Tyrannidae, Vigors, 1825

Somenzari, Marina, Amaral, Priscilla Prudente do, Cueto, Víctor R., Guaraldo, André de Camargo, Jahn, Alex E., Lima, Diego Mendes, Lima, Pedro Cerqueira, Lugarini, Camile, Machado, Caio Graco, Martinez, Jaime, Nascimento, João Luiz Xavier do, Pacheco, José Fernando, Paludo, Danielle, Prestes, Nêmora Pauletti, Serafini, Patrícia Pereira, Silveira, Luís Fábio, Sousa, Antônio Emanuel Barreto Alves de, Sousa, Nathália Alves de, Souza, Manuella Andrade de, Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues & Whitney, Bret Myers, 2018, An overview of migratory birds in Brazil, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 58, pp. 1-66: 17-19

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http://doi.org/ 10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.03

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Inezia inornata (MGT)   : breeds in Argentina, Paraguay and eastern Bolivia, and has been recorded in Peru, Brazil and northern Bolivia during austral winter ( Fitzpatrick, 2004), when it settles in tropical lowlands that are hot and humid ( Joseph, 1996). Available data about breeding activities are restricted to the presence of birds with enlarged gonads in November in Bolivia ( Fitzpatrick, 2016). It occurs in MT and MS from May to September (MZUSP). There is also a localized banding record for southeastern PA in September (SNA, 2016), and records for RO in July ( Capllonch et al., 2009) and August and in AC from May to August (MPEG). Further studies are necessary to fully comprehend this species’ migratory pattern.

Elaenia chilensis (MGT)   : breeds mainly in southern Argentina and Chile in Patagonia ( Capllonch et al., 2011), but it can also be further north in Chile, for instance in the Fray Jorge Reserve ( Pyle et al., 2015). It migrates north during austral winter, at least in part through the Brazilian coast, but it also seems to fly along the east slope of the Andes ( Marini & Cavalcanti, 1990), reaching northeastern and northern Brazil (Amazon Basin included), Peru,and possibly Colombia,respectively ( Hosner,2016).In Bolivia there are records during the breeding season, but they are probably related to late migrants ( Hosner, 2016).The migration southwards seems to follow a diffuse route from the Amazon to Central Brazil ( Marini & Cavalcanti, 1990). West-central Argentina (e.g., Mendoza and San Juan Provinces) also seems to be part of a spring migration route to Patagonia ( Cueto et al., 2016), and this species reaches its breeding sites in Patagonia in mid-October ( Brown et al., 2007). Geolocation data ( Jiménez et al., 2016) suggested that three individuals banded on Navarino Island in Tierra del Fuego migrated north at the end of February along the eastern coast of South America, stopped for around 10 days on the eastern coast of Brazil, before flying west to wintering grounds in east-central Amazonia, where they arrived between late April and early June. They departed from this site between late September and late October and arrived back at the breeding site between late November and early December ( Jiménez et al., 2016). In Brazil, vocal records and collected specimens corroborate this pattern to the Amazon region (WikiAves, 2016; MPEG). In northeastern Brazil, records include data from the literature and are from February to July (WikiAves, 2016; Ruiz-Esparza et al., 2011; MPEG). In southeastern and southern Brazil,records are centered in February and May ( Pacheco & Gonzaga, 1994; WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP).

Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis (MGT)   : occurs in central and eastern Andes from Colombia to northwestern Argentina and in lowlands in western Paraguay, in addition to occasional records for southeastern Peru, northeastern and eastern Bolivia and extreme southwestern Brazil (MT and MS) ( Grantsau, 2010; Bostwick, 2016). It breeds from December to April in the Bolivian highlands and populations from Bolivia, as well as those from Argentina, migrate along the Andes towards the Amazonian lowlands and the Paraguayan Chaco. It is recorded for the lowlands of Bolivia and Peru only as an austral winter visitor ( Bostwick, 2016). In Brazil, there are records for the coast of PR without precision of date, for a fluvial island in RO in June-July and for the Pantanal in MT and MS in May and September ( Vasconcelos et al., 2008 a). Although there is a lack of museum data, photographic records corroborate a migration during austral winter with records for the central-western region (MT, MS and GO) from May to September.There are two records for RS in December (WikiAves, 2016).

Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris (MGT)   : breeds in central Chile, northern and eastern Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil from September to March and,during the non-breeding season, it migrates to extreme northern Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil, reaching SP and Paraguay (Botswick, 2004a). In Brazil, records corroborate this migratory pattern by showing occurrences between April and September for RS, SC, PR and SP ( Ridgely & Tudor, 1994; Scherer-Neto et al., 2011; WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP 10947 [SP, 1922, June]). However, there is no recent evidence of breeding activity in Brazilian territory.

Serpophaga griseicapilla (MGT)   : breeds in northwestern Argentina and perhaps southern Bolivia. During its non-breeding season, it migrates to Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil ( Cueto et al., 2008; Fjeldså, 2013). A winter visitor in extreme southern Brazil ( Straneck, 1993), first documented in the country in RS in May of 2001 ( Bencke et al., 2002). Photographic records verify its presence in SC in September, and in RS centered in the period between May and September (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP 86172 [RS, 2009, August]), corroborating such a migratory pattern.

Attila phoenicurus (MGT)   : occurs in Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil. It breeds in southern and southeastern Brazil (from RS to southern RJ) and probably in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay ( Walther, 2016). Migrants are recorded from Paraguay, eastern Bolivia, and central Brazil to southern Venezuela during austral winter ( Walther, 2016). In the Brazilian Amazon, it is recorded only during austral winter from May to October ( Ridgely & Tudor, 1994; MZUSP; MPEG), as corroborated by photographic records,museum specimens and banding data, while records for the southeastern and southern regions are centered in the period between October and April ( Belton, 1985; SNA, 2016; WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP; MPEG).

Tyrannus tyrannus (MGT)   : breeds in North America and stays during boreal winter in South America as far as Argentina, especially in the Amazon, and there are some records for the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest ( Sick, 1997; Mobley, 2004f). It reaches the southwestern Amazon in late September, clearly associated to fruit availability ( Antas, 1987). It is seen arriving in great flocks in the Peruvian Amazon in mid-October ( Fitzpatrick, 1980). Its migration to the southern Amazon is fast, after which it migrates north heading to Central America (also following fruit availability), where it arrives in January/February, and migrates back to the North America ( Antas, 1987). According to geolocation data, the species departs from its breeding area in the Great Plains of North America in August or early September, migrates through the Caribbean Sea or through the Gulf of Mexico to the Amazon Basin ( Bolivia and Brazil) – which is a distance of 6,400 km from its breeding area – and arrives there in October, where they remain for around 100 ± 11 days. After this period, it flies to a second wintering area in northwestern South America ( Colombia, Ecuador and Peru), where it remains for 75 ± 12 days before returning to its breeding site in April ( Jahn et al., 2013a). There are records for AM and AC between October and March ( Almeida, 2011a, b; Guilherme & Aleixo, 2011; WikiAves, 2016; MPEG), for AC, AM, MT, MS and RJ between November and February, and for RR in October and PR in November (WikiAves, 2016; MZUSP; MPEG). Museum records for PA are widely distributed from April to December (MPEG) and need to be better understood.

Empidonax alnorum (MGT)   : breeds from western Alaska to British Columbia, Canada and the USA and overwinters in western South America in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, northern and eastern Bolivia, northern Argentina and western Brazil ( Farnsworth & Lebbin, 2004a). In Brazilian territory there are records for PA in February, AM in December and April, the Pantanal in MS in November ( Vasconcelos et al., 2008; MPEG) and AC from October to March (WikiAves, 2016; MPEG).

Contopus cooperi (MGT)   : occurs from Alaska, across Canada, the USA and Mexico to the Amazonian region in Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil including its southeastern region ( Farnsworth & Lebbin, 2004b). It is a nocturnal migrant that flies great distances through the forests in western North and Central America and overwinters (boreal) in South and Central America. It departs from its breeding site in North America between August and September, reaches South America in October-November, and departs again in March-April ( Altman & Sallabanks, 2000; Farnsworth & Lebbin,2004f). In Brazil, there are records of a population from October to April for western Amazonia (in RR,AC, AM, PA and MT), and of another for the Atlantic Forest south of the São Francisco River in BA, ES, RJ, SP and PR (WikiAves, 2016).

Contopus virens (MGT)   : breeds in Canada and the USA in August and September, overwinters in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia and western Brazil, occasionally remaining further north ( Costa Rica), and returns in April ( Farnsworth & Lebbin, 2004c). It remains during winter in Brazil ( Sick, 1997) and there are photographic records for AC, AM, RO, MT and GO between October and May (WikiAves, 2016), which corroborates available literature records for AM from November to April ( Almeida, 2011a, b; Costa et al., 2011) and museum data from November to March for AC, AM, RO (MPEG).

Lessonia rufa (MGT)   : breeds in central Chile and Argentina and migrates north, dispersing along the coast and then into the lowlands of the continent. It overwinters in northern Chile, southern and eastern Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil ( Farnsworth & Lebbin, 2004d), and there are records for SP ( Silva-e-Silva & Olmos, 2007), PR ( Bornschein et al., 1997), SC (Azevedo & Ghizoni-Jr., 2005) and RS ( Belton, 1985; Bencke, 2001). According to photographic records, it is present in RS from January to September, in SC in February and in SP in September (WikiAves, 2016). Museum records are restricted in July (MZUSP).

Xolmis coronatus (MGT)   : breeds in central Argentina and migrates north to central Bolivia, western Paraguay, Uruguay and extreme southern Brazil (western RS) ( Farnsworth & Langham, 2004a; Cueto et al., 2008). Some breeding populations migrate to winter in tropical latitudes, while others overwinter in south temperate latitudes ( Jahn et al., 2004). It seems to be present in RS from May to August ( Belton, 1985), which is confirmed by photographic records for this state between April and September, and there is also a record of a possible vagrant for SP in May (WikiAves, 2016). There is only one museum record in RS in July (MZUSP 8829).