Neocypholaelaps kreiteri , Narita, João Paulo Z., Pédelabat, Marie & De Moraes, Gilberto J., 2013

Narita, João Paulo Z., Pédelabat, Marie & De Moraes, Gilberto J., 2013, A new species of Neocypholaelaps Vitzthum (Acari: Ameroseiidae), with notes on the cheliceral lobes and ventral pore-like structures of mites of this family, Zootaxa 3666 (1), pp. 1-15: 2-13

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3666.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AE1AFD52-AC03-4F45-83B2-0AB2D30637E1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AE9160-344F-8C5C-AD8A-2ADE881AC0F5

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scientific name

Neocypholaelaps kreiteri
status

n. sp.

Neocypholaelaps kreiteri  n. sp.

Diagnosis. Female with dorsal shield totally reticulate, with reticula formed by simple lines; with 29 pairs of setae, none of which inserted on tubercles, all stout and barbed, with j 1 broader and leaf-shaped. Sternal shield wider than long, bearing setae st 1 and st 2; st 3 and st 4 on unsclerotised cuticle. Seta Jv 4 about 0.8 times as long as Jv 5. Peritreme almost reaching level of j 1. Male with j 1 leaf-shaped and barbed; J 4 stout and barbed; Z 2, Z 4, Z 5, s 4 – s 6, S 2 – S 5, r 2 – r 5 stout, barbed and broader distally; other setae setiform and smooth; J 2 well anteriad of J 4; with a circular lobe on soft cuticle near s 6, followed by a stippled band along dorsal shield margin; with a pair of small lobes posterior of J 4; femur IV and genu IV bearing a disto-dorso-posterolateral spine.

Adult female ( Figs 1–8View FIGURES 1 – 8) (5 specimens measured).

Gnathosoma: Fixed cheliceral digit 28 (25–30) long, with a subapical tooth and a membranous lobe attached antiaxially to the digit; movable cheliceral digit 23 (20–25) long, only with apical tooth ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 8). Antiaxial and dorsal lyrifissures of median cheliceral segment distinct; dorsal seta absent. Epistome ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 8) with anterior margin truncate and denticulate, with two rows of denticles immediately posterior to it. Palp apotele 2 -tined. Deutosternum narrow; transverse rows of denticles not discernible ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 8). Hypostome with two pairs of rows of denticles laterad of deutosternal margin, one posterior to sc and running across most of the region between deutosternum and margin of hypostome, the second between sc and h 2, much shorter than the first. Corniculi undivided, subparallel to each other, each superposed by a membranous lobe whose bases are partially overlapped by a shorter central lobe.

Dorsal idiosoma ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 8): Dorsal shield entire, totally reticulate; reticula formed by simple lines; 403 (395– 410) long and 270 (260–280) wide at level of s 6; with 29 pairs of setae, apparently seven pairs of pores (posterolaterad of j 2; anteromesad of z 4; posteromesad of z 5; posterolaterad of z 6; posteromesad of r 4; posteromesad of S 3, posteromesad of S 5) and 14 pairs of lyrifissures (posterolaterad of j 1; posterolaterad of s 2; anteromesad of r 5; anteromesad of z 6; anterolaterad of J 2; posterolaterad of J 2; mesad of Z 1; posterolaterad of Z 2; anterolaterad of S 2; posterolaterad of J 4; anteromesad of Z 5; posterolaterad of Z 5; anterolaterad of S 4; anterolaterad of S 5). Seta j 1 leaf-shaped and barbed; other dorsal setae stout and barbed; according to the position of the setae in the mounted specimens, barbs of setae j 4 – j 6 not always clearly seen. Measurements of setae as in Table 1.

Ventral idiosoma ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 – 8): Base of tritosternum 10 long and 16 wide; laciniae fused along basal one-third of their total length (80 long). Sternal shield smooth, 69 (62-75) long at midline and 83 (80–85) wide at level of st 2, bearing two pairs of setae (st 1 and st 2) and two pairs of lyrifissures (iv 1, iv 2). Setae st 3 and st 4 on unsclerotised cuticle. Third pair of lyrifissures (iv 3) posteromesad to st 3. Genital shield smooth, 79 (75–83) wide at the widest level, slightly convex posteriorly, bearing st 5; with a pair of pores (gv 2, anterior; see remarks) and a pair of lyrifissures (iv 5, posterior) on unsclerotised cuticle postero-laterad of st 5. Anal shield smooth and oval, 97 (93– 100) long at midline and 115 (110–120) wide at the widest level; with a curved transverse line immediately anterior to cribrum. Opisthogastric setae (Jv 1 – Jv 5, Zv 2) on unsclerotised cuticle. With a sclerotised transverse line immediately posterior of margin of genital shield. Opisthogaster with five pairs of lyrifissures and a pair of elongate metapodal platelets. Unsclerotised opisthogastric cuticle striate; striae without granulation. Setae Jv 4 and Jv 5 stout and barbed; other ventral idiosomal setae setiform and smooth; Jv 4 about 0.8 times as long as Jv 5.

Remnants of endopodal shield represented by a triangular platelet between coxae II and III, and a narrow, curved platelet between coxae III and IV. Exopodal shields of irregular width, with projections between coxae II and III and coxae III and IV. Measurements of setae as in Table 2.

Peritreme and peritrematal shield ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1 – 8): Peritreme almost reaching level of j 1. Peritrematal shield narrow, fused to dorsal shield at level of j 2, to each other anteriorly and to exopodal shield behind stigma; with a large pore at level of coxa III (gd 3 of Athias-Henriot, 1975; gp 2 of Lindquist & Moraza, 2009) surrounded by a stippled region that probably corresponds to muscle insertion (see Athias-Henriot, 1975); with two lyrifissures behind stigma.

Spermathecal apparatus ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1 – 8): Induction pore apparently at postero-proximal region of coxa III; tubuli fusing before entering sacculus by a ca. 50 long common duct.

Legs: All legs with pulvilli and claws ( Fig 8View FIGURES 1 – 8). Lengths of legs: I— 360 (340–370), II— 302 (290–315), III— 318 (310–330), IV— 407 (390–440). Chaetotaxy of legs I –IV: coxae: 2, 2, 2, 1; trochanters: 6, 5, 5, 5; femora: 12 (2-3 / 1, 2 / 2 - 2), 10 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 2 - 1), 6 (1-2 / 1, 1 / 0-1), 6 (1-2 / 1, 1 / 0-1); genua: 12 (2-3 / 2, 2 / 1-2), 11 (2-3 / 1, 2 / 1-2), 9 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1), 9 (2 - 2 / 1, 3 / 0-1); tibiae: 12 (2-3 / 2, 2 / 1-2), 10 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1-2), 8 (2 - 1 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1), 9 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1); tarsi: not counted, 17, 17, 17. Posterior seta of coxa II and dorsal setae of femur, genu and tibia of all legs stout and barbed; other setae setiform and smooth.

Adult male ( Figs 9–12View FIGURES 9 – 12) (5 specimens measured).

Gnathosoma ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 9 – 12): Fixed cheliceral digit 25 long, with a subapical tooth; membranous lobe not possible to see in the available specimens; movable cheliceral digit 22 long, only with apical tooth. Spermatodactyl 50 long, slightly curved downward and then expanded, distal portion expanded but acuminate at the tip. Epistome, hypostome, corniculi and apotele similar to female.

Dorsal idiosoma ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 9 – 12): Dorsal shield entire and mostly reticulate, with a smooth band between j 1 and j 6; 391–475 long and 310–400 wide at level of s 6; with 29 pairs of setae, apparently seven pairs of pores (posterolaterad of j 2; anteromesad of z 4; posterolaterad of z 5; anteriad of s 5; anteromesad of Z 1; anterolaterad of S 4; posteromesad of S 5) and 12 pairs of lyrifissures (posterolaterad of j 1; anteromesad of r 2; anterolaterad of s 5; posteromesad of s 6; posterolaterad of s 6; mesad of Z 1; laterad of S 2; posterolaterad of J 2; posterolaterad of J 4; anterolaterad of S 4; anterolaterad of S 5; posterolaterad of Z 5). Setae j 1 leaf-shaped and barbed; setae J 4 stout and barbed; Z 2, Z 4, Z 5, s 4 – s 6, S 2 – S 5, r 2 – r 5 stout, barbed and broader distally; other setae setiform and smooth; setae J 2 well anteriad of J 4. Shield with a circular lobe on soft cuticle near s 6, followed by a stippled band along margin of dorsal shield, from region between s 6 and S 2 to region between S 3 and S 4, and a pair of small lobes posteriad of J 4. Measurements of setae as in Table 1.

Ventral idiosoma ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 9 – 12): Base of tritosternum 8 long and 15 wide; laciniae fused along basal one-third of their total length (60 long). Sternogenital shield smooth, subrectangular, constricted behind st 2, with posterior half roundish; 212 (205–218) long, 93 (88–98) wide at level of st 2 and 105 (100–110) wide at level of st 3, bearing five pairs of setae (st 1 – st 5) and three pairs of lyrifissures (iv 1 –iv 3). Unsclerotised cuticle postero-laterad of st 5 with a pore (gv 2) followed by a lyrifissure (iv 5) on each side. Anal shield smooth and oval, 108 (100–115) long and 135 (130–140) wide at the widest level; with curved transverse line immediately anterior to cribrum; Opisthogastric setae (Jv 1 –Jv 5, Zv 2) on unsclerotised cuticle. Opisthogaster with three pairs of lyrifissures, a pair of metapodal platelets immediately posteriad of tip of peritrematic shield and a pair of subrectangular platelets posterolaterad of Jv 2. Unsclerotised opisthogastric cuticle striate; striae without granulation. Setae Jv 4 and Jv 5 stout and barbed; other ventral idiosomal setae setiform and smooth. Remnants of endopodal shield represented by an elongate platelet next to coxa I, an L-shaped platelet between coxae II –III, an ellipsoid platelet between coxae III and IV and an elongate, straight platelet next to coxa IV. Exopodal shield similar to female. Measurements of setae as in Table 2.

Peritreme and peritrematal shield: Similar to female.

Legs ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 9 – 12): All legs with pulvilli and claws. Lengths of legs: I— 390 (375–405), II— 315 (290–340), III— 345 (305–395), IV— 505 (435–575). Chaetotaxy of legs similar to female. Femur, genu and tibia IV with two to three pore-like structures on dorsal surface. Femur and genu IV each with a disto-dorso-posterolateral spine. Shape of setae similar to female.

Deutonymph ( Figs 13–14View FIGURES 13 – 14) (3 specimens measured).

Gnathosoma: Fixed cheliceral digit 26 (23–28) long with a subapical tooth and an antiaxial membranous lobe; movable cheliceral digit 23 (20–25) long, only with apical tooth. Epistome, hypostome, corniculi and apotele similar to female.

Dorsal idiosoma ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 13 – 14): Dorsal shield entire, totally reticulate; reticula formed by simple lines; 348 (315– 380) long and 253 (215–290) wide at level of s 6; with 29 pairs of setae, apparently six pairs of pores (posterolaterad of j 2; posterolaterad of j 4; posteromesad of z 5; anteromesad of r 5; anteromesad of Z 1; posteromesad of S 3) and four pairs of lyrifissures (posterolaterad of j 1; posterolaterad of s 6; anterolaterad of S 4; mesad of S 5). Seta j 1 leaf-shaped and barbed; setae j 2 – j 6, J 2, z 2, z 4 – z 6, Z 1, s 1 – s 2, s 4 setiform and smooth; other setae stout and barbed. Measurements of setae provided in Table 1.

Ventral idiosoma ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 13 – 14): Base of tritosternum 10 long and 15 wide; laciniae fused along basal one-third of their total length (60 long). Sternal shield smooth, subrectangular, constricted behind st 2; 185 (165–205) long at midline and 82 (80–83) wide at level of st 3, bearing five pairs of setae (st 1 – st 5) and three pairs of lyrifissures (iv 1 – iv 3). Unsclerotised cuticle postero-laterad of st 5 with a pore (gv 2; lateral) followed by a lyrifissure (iv 5; mesal) on each side. Anal shield smooth and oval, 54 (44–73) long at midline and 65 (50–80) wide at the widest level; cribrum distinct near posterior margin of anal shield. Opisthogastric setae (Jv 1 – Jv 5, Zv 2) on unsclerotised cuticle. Opisthogaster with two pairs of lyrifissures. Unsclerotised opisthogastric cuticle striate; striae without granulation. Setae Jv 5 stout and barbed other ventral idiosomal setae setiform and smooth. Measurements of setae as in Table 2.

Peritreme and peritrematal shield: Peritreme reaching level of j 2. With a large pore at level of coxa III surrounded by a stippled region, as reported.

Legs: All legs with pulvilli and claws. Lengths of legs: I— 282 (253–310), II— 253 (235–271), III— 271 (245– 296), IV— 323 (245–380). Chaetotaxy of legs I –IV: same as female. Setal shape similar to female.

Protonymph ( Figs 15–16View FIGURES 15 – 18) (3 specimens measured).

Gnathosoma: Fixed cheliceral digit 27 (23–31) long, with a subapical tooth and an antiaxial membranous lobe; movable cheliceral digit 19 (18–21) long, only with apical tooth. Epistome, hypostome, corniculi and apotele similar to female.

Dorsal idiosoma ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 15 – 18): Dorsal shield entire, smooth; 264 (255–273) long and 179 (168–190) wide at level of s 6; with 25 pairs of setae, apparently with five pairs of pores (posterolaterad of j 2; anteromesad of z 4; posterolaterad of s 4; posteromesad of S 3; posteromesad of S 4) and a pair of lyrifissures (anteromesad of Z 1). Seta j 1 stout and barbed; J 4, Z 2, Z 4, Z 5 and S 2 – S 5 stout and barbed; other dorsal setae setiform and smooth. Measurements of setae as in Table 1.

Ventral idiosoma ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 15 – 18): Base of tritosternum 9 long and 11 wide; laciniae fused along basal one-third of their total length (53 long). Sternal shield smooth, very lightly sclerotised, 116 (100–132) long at midline and 68 (65–70) wide at level of st 2, bearing three pairs of setae (st 1 – st 3); unsclerotised cuticle postero-laterad immediately posterior to sternal shield with a pore (gv 2; lateral) and a lyrifissure (iv 5; mesal) on each side. Anal shield smooth 45 (40–50) long at midline and 51 (48–54) wide at the widest level; cribrum distinct around post-anal seta. Opisthogastric setae (Jv 1, Jv 2, Jv 5 and Zv 2) on unsclerotised cuticle. Opisthogaster with two pairs of lyrifissures. Unsclerotised opisthogastric cuticle striate; striae without granulation. Setae Jv 5 stout and lightly barbed other ventral idiosomal setae setiform and smooth. Measurements of setae as in Table 2.

Peritreme and peritrematal shield: Peritreme reaching level between r 2 and r 3. With a large pore at level of coxa III as reported for female.

Legs: All legs with pulvilli and claws. Lengths of legs: I— 242 (237–250), II— 218 (210–225), III— 218 (211– 225), IV— 255 (250–260). Chaetotaxy of legs I –IV: coxae: 2, 2, 2, 1; trochanters: 4, 4, 4, 4; femora: 10 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1- 2), 10 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 2 - 1), 6 (1-2 / 1, 1 / 0-1), 6 (1-2 / 1, 1 / 0-1); genua: 12 (2-3 / 2, 2 / 1-2), 11 (2-3 / 1, 2 / 1-2), 9 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1), 9 (2 - 2 / 1, 3 / 0-1); tibiae: 12 (2-3 / 2, 2 / 1-2), 10 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1-2), 8 (2 - 1 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1), 9 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1); tarsi: not counted, 15, 15, 15.

Larva ( Figs 17–18View FIGURES 15 – 18) (3 specimens measured).

Gnathosoma: Fixed cheliceral digit 17 long, not possible to determine whether there is a tooth close to the apical tooth; with an antiaxial membranous lobe; movable cheliceral digit 16 long, only with apical tooth. Epistome with anterior margin truncate but smooth and with a single row of denticles immediately posterior to it. Apotele and corniculi similar to female.

Dorsal idiosoma ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 15 – 18): Podonotal region and region between S 4 and S 5 punctate; dorsal shield margins indistinct; with 16 pairs of setae, apparently with a pair of pores anterolaterad of S 4 and no distinguishable lyrifissures. Seta j 1 stout and barbed; other dorsal setae setiform and smooth. Measurements of setae as in Table 1.

Ventral idiosoma ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 15 – 18): Base of tritosternum 3 long and 9 wide; laciniae fused along basal one-third of their total length (46 long). Sternal shield lightly sclerotised, punctate, bearing only setae st 1 – st 3. Opisthogastric setae (Jv 1, Jv 2, Jv 3 and Zv 2) on unsclerotised cuticle. Opisthogaster with a pair of lyrifissures. All ventral setae setiform and smooth. Measurements of setae provided in Table 2.

Legs: All legs with pulvilli and claws. Lengths of legs: I— 213 (212–214), II— 197 (193–200), III— 198 (191– 205). Chaetotaxy of legs I –IV: coxae: 2, 2, 2; trochanters: 4, 4, 4; femora: 10 (2 - 2 / 1, 2 / 1-2), 7 (1-2 / 1, 2 / 0-1), 5 (1-2 / 1, 1 /0-0); genua: 8 (1-2 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1), 6 (1-2 / 0, 2 / 0-1), 6 (1-2 / 0, 2 / 0-1); tibiae: 8 (1-2 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1), 7 (1 - 1 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1), 7 (1 - 1 / 1, 2 / 1 - 1); tarsi: not counted, 13, 13 ..

Type specimens. All type specimens collected from inflorescences of Cocos  nucifera L. on La Réunion Island, by G.J. de Moraes and S. Kreiter. Holotype female collected on March 2, 2011; 26 adult paratype females, 12 paratype males, 6 paratype deutonymphs, 6 paratype protonymphs and 8 paratype larvae were collected on March 2 and 12, 2011. Of these, holotype female, 16 paratype females, 7 paratype males, 3 paratype deutonymphs, 2 paratype protonymphs and 4 paratype larvae deposited at Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil (ESALQ—USP); remaining specimens deposited at SupAgro INRA Acarology Collection, Montpellier, France.

Other specimens examined. A further 48 adult females, 9 adult males, 5 deutonymphs, 1 protonymph and 1 larva, with the same collection data as type specimens; all deposited at ESALQ—USP.

Etymology. This new species is named in honor of Prof. Dr. Serge Kreiter, SupAgro, France, for the excellent contribution he has given to acarology.

Remarks. The stippled band on the dorsal shield, between setae s 6, S 2, S 3, S 4, together with the spurs found on leg IV, corresponds to what was referred to a “stridulating organ” by Evans (1955), who considered that males of N. stridulans  could use it to produce a courtship sound. Neocypholaelaps kreiteri  is most similar to N. stridulans  and N. cocos  , whole adult males have the “stridulating organ” of Evans (1955). However, in adult males of those species, the setae mentioned as J 2 and J 4 are nearly in a transverse line, whereas in N. kreiteri  , J 2 (as interpreted in this publication) is well anteriad of J 4. Evans (1963) considered the stouter of those setae to be J 2, most probably because of their slightly anterior insertion in the relation to the much shorter, setiform and slightly lateral setae then interpreted as J 4, and because in males of some other species of the same genus, as in Neocypholaelaps ampullula (Berlese, 1910)  , redescribed in that same paper, J 2 is stout and longer than the posterior J 4. In males of N. kreiteri  the anterior of these setae (J 2) is setiform, much shorter and slightly closer together than the posterior, stouter setae (J 4).

Adults of both sexes of N. kreiteri  differ from those of N. stridulans  by the pattern of the dorsal shield, which in N. stridulans  is composed of a polygonal network of double punctate lines enclosing punctate cells; adult females of N. kreiteri  have st 3 on unsclerotised cuticle, which in N. stridulans  is placed on platelets. Adult females of N. kreiteri  further differ from adult females of N. cocos  by the shape of several dorsal shield setae. All adult females of N. kreiteri  have dorsal shield reticulate and all dorsal shield setae stout and barbed, although depending on the orientation of the specimens, barbs of setae j 4 – j 6 are not always clearly seen. Neocypholaelaps cocos  was originally described by Evans (1963) from specimens collected in Solomon Islands; it was also reported by Halliday (1997) from Australia. Adult females of this species were mentioned in the original description to have dorsal shield ornamented with polygonal network of simple lines, setae s 1, s 2, i 2 – i 5, z 1 – z 3, r 3, J 2 and Z 2 setiform and smooth and other setae stout and strongly serrated. Judging from the illustrations given in the original description, the author was seemingly referring to j 2, z 2, j 3, j 4, j 5, j 6, z 4, z 5, z 6, s 2, J 2, Z 1 as interpreted in this paper, and he apparently did not mention his r 2, interpreted as s 1 in this paper, which was also illustrated as setiform and smooth in the original description. Halliday (1997) mentioned from the Australian specimens identified as N. cocos  to have unornamented dorsal shield; he repeated the information given in the original description in relation to the shape of the dorsal shield setae, although mixing the setal terminology used in the original description with the terminology of Lindquist & Evans (1965).

The key provided by Moraes & Narita (2010) and modified by Narita et al. (2011) could be again modified to allow the separation of this new species from the other Neocypholaelaps  , by including a new couplet 8 b between couplets 8 a and 9 of Narita et al. (2011) and by modifying couplet 8 a as follows:

8 a. Setae j 2 – J 2, z 1 – Z 1, s 1 and s 2 slender and smooth; ornamentation of dorsal shield consisting of a polygonal network of simple lines enclosing smooth cells................................................ Neocypholaelaps cocos Evans, 1963  - All dorsal shield setae stout and barbed (except j 1, leaf-shaped and barbed); ornamentation of dorsal shield consisting of a polygonal network of simple lines enclosing smooth cells or of double punctate lines enclosing punctate cells.......... 8 b 8 b. Ornamentation of dorsal shield consisting of a polygonal network of simple lines enclosing smooth cells; st 3 on unsclerotised cuticle.......................................................................... Neocypholaelaps kreiteri  - Ornamentation of dorsal shield consisting of a polygonal network of double punctate lines enclosing punctate cells; st 3 on platelet............................................................................................. 9 Notes on ameroseiid cheliceral lobes

Evans (1963) was probably the first author to refer to the presence of a lobe in the fixed cheliceral digit of Mesostigmata  . While presenting a characterisation of Neocypholaelaps Vitzthum  , he referred to this structure as a transparent lobed appendage, suggesting that it could represent a modified pilus dentilis. That interpretation was probably related to the fact that when present both of these structures are located on the abaxial face of the digit and because the presence of the former in Neocypholaelaps  was related to the absence of the latter, a common structure in other Mesostigmata  . He mentioned the lobe to be present in all post-embryonic stages, and in both sexes, despite being smaller in males. In that publication, he illustrated smaller lobe in adult males than in adult females of the N. ampullula (Berlese)  and N. stridulans (Evans)  . The smaller lobe in adult males has also been reported in the original descriptions or redescriptions ( Baker & Delfinado-Baker, 1985; Delfinado-Baker & Baker, 1983; Ishikawa, 1968; Moraes & Narita, 2010, Silva et al., in press) of the following Neocypholaelaps  species: N. apicola, Baker & Delfinado-Baker, N.  ceylonicus Narita & Moraes, N. favus  Ishikawa, N. geonomae Moraes & Narita  and N. phooni Baker & Delfinado-Baker. 

The shape of the lobe may vary slightly between specimens of the same species, suggesting they not be sclerotised. In addition to the new species here described, lobes are known to be present in the following Neocypholaelaps  species, based on their original descriptions or redescriptions ( Baker & Delfinado-Baker, 1985; Bhattacharyya, 1971; Delfinado-Baker & Baker, 1983; Elsen, 1972; Evans, 1963; Gupta, 1969; Moraes & Narita, 2010; Narita et al. 2011): N. ampullula  , N. apicola  , N. breviperitremata Elsen, N.  ceylonicus, N. cocos Evans, N.  geonomae, N. indica Evans, N.  leopoldi Elsen, N. novaehollandiae Evans, N.  phooni Baker & Delfinado-Baker, N. pradhani Gupta, N.  stridulans and N. xylocopae Elsen. Available  information does not allow the determination of the possible presence of the lobe in the remaining species of this genus — N. capitis Elsen, N.  crocisae Elsen, N. favus  Ishikawa, N. hongkongensis  Mo, N. malayensis Delfinado-Baker, Baker & Phoon, N.  nova Elsen, N. rotundus (Womersley)  and N. varipilosa Elsen. 

Membranous lobes are also illustrated or mentioned in the original descriptions or redescriptions of the following ameroseiid species: Afrocypholaelaps  Elsen— A. africana (Evans)  , A. analicullus  Ho, Ma, Wang & Severinghaus and A. lindquisti (Prasad)  ; Brontispalaelaps  Womersley— B. marianneae Halliday  ; Epicriopsis  Berlese— E. stellata  Ishikawa and E. walteri Halliday  ; Hattena  Domrow— H. cometis Domrow, H.  floricola Halliday, H. incisa Halliday  and H. rhizophorae Faraji & Cornejo  ; and Sertitympanum Elsen  & Whitaker— S. separationis Elsen & Whitaker. Nothing  has been reported in the literature in relation to the possible presence of membranous lobes in B. leveri Womersley  , but an examination of specimens from Thailand identified as this species could not show the presence of this structure. Membranous lobes have not been mentioned or illustrated in males of any of these species, not even in the detailed scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of H. cometis  by Di Palma et al. (2013). Available information does not allow a conclusive statement about the presence of the lobe in mites of the larger ameroseiid genus, Ameroseius Berlese  , but a prominent lobe is present in A. dendrovagans Flechtmann & Flechtmann. Illustrations  of the following species suggest it may be present: A. avium Karg, A.  bassolsae (Vargas & Polaco), A. corbicula (Sowerby)  , A. coronarius De Leon, A.  macrochelae Westerboer, A. marginalis Fan  & Li and A. wahabi (Ibrahim & Abdel-Samed)  . In all of those species, the lobe seems to be less evident, and seemingly more ridge like, extending along the inner edge of the fixed cheliceral digit, than the lobes of species of the previously mentioned genera (except Sertitympanum  ). Among these species, a distinct cheliceral lobe in the male fixed cheliceral digit was illustrated only for A. dendrovagans  . However, we were not able to see that structure in our examination of three adult males of this species labeled as paratypes. A conclusion about the possible presence of cheliceral lobes in other species would require the examination of representative specimens, given that the structure could have been overlooked because of the inadequate position of the chelicera in the mounted type specimens or because of its difficult visualisation.

Flange-like expansions attached to the fixed cheliceral digit have also been reported in many other Mesostigmata  of the suborder Gamasina  . These are often simply referred to as lobes, or as membranous lobes, transparent lobed appendages, transparent lobes, hyaline lobes or hyaline flaps (Evans, 1963; Lindquist & Evans, 1965; Flechtmann & McMurtry, 1992; Halliday et al., 1998).

In a revision of the Gamasina  group then interpreted as Ascidae, Lindquist & Evans (1965)  pointed out the presence of a membranous lobe, transparent lobe or flaplike appendage (and the absence of pilus dentilis) in the species they then placed in the Melicharini, as well as the presence of a small proximal flap (in addition to the pilus dentilis) on the movable cheliceral digit of species of Antennoseius Berlese  , of the Ascini. The Melicharini were recently raised to the family level ( Melicharidae  ) by Lindquist et al. (2009). An examination of the original descriptions and redescriptions of species of this family showed the presence of a membranous lobe in almost all species for which details about the chelicerae are available; the only species presently placed in this group that instead of the lobe are known to have setiform pilus dentilis are the Orthadenella Athias-Henriot  and a few Proctolaelaps Berlese. 

Flechtmann & McMurtry (1992) studied the occurrence of membranous lobes in Phytoseiidae  . They mentioned that these structures are apparently soft and delicate, having a wide variation in size, shape and position between species, even within a same genus. They studied 15 species of eight genera, noticing that at one extreme, some species had rudimentary lobes, positioned at the base of the fixed digit, whereas in the other extreme, other species had large lobes. In all cases, however, the pilus dentilis was also present.

Absence, presence or variations in shape of the membranous lobe of the ameroseiids, as well as in other Mesostigmata  , are expected to be related to differences in their feeding habits.

In melicharids, while many species seem to be mainly flower inhabitants ( Rhinoseius  , Spadiseius  , Tropicoseius  , Xanthippe Naskrecki & Colwell  and some Proctolaelaps  ), a few have been reported mainly from sweet substrates ( Melichares Hering  ) and some are particularly adapted in several aspects to feeding on fungi ( Mycolaelaps  ). Members of the largest genus of this family ( Proctolaelaps  ) occupy various niches; some are also commonly found in flowers or on hummingbirds (presumably dispersing between flowers), but most are found in places where fungi are abundant, suggesting that they could be fungus feeders. Membranous lobes are observed in species of this genus presenting different feeding habits. Proctolaelalps bickleyi Bram and Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr.  are examples of species that have membranous lobes, and under laboratory condition can feed on different substrates. According to Flechtmann (1976), the former species is able to develop and reproduce when feeding on fungus. Those species were shown to be able to develop and reproduce well offered an Eriophyidae  mite or a fungus species as food sources, but not when offered pollen (Lawson-Balagbo et al., 2007; Galvão et al., 2011). Little is known about the feeding habits of members of the remaining genera of Melicharidae  .

For the phytoseiids, the results of Flechtmann & McMurtry (1992) did not allow them to establish a relationship between food habits and cheliceral morphology. However, all of the species known to have a preference for pollen feeding ( Euseius  species, type IV of McMurtry & Croft, 1997) evaluated in the study had large lobes. Other evaluated species belong to groups that have a predominantly predatory habit, although some of them could also feed on pollen (McMurtry & Croft, 1997), and these could have small to large lobes.

Based on the cheliceral structures, mainly dentition, Evans (1963) suggested Neocypholaelaps  species to be pollen feeders, and Ameroseius  , Epicriopsis  and Brontispalaelaps  species to be fungus feeders. Information provided in the original descriptions of species of these genera published since then corroborates Evans’ suggestion, indicating in addition that the flower inhabiting ameroseiids ( Afrocypholaelaps  , Neocypholaelaps  and Hattena  ) can also feed on nectar. Haq (2001) claimed that N. stridulans  could cause button fall in some coconut varieties, apparently by feeding on the tissues of coconut female flowers.

Mo (1971) reported N. indica  to be unable to develop to adult when fed with glucose, but to develop and oviposit when fed with pollen (of undisclosed plant species). The same species was reported to develop and reproduce in Eucalyptus  flowers (Ramanan & Ghai, 1984). Published information also suggests that Afrocypholaelaps  and Hattena  are pollen or nectar feeders. Under laboratory conditions, Seeman & Walter (1995) observed Afrocypholaelaps africana  to be able to feed on sucrose solution and on pollen of Aegiceras corniculatum  (L.) Blanco, leading the authors to conclude that the mites could also feed on nectar and pollen of that plant, on which they were naturally numerous. Seeman (1996) reported Hattena cometis Domrow  and Hattena panopla Domrow  to feed on nectar, pollen, sucrose solution and water under laboratory conditions.

The association between Ameroseius  species and fungi under field condition has been extensively mentioned in the literature, although this has been confirmed for few species under controlled conditions. Flechtmann (1985) studied the biology of Ameroseius dendrovagans  , showing its successful development and reproduction when fed with the fungus Trichoderma  sp.. Moustafa & El-Hady (2006) reported Ameroseius  (= Kleemania  ) kosi (El-Badry, Nasr & Hafez) to be able to develop and reproduce on the fungi Sclerotium bataticola Taub.  and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. 

Given that lobes are known to occur in flower inhabiting ameroseiids (probably pollen or nectar feeders) as well as in mites living in other habitats (probably mostly fungus feeders), the relevance of the lobes for each feeding habit is not immediately evident. Consistent explanations would require an examination of the morphology of lobes of different ameroseiid groups.

Evidence so far available leads to the following conclusions: (a) ameroseiid species that feed mainly on pollen (or nectar) have membranous cheliceral lobes (as also almost all melicharids and some phytoseiids); (b) ameroseiid species that apparently do not have pollen (or nectar) as the main food source may or may not have membranous lobes, but they do not have a setiform pilus dentilis [differently from melicharids, the vast majority of which has membranous lobes, and from phytoseiids, that seem to always have a setiform pilus dentilis, or at least its base, and often membranous lobes, that can be rudimentary].

Notes on ameroseiid ventral pore-like structures

Ameroseiids have the four pairs of lyrifissures usually found in most Mesostigmata  on or next to the sternal, metasternal and genital shields (iv 1 – iv 3 and iv 5). However, another pair of pore-like structures is observed in many, but not all ameroseiids, posterolaterad of the genital setae (st 5) and anteriad of the genital lyrifissures (iv 5). Authors often illustrate these structures but do not refer to them in the text. They have been interpreted by Moraes & Narita (2010) and Narita et al. (2011) as lyrifissures. However, their larger size and their different shape in comparison with iv 5 observed in this paper and also in most of the papers in which they are shown suggest them to be pores, probably corresponding to the inguinal solenostome (SJ) of Athias-Henriot (1969) and to gv 2 of Lindquist & Moraza (2009). Pores gv 2 are often indistinctly located close to the posteromesad margin of coxae IV in many Mesostigmata  (including some ameroseiids). In some other ameroseiids they are not evident, whereas in still others they seem to occupy a mesal position, next to the genital shield margin. The possibility that they could correspond to gv 2 seems to be supported by their position in Ameroseius callosus Mašán  and Ameroseius macrochelae Westerboer  , closer to the internal margin of coxa IV than to the genital shield (Westerboer & Bernhard, 1963; Mašán, 1998).

In Neocypholaelaps  , in addition to the species here described, the following species have been described as having gv 2 mesally positioned: N. ampullula  , N. apicola  , N. breviperitremata  , N. cocos  , N. ceylonicus  , N. favus  Ishikawa, N. geonomae  , N. hongkongensis  , N. indica  , N. leopoldi  , N. nova, N. novaehollandiae  , N. phooni  , N. pradhani  , N. stridulans  and N. xylocopae  . Nothing can be said in this regard for N. capitis  , N. rotundus  and N. varipilosa  , given that the ventral surface or those species were not illustrated and that nothing was cited in the text of the descriptions or because pore-like structures were not shown in the original description. A mesal position for gv 2 has also been illustrated in species of other ameroseiid genera, including Afrocypholaelaps  (all but A. ranomafanaensis  ), Ameroseius  (several species), Brontispalaelaps  ( B. marianneae  ), Hattena  [ H. ewae (Haitlinger)  ], Epicriopsis  ( E. langei Livshitz & Mitrofanov  ), Sertitympanum  ( S. exarmatum Elsen & Whitaker  and S. mexicanum Villegas-Guzmán, Montiel-Parra, Vargas & Polaco  ). Published information does not allow the determination of the position of this pore in Ameroseiella  and Sinoseius  . In our examination of some undetermined specimens of Ameroseius  and in specimens that we have identified as Brontispalaelaps leveri  , gv 2 was discernible.

Thus, these observations indicate that the mesal position of gv 2 is common in ameroseiids, that their position (or absence) in species of this family is of diagnostic interest and should be mentioned in the description of new ameroseiid species.

TABLE 1. Measurements (µm) of dorsal setae of each postembryonic stage of Neocypholaelaps kreiteri. n = number of specimens measured; (—) Absent.

      Deutonymph n = 3 Protonymph n = 3  
          14 (13–15)
          15 (14–15) 13 (12–13) 14 (13–14)
  20 (17–21)        
  29 (27–30)        
  27 (24–30)        
  26 (24–28) 22 (21–23)        
  27 (24–30)        
  27 (24–30) 32 (30–35) 30 (27–33)        
  30 (26–34) 32 (29–34)        
          13 (12–13)

TABLE 2. Measurements (µm) of ventral setae of each postembryonic stage of Neocypholaelaps kreiteri. n = number of specimens measured; (—) Absent.

      Deutonymph n = 3 Protonymph n = 3