Julus azarovae , Mikhaljova, Elena V., 2009

Mikhaljova, Elena V., 2009, New species of the family Julidae Leach 1814 from Altai, Russia (Diplopoda, Julida), Zootaxa 2235, pp. 59-68: 60-66

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Julus azarovae

sp. n.

Julus azarovae  sp. n.

Figs. 1View FIGURES 1 – 6 -15.

Material examined: Holotype: 1 male ( IBSS), Russia, Republic of Altai, Choiskii District, environs of Baltyrgan Mts, rocky tundra, collected 5 August 2001 by N.V. Levina; Paratypes (all from Russia, Republic of Altai, Choiskii District, environs of Baltyrgan Mts, collected N.B. Levina): 2 males (one male is dissected for SEM: antenna, gnathochilarium), 7 females, 3 juveniles (one of them is possible intercalary male), 1 fragment ( IBSS), same locality as for holotype, collected 5 August 2001; 5 males ( PSUAbout PSU), 3 males ( IBSS), 3 males ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), 23 females ( PSUAbout PSU), 5 females ( IBSS), 5 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), 8 juveniles (two of them are possible intercalary males), 3 fragments ( IBSS), same locality as for holotype, pitfall traps, collected 12 August 2001; 1 male ( IBSS), 2 males, 4 females, 6 juveniles (one of them is possible intercalary male) ( PSUAbout PSU), same locality as for holotype, collected 13 August 2001; 1 female ( PSUAbout PSU), bush tundra, collected 6 August 2001; 1 male, 2 females, 1 juvenile ( PSUAbout PSU), forest-tundra, 1,700 m a.s.l., collected 12 August 2001; 1 male ( IBSS: male is dissected for SEM: gonopods, leg pair 1, leg pair 2), 3 females, 1 juvenile ( PSUAbout PSU), alpine meadow, pitfall traps, collected 13 August.

Diagnosis: This species differs from its congeners from the Asian part of Russia mainly by the presence in the male of anterolateral swellings of the gnathochilarial stipes, the unciform apex of the gonopod opisthomere, the gonopod promere without crests, and the pregonopodal legs distinctly thickened as compared with postgonopodal ones.

Description: Male. Body about 20 – 21 mm long, width 1.1 – 1.2 mm, with 42 (- 1), 43 (- 2), 43 (- 1) 44 (- 2) segments, excluding telson. Holotype 21 mm long, with 43 (- 2) segments, excluding telson. Coloration reddish-brown with dark brown spots laterally. Metazonites with a dark brown transverse band. Thin, dark, axial line clearly discernible on dorsum. Anterior portion of collum dark brown. Head dark brown, its anterior portion brown. Bulbous anterolateral sides of gnathochilarial stipes white. Legs and antennae dark brown. Eyes black.

Eye patches rounded, subquadrate, composed of 37–41 small ocelli. Epicranial setae 1 + 1, supralabral setae 2 + 2, labral ones 8 +8, 9+ 9. Genae unmodified. Antennae medium-sized, rather slender and clavate, in situ reaching to somite 4. Gnathochilarial stipes with distinct swelling anterolaterally and low projection basally ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 6). Length ratios of antennomeres 2–7 as 7 .0: 5.4: 5 .0: 6.2: 2.8: 1, width ratios as 2.0:2.0: 2.2: 2.5: 2.35: 1, respectively. Antennomeres 5 and 6 with incomplete distodorsal corolla of 7 – 8 sensory bacilli ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 6).

Body subcylindrical, slender, slightly compressed laterally. Somites 6 and 7 somewhat stouter than others. Ventral edge of metazonite 7 outcurved, forming a gonopodal opening. Suture dividing pro- and metazona distinctly constricting both zonites. Ozopores small, lying behind suture without touching it. Metazona with striae practically reaching hind margin; 9 – 10 striae per approximately quarter of the metazonital surface, i.e. between dorsal midline and ozopore. Transverse row of sparse, thin, short setae at hind edge of metazonites, setae gradually growing denser, somewhat longer toward telson. Telson with sparse, relatively long seate on epiproct and caudal projection (so-called tail). Tail subcylindrical, carrying a small claw-shaped process directed caudad. Anal valves more convex as compared with ones of congeners from the Asian part of Russia (or like swellings larger than ones of congeners from the Asian part of Russia), densely setose. Anal scale subtriangular, setose only along caudal edge.

Legs relatively long. Claws with thin, long, setiform, ventral outgrowth at base. Pregonopodal legs somewhat thickened as compared with postgonopodal ones, which gradually become more slender toward the posterior end. Coxae 3 – 7 with low setigerous outgrowth, which gradually becomes smaller and disappear posteriorly. Anterior legs with broad sole, covered in dense, strong setae which gradually become less distinct and disappear near middle of body. Leg pair 1 ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 6) with long coxites. Coxite with pointed apex curved anteriad, slightly outside or with apex curved anteriad only and not outside. Rudiment of telopodite 2 - segmented; basal segment (t 1) as knob with setae on perimeter; apical segment (t 2) as tiny knob covered with long setae ( Figs 4 – 5View FIGURES 1 – 6) (apical segment is distinctly seen in ventral view). Leg pair 2 ( Figs 6 – 9View FIGURES 1 – 6View FIGURES 7, 13 – 15) with three pairs of coxal outgrowths. Anterior large outgrowth curved anteriad, with caudal process curved toward dorsum; second anterior coxal outgrowth (ao 2) slender, with pointed apex; posterior coxal outgrowth subconical, with seta subapically. Penes (p) short, subconical, with an entire apex whose double nature is distinguished ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 7, 13 – 15). Praefemur 2 with group of setae mesally.

Three pieces of gonopods ( Fig. 10 – 13View FIGURES 7, 13 – 15) highly condensed. Promeres higher than opisthomeres, their flagella well-developed, ribbon-shaped, with somewhat distal broadening, tapering toward end, but not filiform. Distal part of flagellum placed in particular excavation on opisthomere, apex projecting (sometimes far) beyond opisthomere tip. Promere without longitudinal crests and telopodite remnant; mesomere conical, rounded at apex. Opisthomere (Fig. 14 – 15) with a moderately developed coxite, setiform mesal outgrowth at base and unciform apex, lateral part with strong process usually pointed apically. Apex of opisthomere lateral process can vary from very sharp to blunt within even a single specimen ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 7, 13 – 15). Notch between solenomere and outer process as deep as half opisthomere height.

Female. Body 18 – 25 mm long, width 1.3 – 1.8 mm, with 42 (- 3), 42 (- 2), 43 (- 3), 43 (- 2), 44 (- 2), 44 (- 1), 46 (- 1), 47 (- 1), 49 (- 2), 50 (- 1), 53 (- 2) segments, excluding telson. Ocelli 36 – 41 in most of the females. Epicranial setae 1 + 1, supralabral setae 2 + 2, labral ones 8 +8, 9+ 9. Coloration varying from dark brown to brown with tan tinge. Most of the females brown, with tan tinge. 9 – 10 striae per approximately quarter of metazonital surface, i.e. between the dorsal midline and the ozopore. Size of all legs identical. Legs without sole brushes. Each coxa of leg pair 2 with anterior small conical process. Anterolateral swellings of the gnathochilarial stipes varying from well-developed (in large females) to poorly-developed (in small females). It is possible that females of different ages are among material.

Juveniles. Early stages with bodies 8 – 10 mm long and 0.7 – 0.9 mm width, with 35 (- 5), 37 (- 5) segments excluding telson; coloration lighter than in adults. Among them can be recognized subadult males and females. Subadult males of these stages with tiny anterolateral swellings of gnathochilarial stipes, normal leg pair 1, one process rudiment on coxa of leg pair 2, distance between leg pairs 7 and 8 longer than between other leg pairs. Subadult females of these stages with rudiments of coxal processes of leg pair 2. The earliest stages without sexual characters.

In addition, among material are subadult males with bodies 19 – 21 mm long and 1 – 1.2 mm width, with 40 (- 2), 41 (- 2), 42 (- 3), 42 (- 2) segments, excluding telson. These subadult males have underdeveloped gonopods, small anterolateral swellings of gnathochilarial stipes, normal leg pair 1 and one (not three) outgrowths on coxa of leg 2 which lacks a posterior process; body coloration as in adult males. It is possible that this species is characterized by periodomorphosis, and above large “subadult” males are intercalaries.

Etymology: The species is named in honour of the curator of the IBSS entomological collection, N.A. Azarova, who is among the pioneers in the IBSS entomological laboratory.


Portland State University, Vertebrate Biology Museum


Zoological Museum, University of Amoy