Thraupidae, Cabanis, 1847

Somenzari, Marina, Amaral, Priscilla Prudente do, Cueto, Víctor R., Guaraldo, André de Camargo, Jahn, Alex E., Lima, Diego Mendes, Lima, Pedro Cerqueira, Lugarini, Camile, Machado, Caio Graco, Martinez, Jaime, Nascimento, João Luiz Xavier do, Pacheco, José Fernando, Paludo, Danielle, Prestes, Nêmora Pauletti, Serafini, Patrícia Pereira, Silveira, Luís Fábio, Sousa, Antônio Emanuel Barreto Alves de, Sousa, Nathália Alves de, Souza, Manuella Andrade de, Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues & Whitney, Bret Myers, 2018, An overview of migratory birds in Brazil, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 58, pp. 1-66: 42

publication ID 10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.03

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Rhopospina fruticeti (VAG)   : occurs in Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina ( Jaramillo, 2011e). In Brazil, it is considered vagrant and there are only two records of this species, both for RS: one female found dead in the Highway BR 471 in Banhado do Taim in 1971 ( Grantsau, 2002), and one individual seen in Vila Operária de Candiota in August 1997 ( Bencke, 2001). Photographic records for the north coast of RS (WikiAves, 2016) are also of individuals brought to Brazil by ships (i.e., “ship-assisted”).

Conothraupis speculigera (VAG)   : departs from the Andes region (especially from Peru to Ecuador) after the breeding season between June and November, moving with the rainfall regime ( Sick, 1997) to Amazonian lowlands ( Lebbin, 2005). The movement pattern and routes of this species in the Amazon Basin are not known ( Hilty, 2011). In Brazil, there are documented records only for AC during austral winter ( Whittaker & Oren, 1999; Guilherme, 2007; MPEG).

Hedyglossa diuca (VAG)   : occurs in Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil, but records in the country exist only for western RS, where four specimens were collected in June 1914 in the region of Uruguaiana ( Belton, 1994). It is mainly resident, but the subspecies H. d. minor   is partially migratory ( Jaramillo, 2011f). In Brazil, it is considered vagrant and there are no available photographic records (WikiAves, 2016).

Tiaris obscurus (VAG)   : occurs from the region of the Andes in western Venezuela south as far as northwestern Argentina ( Rising, 2011). It is resident in a large part of its distribution, but it may move altitudinally from the Andes to lowlands after breeding ( Rising, 2011). Migratory movements are still little known, but records in Brazil suggest that this species overwinters in the regions of Chiquitano and Pantanal ( Whittaker & Carlos, 2004; Vasconcelos et al., 2008 a). There are no photographic records of this species in the national territory (WikiAves, 2016).

Saltatricula multicolor (VAG)   : occurs in Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay ( Brewer, 2011). In Brazil, it has been photographed in multiple occasions in May, July and August 2013 in Uruguaiana/RS, and in Porto Murtinho/MS in August 2015 ( Bellagamba et al., 2013;WikiAves, 2016).

Piranga olivacea (VAG)   : breeds in Canada and the USA, and overwinters in northwestern South America, especially in the Amazon Basin in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and western Brazil ( Hilty, 2011).Its presence in the national territory is localized: there are two records for Manaus/AM in December ( Stotz et al., 1992) and two oth- er recent photographic records for AM in October and November, and three for AC in March (WikiAves, 2016) and December (MPEG 52253).

Spiza Americana (VAG)   : breeds in Canada and the USA; migrates to Central America and northern South America during winter as far as the central Amazon in Brazil. It has been recorded for RR with a single photographic record in March ( Sick, 1997; Orenstein, 2011), and for AM in September (WikiAves, 2016).

Carduelis carduelis (VAG)   : occurs in Europe, Asia and northern Africa. It has been introduced in the USA and in Australia ( Clement et al., 2010). In Brazil, this species has been recorded in RS since 1994, probably originating from the geographical expansion of a resident population in Uruguay, which was also introduced in this country (FZBRS, 2013).