Scolopacidae, Rafinesque, 1815
Somenzari, Marina, Amaral, Priscilla Prudente do, Cueto, Víctor R., Guaraldo, André de Camargo, Jahn, Alex E., Lima, Diego Mendes, Lima, Pedro Cerqueira, Lugarini, Camile, Machado, Caio Graco, Martinez, Jaime, Nascimento, João Luiz Xavier do, Pacheco, José Fernando, Paludo, Danielle, Prestes, Nêmora Pauletti, Serafini, Patrícia Pereira, Silveira, Luís Fábio, Sousa, Antônio Emanuel Barreto Alves de, Sousa, Nathália Alves de, Souza, Manuella Andrade de, Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues & Whitney, Bret Myers, 2018, An overview of migratory birds in Brazil, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 58, pp. 1-66: 9-14
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Limnodromus griseus (MGT) : females depart before males and juveniles from breeding areas in Alaska, USA and Canada in early July, and the species overwinters in the USA, Central America and the coast of South America ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). It seems that individuals fly non-stop when migrating south from North America and across the Atlantic to Suriname, where there are population peaks between September and November; when migrating north, its route seems to go through the coast of Guyana and from there across the Atlantic ( Rodrigues, 2000).The species seems to use the coast of MA as a stopover area before flying south between September and December to the wintering areas ( Carvalho & Rodrigues, 2011). Records confirm this species’ presence in Brazil for
PA, MA, PI, CE, RN, SE, BA, RJ and RS mainly from October to March (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP, MPEG, MNRJ). There are also records between April and September for AP, PA, MA, PI, CE, RN and BA (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP, MPEG, MNRJ), probably of non-breeding individuals, since several one-year-old shorebirds mostly stay on wintering grounds through first summer ( Cristol et al., 1999).
Limosa haemastica (MGT) : after breeding in the Arctic, a large part of its population gathers along Hudson Bay and James Bay in Canada between late July and mid-August ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). The species crosses the Atlantic and reaches northern South America, including the Amazon Basin, at the Sustainable Development Reserves of Mamirauá ( Melo et al., 2011), Amanã ( Santos et al., 2011) and PiagaÇu-Purus ( Cintra et al., 2011), Anavilhanas National Park ( Cintra & Rosas, 2011), Alto Guaporé region ( d’Horta, 2011) and the Pantanal (Poconé/ MT; Cintra, 2011) between September and November. From October to April, the species reaches southern Brazil in SP, PR, SC and RS ( Vallejos et al., 2011; Krul et al., 2011; Ferreira et al., 2011; Fedrizzi & Carlos, 2011; Dias, 2011; Barbieri, 2011; MZUSP), in addition to Uruguay and Argentina. Over 1,000 individuals use the Lagoa do Peixe National Park as a stopover site during migration ( Belton, 1994; Nascimento, 2011), but their main wintering areas are in extreme southern South America, Tierra del Fuego and southern central Chile.The young appear to depart after the adults, and the return to the north from April onwards is completed with use of little or no ( Harrington et al., 1986) stopover sites ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996).
Numenius borealis (MGT) : an extinct species that bred in the inland Canadian Arctic and northern central Canada. Millions of individuals gathered on stopover areas throughout the countryside in the USA. In South America, its wintering areas were in the Argentinean Pampas, and it was first recorded in early 19 th century in Brazil with specimens collected in Ipanema/SP in September-October and also for AM and MT between September and November ( Pelzeln, 1870; Sick, 1997).
Numenius hudsonicus (MGT) : breeds in Alaska and Canada and migrates to southern USA and South America during boreal winter ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). During this migration south, which occurs from September to November, it reaches Suriname and then follows to the Gulf of Maranhão, where there are population peaks between December and February ( Rodrigues, 2000). Large gatherings were also recorded on the Reentrâncias Paraenses Environmental Protection Area ( Rodrigues & Carvalho, 2011a), and 10,879 individuals were recorded between Belém/PA and São Luís/MA in January 1982, 1983 and 1986 ( Morrison & Ross, 1989). During the migration north from March to May, there is a population peak on Caranguejo Island/MA ( Carvalho & Rodrigues, 2011). There are records for Brazil from AP to RS, as well as on Fernando de Noronha/PE ( Sick, 1997) throughout the year (WikiAves, 2016), which represents non-breeding individuals, since some one-year-old shorebirds mostly stay on wintering grounds through first summer ( Cristol et al., 1999).
Bartramia longicauda (MGT) : breeds in Alaska, southern Canada and northern USA, and overwinters in Suriname, Paraguay, southern Brazil, northern Argentina and Uruguay ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). After breeding, it migrates between August and September from central North America to grasslands in central and eastern South America through the Amazon Basin ( Capllonch, 2011), where it is recorded in small numbers between October and February on Marchantaria Island/AM and in RO ( Stotz et al., 1992). It overwinters in the Pampas in southern Brazil ( Di Giácomo & Krapovickas, 2005) and the Pantanal ( Morrison et al., 2008). Photographic records associated to literature data suggest the species occurs in all of Brazil between September and April ( Belton, 1984; Cintra, 2011; Cintra & Rosas, 2011; d’Horta, 2011; Melo et al., 2011; Nunes et al., 2011; Schunck, 2011a, b; Silva, 2011a, b, c; Vallejos et al., 2011; WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP; MPEG).
Actitis macularius (MGT) : widely distributed in North America, where it nests in open areas close to water bodies and reservoirs.It overwinters in southern USA, Central America and southern South America as far as northern Chile and Argentina ( van Gils et al., 2016a). It was record- ed in September and November for RR and from July to May for Manaus and Marchantaria Island/AM ( Stotz et al., 1992), as well as for RS ( Belton, 1984). It visits the Central Plateau from August to October ( Negret, 1988). There are recent photographic records for all Brazilian states between September and May. Scarce records between June and August (WikiAves, 2016) are probably of juveniles, since some one-year-old shorebirds mostly stay on wintering grounds through the first summer ( Cristol et al., 1999).
Tringa solitaria (MGT) : breeds in North America and migrates to Central America during boreal winter (including the Antilles and Bahamas) and to the south as far as southern Argentina ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). Individuals banded in Canada and the USA in July and August were recovered in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil (as far as northern BA) in October, November, December and January ( Mestre et al., 2010). The species seems to be resident in the northern Amazon Basin in Macapá/AP ( Campos et al., 2008). It is common near lakes and rivers in the Amazon Basin and can be seen near Manaus/AM from July to April ( Stotz et al., 1992), rarely in flocks ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). It overwinters in or uses the Pantanal as a stopover ground ( Nunes & Tomas, 2008) and it is recorded for RS between September and April ( Belton, 1984). It appears in Brazil only from August to May in all states.There are some scarce records during the austral winter (WikiAves,2016;MZUSP; MNRJ;MPEG), but they are probably of juveniles, since some one-yearold shorebirds mostly stay on wintering grounds through their first summer ( Cristol et al., 1999).
Tringa melanoleuca (MGT) : breeds from Alaska to eastern Canada and flies through James Bay, British Columbia, Mexico, Central and South America as far as Tierra del Fuego during spring ( Piersma et al., 1996). It is a migrant that presents records from August to November for Manaus/AM and Marchantaria Island/AM; it is common during fall, there are small numbers during winter, and only occasional records in spring ( Stotz et al., 1992). During the migration south, it occurs in the Pantanal ( Morrison et al., 2008) and records suggest that it also flies over the central region of Brazil when returning to the Northern Hemisphere, which reinforces the importance as stopover grounds in the plains and basins of the Tocantins and Araguaia Rivers ( Crozariol et al., 2012). The species occurs in all months of the year in Brazil (WikiAves, 2016). Its occurrence during winter months is probably due to immature, non-breeding individuals that remain on wintering areas all year round (van Gills & Wiersma, 1996).
Tringa semipalmata (MGT) : breeds in North America and presents population peaks in both Suriname and the Gulf of Maranhão during the migration south between September and November, which suggests that the species goes over the coast of French Guiana, from where it crosses the Atlantic Ocean on a non-stop flight ( Rodrigues, 2000). It flies over the continent between São Luís and the mouth of the Parnaíba River to the Todos os Santos Bay, BA ( Antas, 1983). It exhibits patterns of seasonal abundance on Caranguejo Island/MA with a population peak during spring migration between March and May ( Carvalho & Rodrigues, 2011). Photographic records reveal the occurrence of this species along the Atlantic coast of the entire Brazilian territory throughout the year (WikiAves, 2016). However, scarce records during winter months (from May to July) are probably related to juveniles, since some one-year-old shorebirds mostly stay on wintering grounds through the first summer ( Cristol et al., 1999).
Tringa flavipes (MGT) : breeds from May to August from Alaska to southern central Canada as far as James Bay in Canada. It flies through eastern Canada, inland USA and the Atlantic coast, going over Mexico, Antilles and Bahamas to South America, reaching as far as Tierra del Fuego ( van Gils et al., 2016b). In Brazil, the species occurs in the entire national territory and there are records for AM from July to February ( Stotz et al., 1992), for the Pantanal during the migration south ( Morrison et al., 2008) and for RS in all months, especially between September and March ( Belton, 1984). Despite being found throughout the year in Brazil (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP, MNRJ, MPEG), records during winter in June and July are probably of juveniles, since some one-year-old shorebirds mostly stay on wintering grounds through the first summer ( Cristol et al., 1999).
Arenaria interpres (MGT) : breeds in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic and flies along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts to winter on the coast in the Americas, reaching the entire Brazilian coast and Uruguay. There are large gatherings in Delaware Bay, USA, but the species migrates in small flocks. Juveniles depart around one month after the adults, that is, from mid-August to September ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996; Araújo et al., 2014). During fall migration from September to November, the species first reaches the coast of Guyana and then migrates to the Gulf of Maranhão; during spring migration from March to May, it performs transoceanic flights from the coast of MA to North America ( Rodrigues, 2000). In Brazil, it is seen all year round in some places: Lagoa do Peixe/ RS ( Belton, 1994), the coast of PE ( Azevedo-Júnior et al., 2001), Mangue Seco/BA ( Lima, 2006) and Caranguejo Island/MA ( Carvalho & Rodrigues, 2011). Data from banding and recapture shows that the individuals that winter in PE originate from the east coast of the USA ( Azevedo-Júnior et al., 2001).
Calidris canutus (MGT) : breeds in the Canadian Arctic. It gathers in great numbers in Delaware Bay, USA and migrates southwards, reaching the Brazilian coast, as well as Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia, where it stays during the non-breeding season. Some individuals may overwinter in French Guiana or Venezuela ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996; Baker et al., 2005). After leaving the breeding area, the species flies south crossing over or stopping in the mid-Atlantic coast of the USA and on the Antilles, before reaching Brazil. One individual with a geolocator overwintered on the northern coast of Brazil, on the bor- der between MA and PA. Another went south through MA and overwintered around 1,100 km east, and a third one stopped in MA for 12 days and then stopped again at Lagoa dos Patos/RS and went on to overwinter in Argentina. The return flight of this last individual was through the Pantanal ( Niles et al., 2010). Population peaks are recorded in the Gulf of Maranhão: a large number of individuals arrive during fall migration from September to November ( Carvalho & Rodrigues, 2011) and during spring migration from March to May, which suggests transoceanic flights from the coast of MA to North America ( Rodrigues, 2000). In RS, over 20,000 individuals were seen using the Lagoa do Peixe National Park and the Pinhal region as stopover grounds during their migration north. Banding data suggests that the flight between the southern coast of Brazil and Midwestern USA is a direct one ( Harrington et al., 1986) that lasts approximately 13 days – 7,600 km ( Sick, 1997). Ilha Comprida/SP is also a stopover site used for resting and feeding during the return migration ( Barbieri & Paes, 2008), as well as the mangroves from Mangue Seco/BA, where the species was recorded in mid-April ( Lima, 2006). There are recent photographic records for almost all coastal states and they are centered on the period between September and April (WikiAves, 2016).
Calidris alba (MGT) : breeds in the northern Arctic. Its wintering area extends from California to northern Chile on the Pacific and from the north coast of Brazil to Argentina on the Atlantic ( Antas, 1987). It is one of the species that flies the longest distance during migration: around 20,000 km from the Arctic to RJ, and then more 5,000 km to Tierra del Fuego ( Sick, 1997). During fall migration from September to November, the species reaches the coast of Guyana and then migrates to the Gulf of Maranhão, from where it leaves to perform transoceanic flights back to North America during spring migration from March to May ( Rodrigues, 2000). Most individuals that overwinter (from December to February) in Peru and Chile perform a continental clockwise flight by migrating north along the Pacific coast and returning south along the Atlantic coast.There are three main flyways for its return across North America: (a) through the Pacific coast, (b) through the Gulf of Mexico and Great Lakes region, and (c) through the Atlantic coast ( Myers et al., 1985). The species exhibits fidelity to Coroa do Avião/ PE, where recovered individuals show the link between migratory sites in PE and Lagoa do Peixe/RS, MA and the USA through field-readable colored bands ( Lyra-Neves et al., 2004).There are records from October to December for Marchantaria Island/AM and for the area surrounding the Solimões River ( Stotz et al., 1992). During both migrations north and south, it is present in large quantities in Ilha Comprida/SP, a stopover ground used for resting and feeding ( Barbieri & Paes, 2008). Beaches in RS were recognized as the most important wintering areas for this species on the Atlantic coast of South America ( Morrison & Ross, 1989). There are records all year round for Lagoa do Peixe/RS, approaching 6,000 individuals in November/December ( Belton, 1994). There are recent records for all coastal states, as well as some occasional ones in GO, MG and AM. Most records are from September to April, although the species can be found throughout the year in Brazil (WikiAves, 2016). Some individuals remain in the wintering areas in South America during the breeding season from June to July ( Myers et al., 1985; van Gils & Wiersma, 1996),
Calidris pusilla (MGT) : breeds in northern Canada and Alaska, and overwinters mainly in South America ( Gratto-Trevor & Dickson, 1994). It flies non-stop for as long as 4,000 km and is known to form flocks of 350,000 individuals.The species presents high fidelity to its breeding sites, but little is known about its wintering areas. Around 2/3 of the juveniles remain in non-breeding areas throughout the year ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). Long-distance migration between the wintering area in the Southern Hemisphere and the breeding area in high latitudes from the Northern Hemisphere are interspersed with long stopover periods for energy storing, especially in Delaware Bay on the east coast of the USA, where it usually begins to arrive in early May and remains until early June ( Mizrahi et al., 2012). In the Amazonian region, there are records throughout the year for PA and AP ( Stotz et al., 1992; Campos et al., 2008; WikiAves, 2016) with a population peak in AP in November and December ( Campos et al., 2008). There are recent records in all coastal states (WikiAves, 2016). It is recorded all year round in PE, CE and MA and there are population peaks on Caranguejo Island/MA during the fall migration from September to November due to the arrival in northern Brazil of migrants originating from stopover sites in northern South America ( Carvalho & Rodrigues, 2011; WikiAves, 2016). The species can be observed in other states in northeastern Brazil (PI, CE,RN,PB,PE, AL, SE and BA) from August to April ( Azevedo-Júnior et al., 2001; Cardoso & Nascimento, 2007; Cardoso & Zappelini, 2011; WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP; MPEG; MNRJ). There are population peaks between November and February in SE ( Almeida & Ferrari, 2010) and in March in the PiaÇabuÇu Environmental Protection Area/AL ( Cabral et al., 2006). It is also recorded from August to April for the states in the southeastern and southern regions (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP).
Calidris minutilla (MGT) : breeds from Alaska to Quebec, including Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, and migrates through inland North America, reaching the southern USA, Antilles, Gulf of Mexico and northeastern South America ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). Migration between the wintering area in the Southern Hemisphere and the breeding area is interspersed with long stopover periods for energy storing, especially in Delaware Bay on the eastern coast of the USA, where they start arriving in mid-April and depart from around the third week of May ( Mizrahi et al., 2012). There are records from August to April in the Amazonian region for AM, RR, AP and PA ( Stotz et al., 1992; Campos et al., 2008; Cintra & Rosas, 2011; Cintra et al., 2011; Santos et al., 2011; Silva,2011a, b; Valente, 2011; WikiAves, 2016), as well as for MA, PI, CE, RN, PB, PE, AL, SE and BA on the northeastern coast ( Sick, 1997; Albano & Girão,2011; Azevedo-Júnior & Larrazábal, 2011a; Cardoso & Zappelini, 2011; Girão & Albano,2011a; Irusta & Sagot-Martin, 2011; Santos, 2011; Serrano, 2011; WikiAves, 2016) and for the coast of RJ, SP, SC and RS ( Crozariol, 2011; Santos & Alves, 2011; WikiAves, 2016). It was recorded in September for MT ( Cintra, 2011; d’Horta, 2011) and in May for AP (MPEG).
Calidris fuscicollis (MGT) : breeds in the Canadian Arctic and migrates to wintering areas in Patagonia. It flies from northeastern North America over the Atlantic Ocean to northern South America and reaches the Guianas in late August,where they remain until mid-September.It moves gradually through the northern coast of South America to areas southeast of the mouth of the Amazon River, when it enters the continent and flies for approximately one month until it reaches Paraguay and RS between mid and late October ( Harrington et al., 1991). Some individuals remain during the entire summer in this locality and there are peaks of nearly 7,000 individuals in November and December in Lagoa do Peixe/RS ( Belton, 1994), but the main non-breeding area for this species is in southern Argentina and Chile, where it arrives in mid-September, October and November. During its migration to the most meridional regions of South America, it can fly over the Amazon Basin and other humid areas in the country – using the Pantanal as a stopover area ( Nunes & Tomas, 2008) – before it reaches Lagoa do Peixe/RS and Tierra del Fuego in Argentina ( Barbieri & Paes, 2008). Spring migration starts in late March and early April and seems to be done in long flights. Eventually, it uses Ilha Comprida/ SP as a stopover ground for resting and feeding ( Barbieri & Paes, 2008) on its way to North America, where it likely stops to obtain enough fat reserves to accomplish a direct flight to the Canadian Arctic between late May and mid-June, and then breed ( Harrington et al., 1991). There are records centered in the period between August and May for almost all states in Brazil that are scarce in June and July and restricted to BA, SC and RS (WikiAves, 2016), probably represented by young non-breeding individuals, since some one-year-old shorebirds mostly stay on wintering grounds through their first summer ( Cristol et al., 1999). There is also one museum record for SP in June (MZUSP 2094).
Calidris bairdii (MGT) : breeds in northern North America, departs in mid-August from its breeding grounds to winter in South America, and returns in late June ( Steeves & Holohan, 1995). Its migration occurs especially through the inland, through grasslands in North America, the Rocky Mountains and Andes. Females depart first and are followed by the young ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). Two individuals banded in the USA and Canada were recovered in the estuary of the Amazon River in January and April ( Sick, 1997) and there are also other records for this locality in September ( Melo et al., 2011; Santos et al., 2011). There is evidence that this species uses the Pantanal as a stopover site ( Nunes & Tomas, 2008). Photographic records are restricted to RS, where it is recorded between September and April ( Belton, 1984; Dias, 2011; WikiAves, 2016). There is just one museum record for SP in May (MZUSP 102373).
Calidris melanotos (MGT) : breeds on the northern coast of North America, from western and northern Alaska to northern central Canada, to Hudson Bay, as well as in northwestern Siberia. It migrates south during winter and reaches from southern Bolivia, Paraguay and northern Argentina to southern South America and southeastern Australia and New Zealand ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). Its migration seems to be elliptic because it moves south over the western Atlantic Ocean and returns through central regions of North America. Its wintering area includes the entire Pantanal ( Nunes & Tomas, 2008) and the area south of it, which makes this the second most numerous Nearctic shorebird species in a census taken in these plains ( Morrison et al., 2008). There are photographic records for almost all of Brazil, but records for the northeastern region are quite scarce and restrict- ed to September, October and February. Records in the Amazonian region are restricted to the period between August and December and those in the southeastern and southern regions are distributed from September to April (WikiAves, 2016). Museum records are distribut- ed irregularly across several states but restricted to the period between August and November (MZUSP; MNRJ, MPEG).
Calidris himantopus (MGT) : breeds in northern Alaska east to Victoria Island and west and south to Hudson Bay in Canada. It migrates to South America (northern Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, northern Argentina and Uruguay) in winter and small populations winter in southern USA ( van Gils & Wiersma, 1996). Its flyway seems to go from Venezuela straight to the Upper Amazon and Central Brazil, reaching the Atlantic coast in RS ( Sick, 1997). Females start migrating from the second week of July on, males start a week after, and juveniles only in mid-August. The return flight is over the coast of Colombia and Venezuela. It reaches the USA in April and the breeding areas in Canada in late May. Males arrive two days before females. Some individuals remain in the wintering areas all year round, but they usually migrate in groups as large as hundreds of individuals ( van Gils et al., 2016c). In Brazil, records are centered in the period between September and April and show the presence of this species in Amazonian regions – AM, PA and RO (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP; MPEG) – in southeastern and southern Brazil – RJ, SP, PR, SC and RS –, in the Pantanal – MT and MS –, and in CE, RN and PE in northeastern Brazil (WikiAves, 2016).
Calidris subruficollis (MGT) : breeds in the central and western Arctic and migrates from late July to mid-September to wintering areas in the Southern Hemisphere, which are located mainly in the Pampas in Argentina and Uruguay. In general, it flies non-stop through inland North America and coastal Canadian provinces, crosses the Gulf of Mexico and flies as far as northern South America. It moves inside the continent and has wintering areas in southeastern Bolivia, Paraguay, southern Brazil and northern Argentina ( Piersma et al., 1996). The migration south is probably non-stop and adults depart before juveniles. Some individuals fly over Hudson Bay in Canada and the region of the Great Lakes, and then cross the Atlantic heading south ( van Gils et al., 2016d). Its main wintering area is on the coast of the La Plata Riv- er in the eastern Pampas in Argentina, adjacent to the large lagoon complexes in Uruguay and RS in Brazil. The migration north starts between February and March and is through the central region of South America, across the Gulf of Mexico and central USA and Canada, before reaching the coast of the Arctic in April-May ( Lanctot et al., 2010). In Brazil, there are records between September and April for AC, RO, PA northern Pantanal (MT), and for RJ, SP, PR, SC and RS in (WikiAves, 2016; MPEG; MZUSP).
Phalaropus tricolor (MGT) : breeds in southern Canada and northern USA from May to June and overwinters from northern Peru to Uruguay, reaching as far as Tierra del Fuego. After breeding, adults migrate to the hypersaline Great Lakes in western North America attracted by food abundance for molting and weight gain. Females migrate in mid-June before males, which migrate before juveniles. The species crosses the Pacific and reaches the western coast of South America as far as the Andes. Its main wintering areas are in Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. It returns through high elevations in South America in mid-March, Central America and the Gulf of Mexico. It reaches its breeding areas in late April/early May. It migrates usually at night and in large groups ( van Gils &
Wiersma, 1996). This species is present in Brazil between August and May in GO, MT, MS, MG, RJ, SP, PR, SC and RS, and there is a unique record for MS in July (WikiAves, 2016).
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