Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle, 1839), Muller & Henle, 1839
Akhilesh, K. V., White, W. T., Bineesh, K. K., Purushottama, G. B. & Zacharia, P. U., 2016, Redescription of the rare and endangered Broadfin Shark Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle, 1839) (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) from the northeastern Arabian Sea, Zootaxa 4175 (2), pp. 155-166 : 156-165
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|Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle, 1839)|
Carcharias (Prionodon) temmincki Müller & Henle, 1839 , Syst. Beschr. Plagiost., (2): 48, pl. 18.
Lectotype. BMNH 1851.8 .16.11 (dried and stuffed), juvenile male 1057 mm TL, India.
Paralectotype. ZMB 4475 View Materials , juvenile male 975 mm TL, India.
Other material. NBFGR 232 View Materials , juvenile female 464 mm TL, collected at Sassoon dock, Maharashtra, India, 24 May 2013 ; MHFRI 1211.1 , female 1130 mm TL, collected from Newferry wharf, Maharashtra, India, 21 Nov. 2014 ; MHFRI 1211.2 , female 1018 mm TL, collected at Sassoon dock, Maharashtra, India, 4 Nov. 2015 ; MHFRI 1211.3 , juvenile female 418 mm TL, collected at Satpati , Maharashtra, India, 6 Jan. 2016 ; MHFRI 1211.4 , juvenile male 940 mm TL, collected at Satpati , Maharashtra, India, 11 May 2016 ; CMFRI GA.188.8.131.52, juvenile male 592 mm TL, collected at Satpati , Maharashtra, India, 6 Sep. 2015 ; CMFRI GA.184.108.40.206.1, juvenile male 595 mm TL, collected at Satpati , Maharashtra, India, 6 Sep. 2015 ; PMH 201–1 (jaw only), male 1440 mm TL, PMH 201–2 (jaw only), female 1475 mm TL, PMH 201– 3 (jaw only), male 1490 mm TL, PMH 201–4 (jaw only), female 1517 mm TL, PMH 201–5 (jaw only), female 1530 mm TL, PMH 201–6 View Materials (jaw only), female 1563 mm TL, Baleshwar , India ; PMH 201–7 View Materials (jaw only), unsexed ~ 1450–1500 mm TL, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Diagnosis. A medium-sized carcharhinid shark with moderately stout body; moderately long and bluntly pointed snout, preorbital length 7.8–9.8 % TL. Dorsal fins almost of similar size, not falcate; interdorsal space 18.2–19.4% TL. First dorsal fin slightly larger, length 13.4–15.1% TL, height 5.8–8.3% TL, subtriangular (with a narrowly rounded apex in juveniles), posterior margins nearly straight to shallowly concave and its free rear tip reaching just anterior to pelvic-fin origin. Second dorsal fin almost as high as first, subtriangular, length 11.2–12.1% TL, height 5.2–7.1% TL, 82–92% of first dorsal-fin height. Pectoral fin moderately long, 12.5–15.5% TL and not falcate, anterior margins weakly convex; pelvic fin moderately long 9.8–11.5% TL; anal-fin height 3.8–6.0% TL. No dermal ridge between dorsal fins, and no keels on caudal peduncle. Upper anterior teeth subtriangular (almost cordiform), evenly serrated. Lower anterior teeth long, narrow, erect, with entirely smooth cutting edge; tooth row counts 40–44/40–44. Fins without any prominent markings in adults.
Description. Body moderately stout. trunk subcircular to somewhat broadly pear-shaped in cross-section at pectoral-fin origin; body height greatest in front of first dorsal fin; length of trunk from fifth gill slits to vent 1.07–1.29 times head length. No predorsal, interdorsal or postdorsal dermal ridges on midline of back; no lateral ridges on body. Caudal peduncle stout, rounded in cross-section; no keels or ridges; height 3.6–4.3% TL, 1.30–1.54 times width. Precaudal pits present; upper pit a shallow, longitudinal depression, not crescentic; lower pit rudimentary.
Head broad, moderately long, flattened anteriorly; head length 0.23–0.26 in TL, 0.80–0.93 in pectoral–pelvic space, 2.06–2.29 in pre-vent length; width 0.83–1.09 times trunk width; narrowly parabolic in dorsoventral view, apex moderately rounded; preoral snout length 0.75–0.95 times mouth width, 3.60–4.47 times nostril width, 0.75–0.85 times interorbital space; snout tip moderately rounded to bluntly pointed in dorsoventral view.
Eye very small, subcircular, length 19.3–29.7 in head length, 0.88–1.45 times height; located almost mid lateral on head, with lower half in the ventral side. External eye openings without anterior or posterior notches. Nictitating lower eyelids present, internal. Spiracle absent.
Gill openings moderately large, first three subequal in height (first may be slightly larger), fourth and fifth smaller; height of first 3.4–4.1% TL, height of fifth 0.70–0.82 times height of first, 2.7–3.0% TL; height of third about 5.64–7.35 in head length and 2.63–5.27 times eye length. Margins of gill openings sloping slightly posteroventrally, lower margins level with a line joining mouth corner to pectoral origin; upper end of highest gill opening not above level of upper margin of eye; margins almost straight. Gill filaments not visible from outside in juveniles (sometimes just visible in larger specimens). Gillraker papillae absent from gill arches.
Nostril with large suboval incurrent aperture; anterior nasal flap with a relatively small, broadly triangular lobe with narrowly pointed tips; small suboval excurrent aperture, mostly covered by nasal flaps; nostril width 0.40–0.72 in eye length, 1.29–1.75 in longest gill opening; internarial space 1.71–1.85 in preoral length, 1.98–2.48 times nostril width.
Mouth moderately large, strongly arched; margin of upper jaw very concave; mouth width 0.75–0.95 in preoral length, 2.52–2.91 in head length; mouth length 1.54–2.0 in mouth width. Lips mostly concealing teeth when mouth closed (upper jaw teeths just visible in largest specimens). Tongue large, flat, filling floor of mouth. Labial furrows very short, parabolic in shape; uppers shorter, lowers 1.07–1.98 times uppers.
......continued on the next page Second dorsal posterior 6.4 5.1 6.2 5.7 7.8 7.3 7.1 5.1 7.8 margin
......continued on the next page Teeth in upper jaw with high, cordiform in shape (tapering just below basal ledge), erect to semi oblique, serrated cusps and no cusplets; distal and mesial shoulders very pronounced; lateral and posterior teeth relatively straight with mesial margins slightly angular; serrations on cusps evenly distributed, not distinctly/slightly coarser basally; usually 5–7 rows of posterior molariform teeth. Teeth in lower jaw long with erect, high, entirely smoothedged narrow cusps and no cusplets. Teeth count 40–44/40–44. Sexual dimorphism in dentition not evident.
Pectoral fins large, broadly triangular, basally very broad, not or weakly falcate; anterior margin weakly convex, apex narrowly rounded to angular; anterior margin length 15.5–18.4% TL, 1.17–1.25 in length; posterior margin slightly concave somewhat oblique inner margin weakly convex; base length 1.81–2.09 in length; free rear tip very broadly rounded, reaching to posterior half of the first dorsal fin; origin below 3rd to 5th gill opening.
Pelvic fins broadly triangular, not falcate; length 9.8–11.5% TL, 0.87–0.98 times second dorsalfin length; anterior margin nearly straight and weakly convex, 7.9–10.0% TL, 51–61% of pectoral-fin anterior margin; apex moderately rounded; posterior margin straight to weakly concave; inner margin nearly straight; free rear tip moderately rounded to broadly angular, Claspers of adult male moderately short and stout, relatively broad, not tapering distally, clasper outer length 2.4–3.2% TL, base width 25.0–27.0% of outer length.
First dorsal fin relatively small, raked, subtriangular, not falcate; origin over inner margin of pectoral fin; first dorsal-fin length 1.82–2.35 times its height, 1.16–1.32 times second dorsal-fin length; height 1.09–1.22 times second dorsal-fin height; anterior margin nearly straight; apex broadly rounded to angular; posterior margin weakly concave; inner margin nearly straight, free rear tip pointed, moderately long, reaching just anterior to over of pelvic-fin origin, inner margin 0.53–0.67 times fin height. First dorsal-fin base 1.78–1.96 in interdorsal space, 2.25–2.54 in dorsal caudal-fin margin.
Second dorsal fin large, subtriangular, almost as tall as first dorsal fin, height 0.82–0.92 times first dorsal fin height; base 0.70–0.86 times first dorsal-fin base; its origin over or slightly anterior to anal-fin origin; its insertion posterior to anal-fin insertion; second dorsal-fin length 1.67–2.16 times its height, 0.76–0.87 times first dorsal-fin length; anterior margin weakly concave basal region; apex moderately rounded; posterior margin almost straight to weakly concave; inner margin relatively long, pointed lobe, its length 0.52–0.68 times fin height; second dorsal-fin base 1.12–1.40 times dorsal–caudal space; height 1.07–1.52 in base length.
Anal fin semi-falcate; anterior margin slightly convex; posterior margin concave with an broad angle; height 3.8–6.0% TL, 72–99% of second dorsal-fin height, base 85–95% of second dorsal-fin base; base 0.76–0.96 in anal–caudal space; apex broadly angular; inner margin straight, 0.64–0.85 times fin height, 1.64–2.32 in fin base length, free rear tip pointed; fin origin nearly opposite or slightly anterior to second dorsal-fin origin; insertion anterior to second dorsal-fin insertion. No preanal ridges.
Caudal fin long, relatively broad-lobed, asymmetrical with short terminal lobe and prominent, concave ventral lobe; dorsal caudal marginal most straight to broadly convex with prominent lateral undulations; notch between postventral margins deep; subterminal notch narrow and deep; subterminal margin slightly concave to almost straight. Dorsal caudal margin 3.15–3.33 in precaudal length, preventral caudal margin 2.07–2.35 in dorsal caudal margin; upper and lower postventral margins not well defined; terminal lobe deep, very short, its length 3.08–4.06 in direct head length, 1.47–1.76 in preventral margin, 3.17–3.79 in dorsal caudal margin. Counts of vertebral centra (n=2): monospondylous precaudal (MP) centra 49–53, diplospondylous precaudal centra (DC) 32–44, precaudal centra 85–93.
Colour. Juveniles (when fresh): Dorsal surface of head, trunk and tail grey; mid-lateral body surface graduating to white ventrally; boundary of light and dark colour (waterline) on head strongly demarcated, extending laterally from snout anteriorly and passing through almost middle of eye, white tinges slightly extending over to upper margins of eye; waterline from posterior upper half of eye extending to upper margin of first gill opening, then from 3rd–5th gill opening slightly graduating to white ventrally at about a third of their height. A dark area around margin of eye, lower side of eye very clear. Dorsal fins darker grey anteriorly, free rear tip slightly paler. Pectoral fin with whitish anterior margin, dusky basally, light grey in the posterior half. Pelvic and anal fin basal region paler, darker distally. Caudal fin mostly greyish, ventral lobe dusky. Adults (when fresh): Dusky grey to yellow-grey above, slightly lighter below; waterline on head not strongly demarcated, diffusing in front of gills. Fins lacking distinct dusky or paler patterns or markings as in juveniles. Fins slightly darker than body. Posterior margins of fins darker than other parts of fins.
Size & biology. Specimens observed in the fishery landings ranged from 418–1782 mm TL with pregnant females observed over 1500 mm TL. Litters of 4–8 (usually 6) recorded and a size at birth of 418 (with unhealed scars)– 620 mm TL, based on the smallest specimens observed in fishery. Mostly caught in inshore gillnet/trawl/ stake net fishery where depth is less than 100 m. Feeds mainly on crustaceans ( Oratosquilla sp, crabs, prawns, Nematopalaemon tenuipes , P. sculptilis ), Cephalopods ( Loligo spp, Octopus), fin fishes (e.g. Johnius spp, Decapterus spp, Platax spp, Cynoglossus spp, Coilia spp, Trichiurus sp.).
Discussion. Lamiopsis temminckii is a rare species in Indian waters and one of the rarer members of the family Carcharhinidae , though once thought to be abundant in certain locations. Although very similar to L. tephrodes , this study highlights several characters to distinguish these species. Lamiopsis temminckii and L. tephrodes can be differentiated based on their dentition as detailed by White et al. (2010a, Table 2). Based on the data from this study, L. temminckii also differs from L. tephrodes in having: shorter dorsal fins (first dorsal-fin length 13.4–15.1 vs. 14.9–17.1% TL, second dorsal-fin length 11.2–12.1 vs. 11.8–14.3% TL, second dorsal-fin base length 7.3–8.0 vs. 8.9–10.2% TL), and slightly more posteriorly located dorsal fins (pre-first dorsal length 33.2–37.3 vs. 31.4–33.3% TL, pre-second dorsal length 62.4–65.2 vs. 59.5–61.8% TL).
According to IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals Lamiopsis temminckii is listed as an Endangered species ( White et al., 2009), however this assessment includes data for the now separated L. tephrodes . The status of both L. temminckii and L. tephrodes needs to be re-assessed based on the updated geographical distribution and fishery status. Considering the rare status in the region and some evidence of population declines, together with the heavy fishing pressure in its entire range, L. temminckii is likely to remain in the Endangered category.
|MHFRI1211.3 Total length (mm) 418||232 NBFGR 464||220.127.116.11 CMFRI. GA 592||18.104.22.168 CMFRI. GA 1. 595||MHFRI1211.4 MHFRI 1211.2 940 1018||MHFRI 1211.1 1130||Min 418||Max 1130|
|Precaudal length 76.6||77.6||76.9||78.0||76.1 75.8||75.7||75.7||78.0|
|Pre second dorsal length 62.2||64.0||63.2||63.5||64.9 65.2||62.4||62.2||65.2|
|Pre- first dorsal length 34.8||37.3||34.8||35.0||35.6 35.4||33.2||33.2||37.3|
|Head length 25.9||25.0||24.8||25.5||23.8 24.2||22.6||22.6||25.9|
|Pre branchial length 20.8||20.9||18.2||18.8||19.7 19.9||18.7||18.2||20.9|
|Pre orbital length (direct) 8.5||9.8||8.8||8.5||8.7 8.5||7.8||7.8||9.8|
|Pre oral length 8.3||8.1||7.7||7.8||7.2 7.0||6.6||6.6||8.3|
|Pre narial length (inner) 5.1||5.9||5.1||5.2||5.1 5.0||4.6||4.6||5.9|
|Pre narial length (outer) 4.2||5.5||4.6||4.7||5.0 5.0||4.7||4.2||5.5|
|Pre narial length (horizontal) 5.7||5.7||5.1||5.5||4.6 4.7||4.3||4.3||5.7|
|Pre pectoral length 24.9||24.3||23.9||25.1||22.8 23.7||22.5||22.5||25.1|
|Pre pelvic length 47.9||48.9||49.2||49.4||50.0 48.8||48.7||47.9||50.0|
|Snout vent length 53.3||51.7||53.2||53.8||52.3 51.4||51.6||51.4||53.8|
|Pre anal fin length 62.9||63.1||61.8||60.8||63.3 61.9||60.6||60.6||63.3|
|Interdorsal space 18.7||19.4||18.2||18.5||18.7 18.2||19.4||18.2||19.4|
|Dorsal-caudal space 6.5||6.3||6.1||5.9||5.6 6.6||5.5||5.5||6.6|
|Pectoral-pelvic space 21.6||20.0||20.6||21.9||20.1 19.8||21.0||19.8||21.9|
|Pelvic-anal space 7.5||6.7||6.7||6.5||8.0 6.5||7.4||6.5||8.0|
|Anal-caudal space 6.4||6.0||6.2||6.6||5.7 5.6||5.2||5.2||6.6|
|Eye length 1.2||1.3||1.0||0.9||1.2 1.1||1.0||0.9||1.3|
|Eye height 1.1||1.2||1.2||0.8||1.0 1.0||0.7||0.7||1.2|
|Inter orbital space 9.7||9.9||9.9||10.2||9.6 9.1||8.6||8.6||10.2|
|Nostril width 2.3||2.1||1.9||2.2||1.6 1.7||1.6||1.6||2.3|
|Internarial space 4.5||4.7||4.4||4.4||4.0 3.9||3.8||3.8||4.7|
|Anterior nasal flap length 0.4||0.5||0.5||0.3||0.5 0.5||0.6||0.3||0.6|
|Mouth length 5.6||5.1||4.9||5.2||4.7 4.8||4.9||4.7||5.6|
|Mouth width 8.7||8.8||9.3||8.7||9.4 9.1||8.8||8.7||9.4|
|Upper labial furrow length 0.7||0.4||0.5||0.5||0.4 0.4||0.5||0.4||0.7|
|Lower labial furrow length 0.6||0.8||0.8||0.7||0.6 0.6||0.6||0.6||0.8|
|First gill slit height 3.9||3.4||4.1||4.0||3.4 3.7||3.5||3.4||4.1|
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