Papilio maackii,

Jong, Rienk De, 2017, Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea), Zootaxa 4270 (1), pp. 1-63: 32

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.583183

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scientific name

Papilio maackii


maackii  . Papilio cf. maackii Ménétries, 1859 

Papilionidae  : Papilioninae  : Papilio  (?).

Japan, Tochigi Pref., Shiobara; late Pleistocene, 37,000 BP (see Fujiyama 1983). 

Depository: NSMT (one specimen, no. 7141).

Published figures: Fujiyama (1968: Fig. 1View FIGURE 1, Pl. 1 Fig. 1View FIGURE 1); illustrations of the extant species can be found in many books on East Asian butterflies. 

Reported by Fujiyama (1968). A forewing only is present, of which almost half is missing. Two papilionid apomorphies present: crossvein Cu-A1 (but see above, Venational patterns of the forewing) and 2A terminating on dorsum. Radial formula 1, 2, 3, 4+5, R3 and the common stem of R4 and R5, both originating from the upper corner of the cell. After comparison with extant papilionine species in Japan and adjacent areas, Fujiyama concluded on the basis of overall similarity (as far as overall similarity is possible with only half a wing), but principally determined by the proportions of the cell, that the fossil falls within the variation of the extant species Papilio maackii  . However, Fujiyama (1968) does not make clear that the fossil does not fall within the variation of other Papilio  species as well. The identification by Fujiyama is based on comparison with the extant fauna of the region, not on apomorphies, and, thus, is questionable. In view of its relatively recent age, the fossil is not of interest for calibration purposes. Papilio maacki  has a wide distribution in East Asia. The fossil was found in a lake deposit, which presumably formed when it was 5–5.5 0 C colder than at present, corresponding with the last ice age.