Carohamilia terrafirma ( Schaus, 1911 ) Naydenov & Yakovlev & Penco, 2021

Naydenov, Artem E., Yakovlev, Roman V. & Penco, Fernando C., 2021, Redescription and review of the Neotropical genus Carohamilia Dyar, 1940 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae: Zeuzerinae), Zootaxa 4985 (4), pp. 557-563 : 561-562

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Carohamilia terrafirma ( Schaus, 1911 )

comb. n.

Carohamilia terrafirma ( Schaus, 1911) comb. n.

Figs. 6−8 View FIGURES 1−10 , 14 View FIGURES 11−16 , 17 View FIGURE 17

Psychonoctua terrafirma Schaus, 1911: 629 .

=? Psychonoctua nullifer Dyar, 1914: 349 (synonymized by Dyar (1940: 1268)).

Material examined: Type material. Holotype of Psychonoctua terrafirma Schaus, 1911 , ♂: Costa Rica: Sixola Riv, Mar., Type No. 17303 U.S.N.M. USNMENT 01198216 ( USNM) ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1−10 ) ; Holotype of Psychonoctua nullifer Dyar, 1914 , ♀: Panama: Taboga Isl. [Jelz /2] August Busck, Type No. 16435 U.S.N.M., USNMENT 01198178 ( USNM) ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 1−10 ) . — Further material. Colombia: 1 ♂, Muzo, R. Cantinero, 400 m (A. H. Fassl), NHMUK 012832454, SLIDE NHMUK 010315487 ( NHMUK) ( Figs 7 View FIGURES 1−10 , 14 View FIGURES 11−16 ) ; 1 ♂, Antioquia SW of Dabeiba , 780 m, 6°59’27”N 76°16’28”W; 17−18.III.2017, V. Sinyaev ( RYB) GoogleMaps ; Ecuador: 3 ♂, Esmeraldes Prov. , 3 km E Mompiche, 140 m, 0°29’37”N 79°59’46′”W; 25−29.I.2013, leg. Sinjaev & Dr. R. Brechlin, GenPrMWM: 37.167 ( MWM) ; 1 ♂, Esmeraldes, San Mateo , 26.VIII.56, leg. J. Förster ( ZSM) .

Diagnosis. The species differs from the other species of the genus in the following characters:

- the largest species of the genus (length of the fore wing is 20−22 mm, in the other species less than 20 mm);

- the male fore wing has an expressed reticulated pattern, well developed black spot at the base and a discal spot;

- the saccular margin of the valve has two well-expressed semicircular notch.

Notes. The affiliation of Psychonoctua nullifer Dyar, 1914 with Carohamilia terrafirma ( Schaus, 1911) was established by Dyar (1940: 1268) without any published argument. Basing on the present materials, we can neither confirm nor refute this taxonomic decision, so we leave the synonymy suggested by Dyar (1940) disputable.

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador.

Examining the type specimens of Carohamilia sensu Schoorl (1990) we found significant differences in the genital structure and in the wing pattern between С. ophelia and С. lineaeplena ( Figs. 1, 9 View FIGURES 1−10 , 11, 15 View FIGURES 11−16 ):

- in С. lineaeplena , the fore wing pattern consists of transverse equidistant wavy lines, whereas in С. ophelia an expressed dark area is present basally on the fore wing with a dark discal spot;

- in С. lineaeplena there is a sharply constriction on the rod-like lateral processes of the juxta apically, whereas in С. ophelia only the basal part is tapered;

- in С. lineaeplena the saccus is semicircular and short, in С. ophelia the saccus is robust and very elongated;

- the phallus of С. lineaeplena is large, with a lateral cornutus on the vesica, in С. ophelia the phallus is thin and long, without cornuti.

The morphological features of С. lineaeplena indicates that this species belongs to the genus Schreiteriana (male genitalia: the reduction of the gnathos and transtilla processes, the valva of simple form, without armament, peculiar structure of the phallus, the vesica with a long ribbon-like sclerite in its lateral surface), previously redescribed ( Pencо et al. 2016).) We establish a new combination − Schreiteriana lineaeplena ( Dognin, 1911) , comb. n. In addition, the complete external identity and the same male genital structure of S. lineaeplena and of the recently described S. urcuchillay Yakovlev, Penco & Witt, 2017 , indicate that these species are synonyms. Thus, S. lineaeplena = Schreiteriana urcuchillay Yakovlev, Penco et Witt, 2017 syn. n.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Natural History Museum, London


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology














Carohamilia terrafirma ( Schaus, 1911 )

Naydenov, Artem E., Yakovlev, Roman V. & Penco, Fernando C. 2021

Psychonoctua terrafirma

Dyar, H. G. 1940: 1268
Dyar, H. G. 1914: 349
Schaus, W. 1911: 629