Micropterus henshalli

Baker, Winston H., Johnston, Carol E. & Folkerts, George W., 2008, The Alabama Bass, Micropterus henshalli (Teleostei: Centrarchidae), from the Mobile River basin, Zootaxa 1861, pp. 57-67: 59-66

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.183687

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5681036

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AA87B4-FFDA-FFEB-A4F4-FA91DD190C08

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Micropterus henshalli
status

 

Micropterus henshalli  

Alabama River drainage

Alabama. Autauga Co., Little Mulberry Creek, Highway 14, 16 km E Selma (2, 146 – 238), 7 August 1998. Autauga/Dallas Co. Line, Mulberry Creek, Highway 83 (4, 151 – 253), 7 August 1998. Dallas Co., Cedar Creek, Highway 41, 20.9 km S Selma (1, 183), 2 August 1998. Mush Creek, Highway 41, 14.3 km S Selma (10, 154 – 252), 2 August 1998. Oakmulgee Creek, Highway 14, 8.0 km W Selma (10, 191 – 302), 5 August 1998; (3, 194 – 242), 7 August 1998. Bogue Chitto Creek, Highway 22, 6.4 km W Orrville (8, 183 – 330), 7 August 1998. Montgomery/Lowndes Co. Line, Pintlalla Creek, Highway 42, 8.0 km S. Montgomery (9, 133 – 313), 2 August 1998. Marengo Co., Chickasaw Bogue Creek, Highway 39, 8.0 km E Linden (10, 146 – 270), 5 August 1998. Monroe Co., Big Flat Creek, Highway 41 (4, 194 – 344), 7 July 1998; (4, 185 – 314), 8 July 1998; (1, 299), 10 July 1998. Big Flat Creek, 11.3 km N. Highway 41 (1, 295), 8 July 1998. Big Flat Creek, Highway 265, 4.8 km N Berice (2, 177 – 208), 4 August 1998. Randons Creek, Highway 1, 9.6 km S Perdue Hill (1, 232), 4 August 1998; (2, 321 – 324), 8 December 1998. Monroe /Baldwin Co. Line, Little River, Highway 59 (1, 340 mm), 8 December 1998. Wilcox Co., Pine Barron Creek, U. S. Highway 21 (5, 195 – 248), 3 July 1998. Claiborne Lake, 3.2 km below Millers Ferry Dam (1, 325), 3 July 1998; (2, 230 – 262), 7 July 1998; (1, 310), 10 July 1998. Gravel Creek, Highway 41 (3, 183 – 234), 7 July 1998; (4, 187 – 313), 10 July 1998. Pursley Creek, Highway 41 (4, 199 – 239), 10 July 1998.

Cahaba River drainage

Alabama. Jefferson Co., Cahaba River, Highway 78 (3, 164 – 217), 25 September 1998.

Chattahoochee River drainage

Alabama. Randolph Co., Wehadkee Creek, Highway 22, Rock Mills (2, 248 – 277), 26 July 1998; (1, 270), 24 August 1998; (5, 227 – 286), 25 August 1998; (1, 238), 1 November 1998.

Georgia. Carroll Co., Snake Creek, 4.8 km E Whitesburg (1, 281), 2 September 1998. Whooping Creek, at Highway 5 (1, 209), 11 August 1998. Heard Co., Chattahoochee River, 8.0 km NE Centralhatchee (1, 239), 27 July 1998; (1, 245), 28 September 1998. Centralhatchee Creek, Highway 27 (3, 216 – 312), 1 November 1998. Centralhatchee Creek, 1.6 km W Centralhatchee (1, 174), 30 July 1998. Hillabahatchee Creek, Ridley Farm, 8.0 km W Franklin (2, 229 – 309), 23 June 1998; (2, 162 – 273), 13 July 1998; (1, 255), 14 July 1998; (2, 237 – 286), 4 November 1998. Highway 34 (1, 305), 3 November 1998. Lumpkin Co., Chestatee River, U. S. Highway 19 (7, 247 – 301), 30 October 1998.

Coosa River drainage

Alabama. Cherokee Co., Terrapin Creek, Highway 9, 3.2 km S. Center (1, 176), 12 April 1999. Little River Canyon Park, Co. Rd. 275 (4, 296 – 433), 9 September 1998; (1,189), 1 October 1998; (3, 225 – 413), 12 April 1999. Clay Co., Hatchet Creek, junction of Co. Rd. 4 and State Highway 7 (2, 176 – 257), 31 July 1998; (4, 151 – 255), 6 August 1998; (1, 214), 13 April 1999; (3, 200 – 336), 7 April 1999; (1, 210), 13 April 1999; (3, 158 – 256), 9 August 1999. Hatchet Creek, Highway 148, 11.3 km W. Millersville (1,183), 8 August 1998. Coosa Co., Weogufka Creek, 3.4 km W. Moriah, Co. Rd. 29 (2, 272 – 327), 5 April 1999. 6.4 km W. Moriah, Co. Rd. 29 (6, 223 – 373), 6 April 1999; (4, 177 – 236), 12 August 1999. Swamp Creek, 8.0 km W. Rockford, Highway 22 (4, 196 – 256), 12 August 1999. Socapatoy Creek, 8.0 km S. Highway 280 (2, 206 – 329), 8 March 1999; (2, 208 – 331), 7 April 1999. Hatchet Creek, Highway 280 (2, 182 – 226), 16 August 1998. 1.6 km downstream from U. S. Highway 280 Bridge (6, 155 – 367), 13 August 1999. Elmore Co., Coosa River, Weoka Creek, Highway 429 (1, 232), 19 March 1999. Coosa River, Wetumpka (5, 186 – 270), 2 July 1998; (2, 259 – 282), 6 July 1998; (3, 204 – 278), 11 July 1998;. (3, 214 – 343), 4 February 2008. Channahchee Creek, Highway 229 (1, 175), 28 February 1999. Channahchee Creek, Gold Mine Rd. (1, 285), 11 April 1999. St. Clair Co., Big Canoe Creek, 2.4 km W Ashville, Highway 36 (1, 168), 30 March 1999. Broken Arrow Creek, 2.4 km N junction with Coosa River (4, 146 – 230), 17 March 1999; (1, 185), 22 March 1999. Talladega, Co., Talladega Creek, Highway 77, Waldo (2, 227 – 288), 8 August 1998. Talladega Creek, Highway 21 (5, 201 – 333), 25 September 1998; (4, 270 – 322), 9 December 1998. Cheaha Creek, Hwy 93, 9.6 km N. Talladega (3, 242 – 265), 9 August 1998; (7, 162 – 298), 17 August 1998.

Tallapoosa River drainage

Alabama. Cleburne Co., Tallapoosa River, Highway 46 (2, 317 – 347), 13 January 1999; (3, 235 – 325), 14 January 1999. Tallapoosa River, Highway 84 (1, 308), 13 January 1999. Tallapoosa River, Highway 84, 4.0 km Heflin (5, 263 – 330), 22 January 1999. Lee Co., Sougahatchee Creek, Co. Rd. 188, 4.0 km N Loachapoka (2, 140 – 199), 6 February 2008. Randolph Co., Little Tallapoosa River, Butlers Bridge, Butlers Community (1, 239), 9 January 1999; (1, 277), 11 January 1999; (1, 190), 14 January 1999. Little Tallapoosa River, Shelton’s Bridge, 4.8 km N Woodland (2, 238 – 278), 22 January 1999. Tallapoosa Co., Tallapoosa River, 1.6 km N Horseshoe Bend National Park (4, 235 – 281), 22 June 1998; (10, 161 – 363), 9 August 1999. Tallapoosa River, 4.8 km N Horseshoe Bend National Park, (3, 287 – 342), 19 July 1998; (15, 219 – 360), 22 December 1998. Tallapoosa River, 1.6 km S confluence of Fox Creek (2, 208 – 330), 23 September 1998; (2, 239 – 246), 26 October 1998; (1, 229), 31 October 1998; (6, 214 – 303), 15 November 1998; (2, 259 – 303), 6 December 1998; (10, 186 – 335), 10 January 2008. Tallapoosa River, 3.2 km N. confluence of Jaybird Creek (4, 208 – 377), 9 November 1998; (1,463), 6 September 1999. Tallapoosa River, 4.8 km N Highway 280 (3, 182 – 314), 29 November 1998; (1, 204), 21 March 1999; (1, 262), 8 May 1999; (4, 212 – 290), 4 August 1999. Hillabee Creek, 1.6 km S. Highway 22 (2, 228 – 270), 27 February 1999. Hillabee Creek, Walls Farm, Champion Rd. (4, 178 – 369), 1 March 1999. Hillabee Creek, 1.6 km N. Highway 22 (3, 275 – 293), 20 March 1999; (1, 362), 9 April 1999. Elkahatchee Creek, Elkahatchee Rd. (1, 313), 11 March 1999. Sougahatchee Creek, Highway 49 (2, 199 – 289), 28 February 1999; (1, 293), 17 January 2008. Sandy Creek, Highway 50 (1, 235), 11 March 1999. Sandy Creek, Highway 89 (1, 226), 11 March 1999. Yes Lake, 3.2 km below Martin Dam (2, 231 – 258), 5 January 1999; (2, 246 – 302), 27 February 1999.

Warrior River drainage

Alabama. Blount Co., Locust Fork, at Highway 231, 3.2 km N Cleveland (5, 157 – 345), 24 September 1998. Horton’s Mill Covered Bridge, Little Warrior River, 6.4 km N. Oneonta (2, 270 – 311), 24 September 1998. Calvert Prong of Little Warrior River, at Highway 33, 2.4 km SW Rosa (10, 208 – 351), 31 March 1999. Winston Co., Sipsey Fork, AUM 13236 View Materials (2, 163 – 204), 22–24 July 1971.

Micropterus punctulatus henshalli   — Hubbs & Bailey 1940

Holotype. Tallapoosa River drainage. Alabama. Macon Co., UMMZ 118297, 113 mm SL, Uphapee Creek, 6.4 km E. Tuskegee, 27 June 1931, F. E. Guyton.

Paratypes taken with holotype. UMMZ 118297 (9), AUM 2980 (10). Additional paratypes.

Coosa River drainage

Alabama. Elmore Co., UMMZ 26269 (1) Wetumpka. Talladega Co., UMMZ 118289 (5) Talladega Creek, Coosa River, 8.0 km SW Talladega, 9 August 1936.

Georgia. Floyd Co., UMMZ 88235 (1) trib., Coosa River, E Coosa, 1 September 1929. UMMZ 88248 (3) Armuchee Creek, Oostanaula River, Armuchee, 1 September 1929. Polk Co., UMMZ 88192 (11) trib., Coosa River, 8.0 km NW Cedartown, 31 August 1929. USNM 31142 (1) Etowah River near Rome.

Tallapoosa River drainage. Alabama. Dallas Co., UMMZ 88843 (1) Alabama River, Selma, 18 September 1929. Elmore Co., UMMZ 124135 (6) Line Creek, Tallapoosa River, near Montgomery, 7 October 1938. Lowdes/Dallas Co. line, UMMZ 88838 (3) trib., Alabama River, 18 September 1929. Macon Co., UMMZ 123949 (5) Opintlocco Creek, 4.8 km SE Tuskegee, 13 September 1937. Tallapoosa Co., AUM 2966 (1) Camp Hill, 7 October 1930.

Tombigbee River drainage

Mississippi. Lee Co., UMMZ 104103 (1) Oldtown Creek, Tombigbee River drainage, 14 June 1937. Monroe Co., ISC B 3­41 (6) Tombigbee River, 1.5 mi. N Amory, 16 August 1939.

Warrior River drainage

Alabama. Jefferson Co., ISC B 39­86 (1) trib., 11.3 km SW Warrior, 4 September 1939.

Diagnosis. A species of Micropterus   that differs from Micropterus punctulatus   by a combination of the following characters: higher scale counts, including lateral line (modally 75 vs 65), scales above lateral line (modally 8 vs 7), scales below lateral line (modally 13 vs 11), scale rows around caudal peduncle (modally 29 vs 25); more rakers on first gill arch (modally 8 vs 7); smaller scale width (mean = 2.5 % vs 3.2 % SL); narrower skull (mean = 10.2 % vs 11.4 % SL postfrontal width and 7.0% vs 8.0 % SL interorbital width); and a smaller tooth patch (1.5 % vs 1.9 % SL). Lateral blotches of M. henshalli   do not coalesce into a dark stripe on caudal peduncle as in M. punctulatus   . Mid­lateral spots number 10–13 (96.3 %) in M. henshalli   vs 8–11 (84.5 %) in M. punctulatus   . Dorsolateral blotches do not touch first dorsal fin base as in M. punctulatus   ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Dorsolateral blotches number 10–12 (88.5 %) vs 7–10 (98.5 %) in M. punctulatus   .

Description. Micropterus henshalli   is a large species of bass that attains weights of 4.0 kg (8 lbs., 15 oz.). Morphological and meristic measurements are given in Tables 1 View TABLE 1 –5, and general body shape is illustrated in Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 . Lateral­line scales 68 –84 (mean 75.3); scales above lateral line 7–9 (mean 7.9); scales below lateral line 11–15 (mean 13.3); scale rows around caudal peduncle 26–32 (mean 28.6). Rakers on first gill arch 7–8 (mean 7.9). Pectoral­fin rays 14–17 (mean 15.9). Narrow head and scales. Tongue tooth patch usually present; absent in 6 of 350 specimens examined. Dorsal­fin spines 9; dorsal­fin rays 12–14, usually 13; caudal­fin rays 16–17. Pyloric caeca are unbranched.

Body color above midline is usually light to medium green with bronze or golden shimmer. Below midline body is white or has brownish­green tint along upper portion. often with continuous or occasionally interrupted rows of dark green blotches. Venter uniformly white or with scattered pale spots. Lateral stripe dark green; often darker along caudal peduncle; composed of blotches most distinguishable along caudal peduncle. Dorsal botches usually 10–12 (88.5 %). Dorsolateral blotches do not extend to first spine of dorsal fin. Fins translucent green to gray.

Comparisons. Micropterus henshalli   differs from M. punctulatus   , with which it has been confused, by a combination of scale count differences produced by having smaller scales overall, and by several other morphological traits ( Table 1 View TABLE 1 ). Specifically, lateral­line scales 68–84, modally 75 vs 60–71, modally 65; scales above lateral line 7–9, modally 8 vs 5–7, modally 7; scales below lateral line 11–15, modally 13 vs 9–13, modally 11; scale rows around caudal peduncle 26–32, modally 29 vs 21–28, modally 25. Additionally, M. henshalli   has a narrower head than M. punctulatus   (postfrontal width modally 10.2 % SL vs 11.4 % SL; interorbital width modally 7.0% SL vs 8.0 % SL), as well as narrower scales (width modally 2.5 % SL vs 3.2 % SL). Micropterus henshalli   has a higher gill­raker count than M. punctulatus   (modally 8 vs 7) and has a proportionally smaller tooth patch (modally 1.5 % SL vs 1.9 % SL). In addition, the lateral stripe of M. henshalli   remains a series of distinguishable blotches to the caudal fin base, whereas the lateral stripe of M. punctulatus   coalesces into a dark stripe. Mid­lateral spots number 10–13 (96.3 %) in M. henshalli   vs 8–11 (84.5 %) in M. punctulatus   . The dorsolateral blotches of M. henshalli   do not touch the first dorsal fin base (89.5 %), as they do in M. punctulatus   (91.4 %). Dorsolateral blotches number 10–12 (88.5 %) vs 7–10 (98.5 %) in M. punctulatus   .

Etymology. This species was named by Hubbs and Bailey (1940) for James L. Henshall, a bass angler.

Remarks. The presumed native distribution of M. henshalli   is the Mobile Bay drainage ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). This distribution agrees with a repeated pattern of endemism in the Mobile basin system, which is home to over 60 endemic fish species ( Boschung and Mayden 2004).

Records of M. henshalli   and M. punctulatus   support the discussion in Williams and Burgess (1999) regarding bass introductions in the Chattahoochee River system. Both species are in the Chattahoochee River, often in syntopy. We believe our meristic data suggest interbreeding of M. punctulatus   with M. henshalli   and perhaps with M. coosae   and M. cataractae   . Some individuals from the Chattahoochee River don't fit the description of either M. punctulatus   or M. henshalli   , based on intermediate scale counts. Genetic work in this drainage could aid in understanding this variability.

Comparisons of growth, length and weights of Alabama and Spotted Bass are confounded by the inclusion of both species in datasets as well as a lack of separation of fish by habitat. In general, bass from reservoirs are thought to grow faster than those from riverine habitat ( Boschung and Mayden 2004). The Alabama state record Alabama Bass was captured in 1978 from Lewis Smith reservoir, on the Black Warrior River, and weighed 8 lbs, 15 oz. No length was given for this specimen: (http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/fish/bassblack/spotted/).Although Hubbs and Bailey (1940) originally described M. henshalli   as a subspecies of M. punctulatus   , they cited a paucity of specimens from southeastern drainages as a factor limiting their understanding of variation in bass species from Alabama. We found no evidence of intergradation with M. punctulatus   from coastal drainages in Alabama (Table 3), as suggested by Hubbs and Bailey (1940). Furthermore, we found no differences in meristic or morphological traits of M. henshalli   found above or below the Fall Line (Table 4), as discussed by Gilbert (1973).

Further evidence of the distinctiveness of M. henshalli   was provided by Harbaugh (1994) and Kassler et al. (2002) via analyses of phylogenetic relationships within Micropterus   . Using characters derived from morphometric analysis and combined morphometric and meristic traits, Harbaugh's analysis (1994) produced phylogenetic trees linking M. henshalli   with Micropterus salmoides   rather than with M. punctulatus   . In the analysis of Kassler et al. (2002), M. henshalli   was linked to M. coosae   . Distinguishing morphological traits of southeastern species of Micropterus   are summarized in Table 5. Further studies of relationships within Micropterus   that combine morphological and genetic data are needed to clarify sister­group relationships of M. henshalli   .

TABLE 1. Comparison of characteristics of Micropterus henshalli and M. punctulatus. Values for scale counts are modes with ranges in parentheses; others are means with ranges in parentheses. Measurements are presented as % standard length.

Characteristics M. henshalli   M. punctulatus  
Lateral­line scales Scales above LL 75 (68–84) 8 (7–9) 65 (60–71) 7 (5–7)
Scales below LL 13 (11–15) 11 (9–13)
Scale rows around caudal peduncle Postfrontal width 29 (26–32) 10.2 (9.5–11.5) 25 (21–28) 11.4 (10.3–12.5)
Interorbital width 7.0 (5.9 –8.3) 8.0 (6.7–9.4)
Scale width Gill rakers 2.5 (1.9–3.2) 7.9 (7–8) 3.2 (2.7–4.2) 6.9 (5–8)
Tooth patch 1.5 (.43–2.5) 1.9 (.53–2.6)
Pigment on caudal peduncle Dorsolateral blotches touch 1st dorsal fin series of blotches No solid dark line Yes
AUM

Auburn University Museum of Natural History

UMMZ

University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

ISC

International Salmonella Centre (W.H.O.)