J. A. Powell, 1♂ ( CAS)  . Oregon: Curry Co., Gold Beach (10 km S), Whitehead St. Pk., 29 Jul 1988, R. Danielsson, 1♂ ( ZIL)  . Texas: Big Bend Natl. Park, Panther Junction , 13 May 1959, J. F. McAlpine, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; Brewster Co., Alpine (54 km S), grass (swept), 22 Sep 1981, L. L. Cedarholm, 1♂ 1♀ ( ZIL)  ; Laijta (5 km SW), 27 km W Study Butte, swept along Rio Grande Riv. , 21 Sep 1981, L. L. Cederholm, 2♂ ( ZIL)  ; Marathon , 32.1 km S, 12 Apr 1949, Michener & Beamer, 1♀ (UKaL USNMENT00215379)  ; Culberson Co., Van Horn (8 km W), swept among grass & bushes, 23 Sep 1981, L. L. Cedarholm, 8♂ 6♀ ( ZIL)  ; Fredericksburg, Umbellifer (flrs), 18 Apr 1959, J. F. McAlpine, 1♂ ( CNC)  ; Howard, Big Springs (24 km E), 19 Sep 1981, L. L. Cedarholm, 1♂ ( ZIL)  ; Pacos (17.7 km NW), 15 Sep 1965, P. H. Timberlake, 1♀ ( UCR)  ; Reeves Co., Toyahvale , 22 Mar 1967, D. M. Wood, 4♂ 6♀ ( CNC)  . Utah: Elsinore , 7 Aug 1907, E. G. Titus, 1♂ ( USNM)  ; Emery Co., Castle Dale , on Cleome serrulata  , 10 Aug 1957, C. D. Michener, 1♂ (UKaL USNMENT00215375)  ; Emery Co., Green River , 6 Jun 1956, G. F. Knowlton, 1♀ ( CIS)  ; Hanksville (20.9 km S), Fairview Ranch. , 4 Aug 1968, J. E. H. Martin, 1♀ ( CNC)  ; San Juan, Kane Springs , on Cleome lutea  , 9 Aug 1957, C. D. Michener, 1♂ (UKaL USNMENT00215376)  ; Wayne Co., Henry Mountains , 38.6 km S of Hanksville, 29 Jul 1968, J. E. H. Martin, 1♀ ( CNC)  . Washington: Pacific Co., (3.2 km N) Long beach, along Pacific Ocean , 3 Aug 1983, J. Jenkins, sweeping Ambrosia  sp., 2♂ 1♀ ( ESALQ ESALQ1524-1, ESALQ1524-2, ESALQ1524-3)  ; Canby State Park nr. Ilwaco , 3 Aug 1983, J. Jenkins, J. M. Sirota, sweep. vegetation, 1♀ ( ESALQ ESALQ1524-4)  ; Pacific, Loomis Lake State Park , 19 Jun 1984, R. Danielsson, 43♂ 19♀ ( ZIL)  ; Klipsan Beach , 1.6 km S. Pacific Co., 26-28 Aug 1976, W. J. Turner, 1♂ 1♀ ( USNM)  . Wisconsin: Parfrey's Glen Portage , 10 Sep 1973, 1♂ ( SJS)  . VENEZUELA: Lara: Sanare , 8 Jul 1979, R. W. Brooks, A. A. Grigarick, J. McLaughlin, R. O. Schuster, 1♂ ( UCD)  . Mérida: Cano del Tigre , Sep 1943, P. Anduze, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00262375)  . Trujillo: La Mesa, 11 Sep 1973, B. Villegas, 3♂ 3♀ ( UCD)  1♂ ( USNM)  .

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

IML

Instituto Miguel Lillo

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

SDNHM

San Diego Natural History Museum

UCB

University of California at Berkeley

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

LACM

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

UCR

University of California

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

ZIL

Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute

NAU

Nanjing Agricultural University, Department of Plant Science

CIS

Cranbrook Institute of Science

UCD

University of California, Davis

PHA

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

CUIC

Cornell University Insect Collection

NDA

North Dakota State University

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Tephritidae

Genus

Euarestoides

Loc

Euarestoides acutangulus ( Thomson, 1869 )

Savaris, Marcoandre, Norrbom, Allen L., Marinoni, Luciane & Lampert, Silvana 2019
2019
Loc

Euarestoides acutangulus: Foote 1965 : 669

Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 146
Headrick, D. H. & Goeden, R. D. 1999: 694
Headrick, D. H. & Goeden, R. D. 1995: 199
Foote, R. H. & Blanc, F. L. & Norrbom, A. L. 1993: 158
Palmer, W. A. 1987: 192
Goeden, R. D. & Ricker, D. W. 1986: 42
Hilgendorf, J. H. & Goeden, R. D. 1982: 152
Goeden, R. D. & Ricker, D. W. 1976: 49
Goeden, R. D. & Ricker, D. W. 1976: 926
Goeden, R. D. & Ricker, D. W. 1976: 1174
Piper, G. L. 1976: 381
Goeden, R. D. & Ricker, D. W. 1975: 304
Goeden, R. D. & Ricker, D. W. 1974: 831
Wasbauer, M. S. 1972: 114
Harris, R. P. & Piper, G. L. 1970: 134
Foote, R. H. 1967: 24
Foote, R. H. 1965: 669
1967
Loc

Euarestoides acutangula:

Lipp, W. V. & Schulz, J. T. 1970: 27
Foote, R. H. & Blanc, F. L. 1963: 23
Foote, R. H. 1958: 291
Quisenberry, B. F. 1951: 59
Aczel, M. L. 1950: 293
Hering, E. M. 1941: 165
1950
Loc

Tephritis acutangula:

Knowlton, G. F. & Harmston, F. C. 1937: 145
Cresson, E. T. Jr. 1931: 4
Woodworth, C. W. 1913: 137
Loew, H. 1873: 335
1913
Loc

Euaresta abstersa:

Woodworth, C. W. 1913: 137
Cole, F. R. 1912: 158
Cresson, E. T. Jr. 1907: 106
Johnson, C. W. 1903: 106
1907
Loc

Trypeta abstersa:

Cockerell, T. D. A. 1902: 347
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1898: 155
1902
Loc

Urellia abstersa:

Aldrich, J. M. 1913: 218
Tucker, E. S. 1907: 105
Snow, F. H. 1904: 345
Snow, F. H. 1903: 219
Wulp, F. M. van der 1900: 426
Doane, R. W. 1899: 192
1900
Loc

Trypeta acutangula

Coquillett, D. W. 1899: 265
Thomson, C. G. 1869: 583
1899
Loc

Trypeta (Tephritis) acutangula:

Osten Sacken, C. R. 1878: 194
Loc

Trupanea acutangula:

Schwitzgebel, R. B. & Wilbur, D. A. 1943: 5
Loc

Trupanea (Euarestoides) acutangula:

Benjamin, F. H. 1934: 58
Loc

Trypanea abstersa:

Hendel, F. G. 1914: 81
Loc

Tephritis abstersa:

Janes, M. J. & Thomas, W. L. 1932: 103
Loc

Euarestoides abstersa: Hering 1941 : 164

Hering, E. M. 1941: 164
Loc

Trupanea abstersa:

Stuardo Ortiz, C. 1946: 135