Charadriidae, Leach, 1820

Somenzari, Marina, Amaral, Priscilla Prudente do, Cueto, Víctor R., Guaraldo, André de Camargo, Jahn, Alex E., Lima, Diego Mendes, Lima, Pedro Cerqueira, Lugarini, Camile, Machado, Caio Graco, Martinez, Jaime, Nascimento, João Luiz Xavier do, Pacheco, José Fernando, Paludo, Danielle, Prestes, Nêmora Pauletti, Serafini, Patrícia Pereira, Silveira, Luís Fábio, Sousa, Antônio Emanuel Barreto Alves de, Sousa, Nathália Alves de, Souza, Manuella Andrade de, Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues & Whitney, Bret Myers, 2018, An overview of migratory birds in Brazil, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 58, pp. 1-66: 8-9

publication ID 10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.03

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Pluvialis dominica (MGT)   : exhibits an elliptic pattern of migration. After breeding in the tundra of northern Canada and Alaska, it migrates to Hudson and James Bay in August, from where it crosses the Atlantic – on a nonstop flight when climate conditions are favorable ( Wiersma, 1996) – following a costal pathway until it reaches its wintering area in southern South America in early September, namely the Pampas of RS, Paraguay and Argentina, with records of some individuals reaching Tierra del Fuego regularly ( Wiersma, 1996; Morrison et al., 2008). During the non-breeding season from September to April, it was recorded in all Brazilian states except MA, PB, SE, BA and ES (WikiAves, 2016). There are population peaks in October and December on the beaches and lagoons in RS ( Vooren & Chiaradia, 1990; Dias et al., 2011), large numbers of individuals in November and December in the Paraíba do Sul River Valley in SP ( Crozariol, 2011), in the Amazonian region between September and March, presenting peaks in October and November in Manaus/AM and in September and October in RR ( Stotz et al., 1992). The species begins its return to the breeding site between January and April through inland South and Central America ( Sick, 1983; Wiersma, 1996), quickly reaching northern South America, and going from there to southern USA through the grasslands as far as Canada ( Antas, 1987).

Pluvialis squatarola (MGT)   : breeds in the Arctic, in the tundra in northern Canada, Alaska and Russia. It leaves its breeding areas heading south between July and September, and juveniles depart 5 to 6 weeks after adults. In general, this species reaches the coast of Guyana and then the Gulf of Maranhão during fall migration. The return from its wintering areas (coasts of North, Central and South America) occurs between April and mid-May ( Wiersma, 1996). Although there are localized records in November for the Marchantaria and Anavilhanas Islands ( Stotz et al., 1992), most records are associated with coastal areas throughout the Brazilian coast and are centered in the period between September and May (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP; MPEG; MNRJ).There are records in all months of the year for RS, but the species is record- ed mainly from September to April in this state ( Belton, 1994).

Charadrius semipalmatus (MGT)   : departs from breeding sites in Canada between July and September (adults fly before juveniles) and overwinters on the coast and on all major islands from North, Central and South America. It reaches South America between September and early November and returns from April forward. In boreal spring, Delaware Bay, USA is an important stopover area, where around 70% of the population meets to prey on larvae of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus ( Wiersma,1996)   . As part of its pathway,it flies across Brazil from São Luís and the mouth of the Parnaíba River to the Baía de Todos os Santos ( Antas, 1983), reaching the coast of SP in late August and early September, where it remains during spring and the beginning of summer. The number of individuals begins to decrease in mid-April when adults return to the Northern Hemisphere for breeding and only juveniles remain. It is suggested that the municipality of Ilha Comprida/SP is one of the stopover areas for foraging and resting during the return migration to the Northern Hemisphere (April) and to foraging areas in the Southern Hemisphere (September) ( Barbieri et al., 2000). The species appears to be present in Lagoa do Peixe/RS throughout the year, reaching as many as 300 individuals in March ( Belton, 1984). There are records for the Amazon Basin in Macapá/AP, Manaus/AM and PA between September and December ( Stotz et al., 1992; Campos et al., 2008; Cintra et al., 2011; Silva, 2011b; Valente, 2011).

Charadrius modestus (MGT)   : breeds in southern South America, on the Malvinas /Falklands, and departs between March and April to its northern wintering areas, which includes Buenos Aires, Argentina and the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil (as far as RJ), and returns between August and September ( Belton, 1984; Wiersma, 1996; Azpiroz et al., 2012). It apparently exhibits two migratory routes: one over the Pacific and anoth- er over the Atlantic ( Blanco et al., 2004). Records confirm the presence of this species between April and August in RJ, SP, PR, SC and RS ( Cestari, 2008; Ghizoni-Jr. & Azevedo, 2010; Simpson & Simpson, 2011; WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP).

Oreopholus ruficollis (MGT)   : the subspecies O. r. ruficollis   breeds in southern South America, on Chilean coastal islands and in Tierra del Fuego. It migrates in March-April to Ecuador and extreme southern Brazil ( Sick, 1997), reaching RS between May and July ( Belton, 1984) and possibly reaching SC and RJ, and returning to its breeding sites between August and September ( Wiersma et al., 2016). There are records for RJ in May, SC in June and RS from April to August, which confirms this pattern ( Maciel & Blanco, 2014;WikiAves, 2016).