Protosticta cyanofemora, Joshi & Subramanian & Babu & Sawant & Kunte, 2020

Joshi, Shantanu, Subramanian, K. A., Babu, R., Sawant, Dattaprasad & Kunte, Krushnamegh, 2020, Three new species of Protosticta Selys, 1885 (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae) from the Western Ghats, India, with taxonomic notes on P. mortoni Fraser, 1922 and rediscovery of P. rufostigma Kimmins, 1958, Zootaxa 4858 (2), pp. 151-185 : 154-156

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4858.2.1

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Protosticta cyanofemora

sp. nov.

Protosticta cyanofemora View in CoL sp. nov. Joshi, Subramanian, Babu & Kunte

( Figs. 1–6 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 , 12 View FIGURE 12 a–b)

Holotype. ♂ ( NCBS-BK825 ), Pandimotta , Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Kollam, Kerala, India (8.8271 N, 77.216 7 E; Alt: 1,231 m), 5.iv.2014, Krushnamegh Kunte leg.

Paratypes. 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀ ( NCBS-BK826 , NCBS-QA009 , & NCBS-QA011 ), location, date of collection, and collector same as holotype ; 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀ ( ZSI-SRCI I/OD/2210–2213), Oothu to Kuthiraivetti Road , Ambasamudram Range , Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (8.5879 N, 77.341 4 E; Alt: 1,264 m), 22.viii.2019, R. Babu & K.A. Subramanian leg.

Other material. 4 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, ( ZSI-SRC I/OD/2214–2221), location, date of collection, and collector same as paratypes I/OD/2210-2213 ; 1 ♂ ( ZSI-SRC I/OD/2222), Marapalam , near Nalumukku , Ambasamudram Range , Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (8.5437 N, 77.374 9 E; Alt: 1,254 m), 25.viii.2019, R. Babu & K.A. Subramanian leg.

Etymology. The specific name cyanofemora is given for its bright blue (= cyan, from Greek ‘ kuaneos’) femur (= femor, Latin).

Description of holotype ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 a–c). [Note: markings described as blue or purple, especially for the head and legs relate to the life colors, which are white post-mortem]

Head ( Fig. 1b View FIGURE 1 ). Dorsal half of middle lobe, lateral lobes of labrum and, anteclypeus pale bluish yellow, postclypeus black, base of antennae bright blue, rest of the face black; eyes bright blue.

Thorax. Prothorax ( Fig. 1g View FIGURE 1 ) purple, marked extensively with black; small irregular median black marking at the posterior margin of anterior lobe; lateral lobes of middle lobe black, this marking faintly continuing to lateral margin of anterior lobe; posterior lobe black medially, laterally purple; propleuron with a broad black band, ventral border with a blue stripe; posterior margin of prothorax straight. Pterothorax ( Fig. 1a,d View FIGURE 1 ): mesepisternum and metepisternum black, dorsum of mesepisternum and dorsal carina with faint brown sheen, metepimeron and mesepimeron creamish-white; ventrally creamish-white bordered with black. Legs: coxae and trochanter white; femur internally blue, black externally; tibia and tarsus dull white anteriorly, black posteriorly; claws black.

Wings ( Fig. 1a,c View FIGURE 1 ) hyaline, Pt dark brown, occupying about 1¼ cells; one cell between junction of RP 1 -RP 2 and origin of IR 1 in FW, two in HW; Ab absent; Ax: 2 in all wings; Px: FW: left & right = 13, HW: left = 11, right = 12.

Abdomen ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 d–f). S1 laterally white, dorsally black; S2 with antero-lateral half white, rest of the segment black; S3–8 marked yellowish-white at anterior margins, markings more extensive laterally and caudally; yellowish-white lateral marking on S8 obtusely triangular, not connected dorsally, occupying 2/3 rd length of the segment; S9–10 black.

Genital ligula was not dissected for the holotypes. It has been described and illustrated for the paratype.

Caudal appendages ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 a–c) black, apices dark brown, about 3 times longer than S10; cerci with a triangular basal spine at inner margin situated about ¼ of total length, curved laterally inwards and backwards; cerci bifid at apices, curved inwards; dorsal arm thinner than ventral arm; thicker, and curved slightly at apices; ventral arm flattened, semi-circular in shape, wider than outer arm but both arms approximately same length; paraprocts thicker at base with a basal spine pointed dorsally, apices thin, sharply pointed, curved inwards, apex dorso-ventrally flattened.

Measurements: abdomen + caudal appendages = 37.3, FW = 22.6–23, HW = 21.9–22.2, cerci = 1, paraprocts = 0.9.

Paratype male.

Similar to the holotype. However, observed differences in males including paratypes are provided in the variation section.

Description of genital ligula for the paratypes NCBS-QA009 & ZSI-SRC I/OD/2220 ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ): first segment broader at base, black, tapering and thinner at junction with second segment; third segment expanded laterally at the juncture with second segment, translucent, dorsal surface with lateral ridges and a median ridge colored faint brown; apical surface curved ending in two long filaments.

Variation in males ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 d–f, 3). Variation in abdomen and hind wing length is provided in Table 1, and nodal index is given in Table 2. The colors (especially blue) of specimens preserved in ethanol are retained much better compared to pinned specimens. Medial black marking on anterior lobe of prothorax is variable, very faint in some individuals, while darker in immature males such as ZSI-SRC I/OD/2222. In NCBS-QA011 blue marking on S7 is extremely faded; one cell between junction of RP 1 -RP 2 and origin of IR 1, two in right HW. In NCBS-QA009 metepimeron and mesepimeron with anterior 1/3 rd greenish-yellow, posterior 2/3 rd bright yellow; S9 with a small white marking at the ventral anterior margin. Immature males (e.g. ZSI-SRC I/OD/2222) have brighter brown Pt. Px: FW = 12; HW = 11–12.

Description of paratype female (NCBS-BK826) ( Figs. 5 View FIGURE 5 , 6 View FIGURE 6 a–b). Head ( Fig. 5d View FIGURE 5 ). Lateral lobes of labrum, anteclypeus and two horizontally elongated markings on dorsal margin of middle lobe of labrum blue; rest of the face black; base of antennae black, second segment and base of third segment yellowish; vertex and postocular lobes black with metallic sheen; eyes bluish, brown post-mortem.

Thorax. Prothorax ( Fig. 5e View FIGURE 5 ): posterior lobe black, black markings continued towards anterior lobe as two black lines; lateral lobes of median lobe brown, black medially; anterior lobe brown; prothorax laterally black; proplueron pale yellow. Pterothorax ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 a–b): dorsal carina dark brown; mesepisternum black, metepimeron pale yellow, metepisternum black, and mesepimeron creamish-white; ventrum pale yellow. Legs: internal surface of femur and coxae pale-yellow, external surface of femur, trochanter, and tarsus pale brown; claws brown.

Wings ( Fig. 5a,c View FIGURE 5 ) hyaline, anterior veins dark brown, rest black; Pt dark brown, occupying 1¼ cells; one cell between junction of RP 1 -RP 2 and origin of IR 1 in FW, two in HW; Ab absent; Ax: 2 in all wings; Px: FW: left & right = 14, HW: left = 14, right = 13.

Abdomen ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 a–b). Black, becoming gradually dark brown from S7 apically. Marked as follows: lateroventral half of S1 yellow; S2 marked with yellow at the latero-ventral border at anterior margin, marking broader at base, fainter posteriorly, reaching about ½ of S2; anterior margin of S3–8 with yellow annules, not connected dorsally only on S2 and S7, the annules extended laterally posteriorly, becoming more pronounced on consecutive segments; S8 with a faint latero-ventral yellow marking at the anterior margin; S9 brown; S10 black.

Caudal appendages ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 a–b). Cerci black, broader at base, 0.8 times the length of S10, triangular in lateral view, pointed; paraprocts reduced, rounded black, less than half the length of cerci; dorsal half of valve of ovipositor dark brown, ventral half black, terebra brown, triangular, slightly longer than cerci; ovipositor brown, ending in a long black styles reaching beyond cerci and valve. Measurements: abdomen + caudal appendages = 30.9, FW = 21.3–21.4, HW = 20.1–20.4, cerci = 0.25.

Variation in females. One cell between junction of RP 1 -RP 2 and origin of IR 1 in FW and HW of specimens I/OD/ 2212, 2214–2217. Two cells in right hindwing of I/OD/2213.

Diagnosis. Male of this species is at once distinguished from all other Protosticta spp. of the Western Ghats by its bright-blue coloration ( Figs. 3a View FIGURE 3 , 12a View FIGURE 12 ) of facial markings, eyes, prothoracic markings, and femora. Three additional characters to differentiate it from similar species are: a) lateral lobes of middle lobe and central portion of posterior lobe of prothorax black dorsally, propleuron with blue and black bands ( Figs. 1g View FIGURE 1 , 3 View FIGURE 3 c–d,f); b) shape of apical fork of cerci: not flattened, inner arm beak-like, & outer arm longer with round apices; c) marking on S8 triangular, broader at base, tapering posteriorly in lateral view, not connected dorsally; S9 black ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 e–f). Female of this species can be diagnosed from congeneric species by: a) blue eyes ( Fig. 12b View FIGURE 12 ), b) color of prothorax, especially the black marking present on middle lobes and posterior lobe ( Fig. 5e View FIGURE 5 ), and c) extent and shape of bright markings on S3–9 ( Fig. 5b View FIGURE 5 ).

Habitat and Ecology. This species was first observed at Pandimotta, Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India at the elevation of ~ 1,200 m. Pandimotta is covered with a mosaic of shola (stunted patches of evergreen forests in the valleys) and tropical evergreen forest patches ( Fig. 18a View FIGURE 18 ). This species was observed resting on shrubs and undergrowth along the banks of small hill streams in tropical evergreen forest patches sympatrically with P. gravelyi , P. davenporti , and P. sanguinostigma . In 2019, specimens of P. cyanofemora were collected from two localities at similar elevation in Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu; one locality is a riparian evergreen forest and the other is a forest patch bordering tea garden. These localities are about 15–20 kilometers away from the type locality ( Fig. 23a View FIGURE 23 ).


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile













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