Adaina simplicius (Grossbeck, 1917),

Matthews, Deborah L., Miller, Jacqueline Y., Simon, Mark J. & Goss, Gary J., 2019, Additions to the plume moth fauna of The Bahamas (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) with description of four new species, Insecta Mundi 708 (708), pp. 1-35: 18-19

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Adaina simplicius (Grossbeck, 1917)


Adaina simplicius (Grossbeck, 1917) 

Fig. 23View Figures 18–24, 35a, bView Figures 33–36, 56View Figures 54-58

Diagnosis. Forewing cleft to just less than 0.5× wing length from base; lobe apices acute; ground color white to cream color; a small fuscous or drab spot at cleft base and at terminals of veins R 2, R 3, R 5, M 3, Cu 1, and Cu 2. Spots at cleft base and R 2 usually the most pronounced, the others often absent in worn specimens. Hindwings white or pale drab. Male genitalia ( Fig. 35a, bView Figures 33–36) distinguished from A. bipunctatus ( Möschler, 1890)  by the hook-shaped saccular process of the left valve. Female genitalia ( Fig. 56View Figures 54-58) with long straight (as opposed to spiraled in A. bipunctatus  ) ductus seminalis, somewhat swollen at posterior end; apophyses anteriores bifurcate, with a short, straight anterior projecting branch and a similar length curved branch extending mediad along the anterior margin of tergite VIII.

Pinned material examined. BAHAMAS: Abaco: South Abaco, Schooner Bay , coppice trail, 26.167000°, −77.181167°, 30.x.2014, DLM, JYM, MJS, RMR (3 ♂, 2 ♀, slide DM 2103)  ; same location,, DLM, JYM, MJS, GJG, adults perching on or flying near Neurolaena lobata  (4 ♂, slide DM 2094, 4 ♀)  ; Cat Island: vic. Ocean Dream Resort , E of Smith Town, 24.232273°, −75.454536°,, DLM, JYM, MJS, GJG (1 ♂)  ; Eleuthera Island: Leon Levy Native Plant Pres. , 25.187667°, −76.212833°,, DLM, JYM, MJS, GJG, P. DeLuca, F. Cartwright, E. Fried (1 ♂, slide DM 2106)  ; Grand Bahama Island: vic. Barbary Beach , 26.558526°, −78.536983°, 26.x.2014, DLM, JYM, MJS, RMR (2 ♀, slide DM 2107)  ; vic. Owl’s Hole , 26.587496°, −78.469854°, 27.x.2014, DLM, JYM, MJS, RMR (1 ♀)  ; San Salvador Island: Gerace Research Centre, Alfred Pike Trail , 24.117166°, −74.463864°, 23.vii.2015, DLM, TAL, R.W. Portell (1 ♀)  ; Gerace Research Centre, vic. Water Tanks , 24.117589°, −74.465207°, 22.vii.2015, DLM, TAL, R.W. Portell (2 ♀, slide DM 2105)  ; South Andros Island: Black Point, along Steven’s Rd. , 23.997568°, −77.560616°, 27.iii.2014, DLM, JYM, MJS, RMR, flying around “ Pluchea  ” [ Neurolaena lobata  ] (1 ♂, slide DM 2108, 1 ♀)  ; farm road N of The Bluff , 24.130088°, −77.590680°, 30.iii.2014, DLM, JYM, MJS, RMR, flying nr. flowers N. lobata  (4 ♂, slide DM 2104, 6 ♀)  .

Preserved material examined. BAHAMAS: South Andros Island: Black Point, along Steven’s Rd., 23.997568°, −77.560616°, 27.iii.2014, DLM, JYM, MJS, RMR, larvae feeding on flowers of Neurolaena  lobata (12 L, 1 PC);  farm road north of The Bluff, 24.117283°, −77.608451°, 30.iii.2014, DLM, JYM, MJS, RMR, larvae feeding on flowers of N. lobata  (10 L). 

Life history. In the southeastern USA, larvae bore into the flower heads of various Asteraceae  such as Carphephorus Cass.  , Conoclinium  DC., and Pluchea Cass. ( Matthews and Lott 2005)  . In The Bahamas, larvae were found boring in the flower heads of Neurolaena lobata  (L.) R.Br. ex Cass. (formerly Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis  ). This shrub occurs throughout the West Indies and in parts of Florida, Mexico, and northern South America ( Correll and Correll 1982).

Distribution. The known distribution of A. simplicius  is complicated by the uncertainty in determinations based on external features. Confirmed specimens examined are from the southeastern USA, Cuba, and The Bahamas. In The Bahamas, the species has been collected on Abaco, Cat, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, San Salvador, and South Andros islands. In addition, Gielis (2011) includes Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Puerto Rico in the distribution, though some of these records may refer to A. bipunctatus  or related species (see comments).

Comments. Adaina bipunctatus ( Möschler, 1890)  and A. simplicius  are frequently confused and are indistinguishable without genitalia dissection. The latter species was also considered a synonym of A. bipunctatus  by Barnes and Lindsey (1921), adding to the confusion. Both species occur in the southeastern United States and while sympatric, A. bipunctatus  is less frequently encountered (DLM, personal observations). All Bahamas specimens dissected and associated with Neurolaena lobata  (n=7) are A. simplicius  and match reared specimens from Florida as well as the holotype female (AMNH) from Florida. Gielis (2011) lists Bahamas in the distribution of A. bipunctatus  , though without a specific locality or label data. Adaina bipunctatus  was described by Möschler (1890) from Puerto Rico. According to Gielis (2011) the type, from Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany was probably lost. Since A. bipunctatus  does occur in Florida and was described from Puerto Rico, it may indeed occur in The Bahamas but remains unconfirmed.