Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787),

Delvare, Gérard & Huchet, Jean-Bernard, 2017, Brachymeria mochica, a new Neotropical species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) discovered on the archaeological site of Huacas de Moche, Peru with a review of related species, Zootaxa 4290 (1), pp. 43-60: 51-56

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4290.1.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8172109F-E545-4EB7-9E9D-D91E7DD1FA42

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B1879C-FFDA-557E-FF54-482678530606

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787)
status

 

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787) 

Chalcis podagrica  FabriciUS 1787: 272. Original deScription ♂. India, TranqUebar. Lectotype by BoUček 1972: 241.

Brachymeria podagrica  (FabriciUS): BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis femorata  NeeS 1834: 412. Original deScription. Germany. Synonymy by Dalla Torre 1898: 391. Type apparently deStroyed.

= Chalcis Fonscolombei  DUfoUr 1841: 16 – 17. Original deScription ♀. SoUthern France. Lectotype by BUrkS (1936). Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis alphius Walker 1846a: 108  . Original deScription ♂. India, Bombay. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis xerxena Walker 1846a: 108  – 109. Original deScription ♂. India, Bombay. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis restituta Walker 1862: 351  – 352. Original deScription Jamaica. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček & DelVare 1992: 30.

= Chalcis pulchripes Holmgren 1868: 436  – 437. Original deScription ♂. PhilippineS, Manila. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis mansueta Walker 1871: 48  – 49. Original deScription ♀. Hong-Kong. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis callipus Kirby 1883: 75  . Original deScription ♀. Japan. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis mikado Cameron 1888: 117  . Original deScription ♀. Japan. Lectotype and Synonymy par BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis eccentrica Cameron 1897: 39  . Original deScription ♂. India, Bombay. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis ferox Kieffer 1905: 263  – 264. Original deScription ♀ ♂. ReUnion ISland [BoUrbon] and MadagaScar, NoSSi-Bé. Syn. nov. Synonymy With B. fonscolombei  by Steffan 1959: 42.

= Chalcis ferox Var. coxalis Kieffer 1905: 264  . Original deScription ♀. MadagaScar, NoSSi-Bé. Syn. nov. Synonymy With B. fonscolombei  by Steffan 1959: 42.

= Chalcis borneanus Cameron 1905a  : Original deScription ' ♀'. Borneo. Lectotype ♂ and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Chalcis spilopus Cameron 1905b: 231  . Original deScription ♀. SoUth Africa  , TranSVaal. Syn. nov.

= Chalcis capensis Cameron 1905b: 311  – 312. Original deScription ♀. SoUth Africa  , Katberg. Syn. nov.

= Chalcis transvaalensis Cameron 1911: 214  – 215. Original deScription ♀. SoUth Africa  . Syn. nov.

= Tumidicoxoides kurandaensis GiraUlt 1913: 86  . Original deScription ♀. AUStralia, QUeenSland. Synonymy by BoUček 1988: 72.

= Chalcis dipterophaga GiraUlt & Dodd in GiraUlt 1915: 320  – 321. Original deScription ♀. AUStralia, QUeenSland. Synonymy by BoUček 1988: 72.

= Tumidicoxoides paucipunctatus GiraUlt 1915: 326  . Original deScription ♀. AUStralia, Northern Territory. Synonymy by BoUček 1988: 72.

= Chalcis neglecta MaSi 1916: 84  . Original deScription ♀. Italia, Giglio. Syn. nov. Synonymy With B. fonscolombei  by Steffan 1959: 42.

= Chalcis sodalis MaSi 1917: 128  – 129. Original deScription ♀ ♂. SeychelleS ISlandS: Mahé, SilhoUette. Syn. nov. Synonymy With B. fonscolombei  by Steffan 1959: 42.

= Chalcis vegai GiraUlt 1924: 175  . Original deScription ♀. AUStralia, QUeenSland. Synonymy by BoUček, 1988: 72.

= Chalcis garutianus Günther in Hellen &Günther 1936: 73  – 74. Original deScription ♀. JaVa, Kamodjan. Lectotype and Synonymy by BoUček 1972: 241.

= Brachymeria Fonscolombei Var.  gananensis MaSi 1938: 210 – 212. Original deScription ♀. Somalia, Belet-Amin and MogadiScio. Syn. nov.

= Chalcis vulcani Schmitz 1946: 63  – 64. Original deScription ♂. RUanda, BUrambi (Volcan MUhaVUra). Syn. nov.

= Brachymeria aligarhensis Husain & Agarwal 1982: 499  – 501. Original description ♀. India, Uttar-Pradesh. Synonymy by Narendran 1989: 260.

Material examinated. Type material. Chalcis Fonscolombei.  Lectotype, a pinned ♀ from the Dufour collection, identified by Steffan (MNHN) ( Figs 29, 30View FIGURES 29 – 39. 29).

Chalcis capensis  . Lectotype, a ♀ on a minutien pin, the designation of which by Bouček (1971) is validated here ( Fig. 33View FIGURES 29 – 39. 29) (BMNH).

Chalcis transvaalensis  . Lectotype, a ♀ in several pieces, remounted on a rectangular card, the designation of which by Bouček (1971) is validated here ( Fig. 34View FIGURES 29 – 39. 29) (BMNH).

Chalcis spilopus  . Lectotype, a ♂ on a minutien pin, the designation of which by Bouček (1971) is validated here (BMNH, Hym. type 5.155).

Chalcis ferox  . Lectotype, a ♂ on a minutien pin, the designation of which by Rasplus is validated here; it is labelled 'Bourbon [manuscript] / Chalcis ferox Sauss.  type ♂' [manuscript, in Kieffer's handwriting] ( Fig. 35View FIGURES 29 – 39. 29) (MNHN). The ♀ quoted by Kieffer (1905) from Nossi Bé could not be retrieved.

Chalcis ferox var. coxalis  . Lectotype, a pinned ♂ labelled 'Madag.' [manuscript] / ' Ch. ferox Sss.  ' [manuscript] / ' Chalcis ferox Ss.  var.' [manuscript, in Kieffer's handwriting] ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 29 – 39. 29) (MNHN).

Chalcis neglecta  . Lectotype, a ♀ glued on a rectangular card, the designation of which by Bouček (1971) is validated here; it is labelled 'Is. Giglio vii 901 G. Doria' / ' Chalcis neglecta Masi 1916  typus!' [manuscript, in Masi's handwriting] / ' ♂ Brachymeria neglecta (Masi)  = podagrica  (F.) Bouček det. 1971' [manuscript, in Bouček's handwriting] ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 29 – 39. 29) (MCSN).

Brachymeria Fonscolombei  var. gananensis  . Lectotype, the designation of which by Bouček (1971) is validated here, labelled 'EL DUGUL Somalia Italiana E. Confalonieri' / ' Brachymeria Fonscolombei  subsp. gananensis Masi ♀ det. L. Masi' [manuscript in Masi's handwriting] / 'co-typus' / 'Lectotype' [in BMNH format] with 'Bčk 1971' in the underside ( Fig. 38View FIGURES 29 – 39. 29) (MCSN).

Chalcis vulcani  . Holotype ♂, by original designation (MRAC, n° 567).

Other material. PERU. Trujillo , Huaca de la Luna, 08°08′06″S 78°59′29″W, 56 m, 06.v/ 01.vi.2009, in fly trap, J.- B. Huchet and A. Chauchet leg. (1 ♀ GDPC)GoogleMaps  . FRANCE. Bouches-du-Rhône , Istres, 01.vii.2003, P. Ponel leg. (1 ♂ GDPC)  ; Gard , Le-Grau-du-Roi, l'Espiguette beach, 24.v.1997, G. Delvare leg. (1 ♀ GDPC)  ; Hérault , Agde, Rochelongue, 29.vii.1979, J.- M. Maldès leg. (1 ♀ GDPC)  ; Montpellier , campus ENSA, on mackerel corpse, 15.ix.2000, M. Martinez leg. (3 ♀ GDPC)  ; same locality and collector, ex Sarcophaga proxima Rondani  [ Sarcophagidae  ] on a snake carcass, adult emergence 10/ 13.vi.2003 (2 ♀, 11 ♂ GDPC)  ; Lot-et-Garonne , Buzetsur-Baïsse, 30.v.1995, Malaise trap, J.- P. Sarthou leg. (1 ♀ GDPC)  . SPAIN. Tarragona , Cambrils-de-Mar, 30.v.1990, H. Tussac leg. (2 ♂ GDPC)  .

Comment. Steffan (1959) previously synonymised C. ferox Kieffer  and its variety C. ferox coxalis  with B. fonscolombei  , as well as C. neglecta Masi.  Brachymeria fonscolombei  was itself synonymised later with B. podagrica  by Bouček (1972). The name podagrica  was known from Dufour (1841) but because the type was described from India he thought that the European specimens belonged to another species, which he named Chalcis Fonscolombei  in honour of Boyer de Fonscolombe. This name was adopted by subsequent authors until Bouček (1972) synonymised it with B. podagrica  .

Brachymeria  . podagrica  was sometimes mixed with B. parvula (Walker) under its junior synonym Chalcis Dalmanni Thomson  , especially by Stefani (1889) because the females of both species have the metafemur mostly reddish. It is nevertheless evident that Stefani dealt with B. podagrica  because he reared his specimens from flies emerging from carrion while B. parvula is a secondary parasitoid of locusts.

Diagnosis. Apex of scape reaching base of median ocellus. Antennal flagellum mostly linear, hardly fusiform or clavate and bearing short erect setae only ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 21 – 28. 21 ‒ 24). Mesonotum with moderately dense puncturation, the interspaces between punctures narrower that the points themselves ( Fig. 22View FIGURES 21 – 28. 21 ‒ 24). Propodeum without spiracular callosity. Metacoxa and metafemur reddish, the latter with a small ivory spot apically. Metafemur slender 1.85 – 1.95× as long as broad, with an acute inner tooth basally; its outer surface with relatively dense puncturation, the basal piliferous points hardly more distant from each other than their own diameter ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 21 – 28. 21 ‒ 24). Metatibia reddish, respectively with a subbasal and dorsoapical ivory spots. Gaster acuminate, 1.8 – 2.0× as long as broad ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 21 – 28. 21 ‒ 24).

Hosts and biology. Table 1 lists the known hosts of the species and the authorships of the observations. Dubious host records are not included in the table, especially those for the hyperparasitoids of locusts which, as already mentioned by Steffan (1959), result from past confusion with B. parvula. We also omitted the hosts quoted for B. amenocles  , which until now was wrongly mixed with B. podagrica  following Bouček (1972) (see below).

Sarcophagidae  (18 species) are predominant in the list of known hosts, which also includes a number of Calliphoridae  (11 species) together with a few Muscidae  . Cultures made by several authors (Stefani 1889; Parker 1924; Roberts 1933; Carlos 2014) showed that females emerging from sarcophagid hosts were always much more numerous compared to those that developed at the expense of the two other dipterous families. These flies often feed on corpses of various vertebrates, primarily mammals, but also from snakes (Beaver 1936; Michel Martinez pers. com.) and even fishes, as shown by the trapping of B. podagrica  by exposing mackerel corpses (Michel Martinez, pers. com.). Some blowflies, such as Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius)  ( Calliphoridae  ), also figure in the spectrum of hosts. The presence of individuals along the Mediterranean seaside (see above, examined material) suggests that B. podagrica  is normally resident in this habitat, possibly searching for larval stages of flies developing at the expense of fish corpses washed up on the shore.

HoSt SpecieS HoSt family Reference and diStribUtion

Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830)  MUScidae Marchiori et al. 2003a  and 2003c: Brazil Ophyra Sp.  MUScidae  CarloS 2014: Brazil

Synthesiomyia nudiseta  (WUlp, 1883) MUScidae  RobertS 1933: USA

Philornis Sp.  MUScidae CoUri et al. 2006  : Brazil

Calliphora coloradensis HoUgh, 1899  Calliphoridae  RobertS 1933: USA

Calliphora grahami Aldrich, 1930  Calliphoridae  HabU 1960: Japan

Cochliomyia macellaria  (FabriciUS, 1775) Calliphoridae  RobertS 1933: USA

Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819)  Calliphoridae Marchiori et al. 2002b  and 2003a; CarloS 2014: Brazil Chrysomya megacephala  (FabriciUS, 1794) Calliphoridae  CarloS 2014: Brazil

Hemilucilia flavifacies Enderlein, 1931  Calliphoridae Marchiori et al. 2003b  ; CarloS 2014: Brazil Lucilia caesar  (LinnaeUS, 1758) Calliphoridae  BUrkS 1960: USA

Lucilia illustris (Meigen, 1826)  Calliphoridae  BUrkS 1960: USA

Phaenicia mexicana (MacqUart, 1843)  Calliphoridae  RobertS 1933: USA

Phaeanicia sericata (Meigen, 1826)  Calliphoridae  RobertS 1933: USA: OliVa 2008: Argentina Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826)  Calliphoridae  BUrkS 1960: USA

Kellymyia plinthopyga (Wiedemann, 1830)  Sarcophagidae  RobertS 1933: USA

Kellymyia impar (Aldrich, 1916)  Sarcophagidae  RobertS 1933: USA

Kellymyia plinthopyga (Wiedemann, 1830)  Sarcophagidae  RobertS 1933: USA

Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker, 1849)  Sarcophagidae Marchiori et al. 2002a  and 2003a; GonçalVeS et al. 2012;

CarloS 2014: Brazil

Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830)  Sarcophagidae Marchiori 2001  ; Marchiori et al. 2003a; CarloS 2014: Brazil Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann, 1824)  Sarcophagidae  DUfoUr 1841: France [Under S. haemorrhoidalis  ]: RobertS

1933: USA

Sarcophaga argyrostoma 

(RobineaU-DeSVoidy, 1830) Sarcophagidae  UrSU & TUdor 1975; AndrieScU 1988: Romania; OliVa 2008:

Argentina

Sarcophaga carnaria  (LinnaeUS, 1758) Sarcophagidae Stefani 1889  : Italy: Sicily; BUrkS 1960: USA Sarcophaga crassipalpis MacqUart, 1839  Sarcophagidae OliVa 2008  : Argentina

Sarcophaga dux ThompSon, 1869  Sarcophagidae  ChoWdhUry & HoWlader 1975: BangladeSh Sarcophaga exuberans Pandellé, 1896  Sarcophagidae  ChoWdhUry & HoWlader 1975 and 1978: BangladeSh Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, 1830)  Sarcophagidae Marchiori et al. 2003a  ; GonçalVeS et al. 2012; CarloS 2014:

Brazil

Sarcophaga musitasi  CUrran, 1934 Sarcophagidae Fry 1989  : PakiStan

Sarcophaga peregrina 

RobineaU-DeSVoidy, 1830 Sarcophagidae  HabU 1960: Japan

Sarcophaga proxima Rondani, 1860  Sarcophagidae Martinez  perS. comm.: France (preSent pUblication) Sarcophaga Sp.  Sarcophagidae Parker 1924  : France (cUltUre) Sarcophaga Sp.  ex corpSe Achatina fulica  Sarcophagidae  BeaVerS 1986: Thailand

Sarcophaga tuberosa (Pandellé, 1896)  Sarcophagidae  FabritiUS & AndrieScU 1987; AndrieScU 1988: Romania As is the case for the other species belonging to the minuta  group, B. podagrica  is a solitary larval-pupal endoparasitoid ( Dufour 1841; Stefani 1889; Parker 1924; Roberts 1933). The latter author studied in detail the biology, ethology and phenology of B. podagrica  , collecting copious samples and conducting large scale rearing of flies with the aim of evaluating the potential of the chalcidid to regulate the populations of the blowfly. All the above authors found a clear preference of B. podagrica  for the pre-imaginal stages of Sarcophagidae  relative to those of Calliphoridae  , often rejecting the latter family. This might be explained by the fact that the adults of the Brachymeria  , having emerged from the puparia of Calliphoridae  , are much smaller in size—sometimes only half the size—than those emerging from Sarcophagidae  , apparently relating to differences in the size of the hosts themselves ( Roberts 1933).

Females of B. podagrica  oviposit within the body of the last larval stage of the host, which survives until pupation. Oviposition is especially induced by the presence of fluids issuing from the animals attacked by the flies, whether from living tissues or decaying corpses. The female uses her posterior legs to hold the larva, which promptly reacts to her attack. Reproduction is of the preovigenic type; the single mating occurs very soon after emergence of the imagos and is quickly followed by oviposition. This might be an adaptation to the presence of a large number of host larvae, grouped into clusters on decaying carrion. In temperate regions B. podagrica  diapauses during winter in the last larval or prepupal stage, within the host puparium. Several generations occur during summertime ( Roberts 1933).

Distribution. Brachymeria podagrica  is a cosmopolitan species, recorded from 45 countries (Noyes 2016), distributed from Australia to Sweden and Argentina. In the Neotropical Region the chalcidid is recorded from Mexico, Haiti, Jamaica, Peru, Brazil and Argentina. Its region of origin is not known and it is possible that is was introduced by Europeans when colonising the Americas.

Chalcis amenocles Walker  and Brachymeria Beccarii Masi  were synonymised with B. podagrica  by Bouček (1972). However, examination of their types show that they belong to another distinct and valid species which is revalidated here.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Chalcididae

Genus

Brachymeria

Loc

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787)

Delvare, Gérard & Huchet, Jean-Bernard 2017
2017
Loc

Chalcis restituta

BoUcek 1992: 30
Walker 1862: 351
1992
Loc

Brachymeria aligarhensis

Narendran 1989: 260
Husain 1982: 499
1989
Loc

Tumidicoxoides kurandaensis

BoUcek 1988: 72
GiraUlt 1913: 86
1988
Loc

Chalcis dipterophaga GiraUlt & Dodd in GiraUlt 1915 : 320

BoUcek 1988: 72
GiraUlt 1915: 320
1988
Loc

Tumidicoxoides paucipunctatus

BoUcek 1988: 72
GiraUlt 1915: 326
1988
Loc

Chalcis vegai

BoUcek 1988: 72
GiraUlt 1924: 175
1988
Loc

Chalcis podagrica

BoUcek 1972: 241
1972
Loc

Brachymeria podagrica

BoUcek 1972: 241
1972
Loc

Chalcis alphius

BoUcek 1972: 241
Walker 1846: 108
1972
Loc

Chalcis xerxena

BoUcek 1972: 241
Walker 1846: 108
1972
Loc

Chalcis pulchripes

BoUcek 1972: 241
Holmgren 1868: 436
1972
Loc

Chalcis mansueta

BoUcek 1972: 241
Walker 1871: 48
1972
Loc

Chalcis callipus

BoUcek 1972: 241
Kirby 1883: 75
1972
Loc

Chalcis mikado

BoUcek 1972: 241
Cameron 1888: 117
1972
Loc

Chalcis eccentrica

BoUcek 1972: 241
Cameron 1897: 39
1972
Loc

Chalcis borneanus

BoUcek 1972: 241
1972
Loc

Chalcis garutianus Günther in Hellen &Günther 1936 : 73

BoUcek 1972: 241
Hellen 1936: 73
1972
Loc

Chalcis ferox

Steffan 1959: 42
Kieffer 1905: 263
1959
Loc

Chalcis ferox Var. coxalis

Steffan 1959: 42
Kieffer 1905: 264
1959
Loc

Chalcis neglecta

Steffan 1959: 42
MaSi 1916: 84
1959
Loc

Chalcis sodalis

Steffan 1959: 42
MaSi 1917: 128
1959
Loc

Brachymeria Fonscolombei Var.

MaSi 1938: 210
1938
Loc

Chalcis femorata

Dalla 1898: 391
1898
Loc

Chalcis

BoUcek 1972: 241
DUfoUr 1841: 16
1841
Loc

Chalcis spilopus

Cameron 1905: 231
Loc

Chalcis capensis

Cameron 1905: 311
Loc

Chalcis transvaalensis

Cameron 1911: 214
Loc

Chalcis vulcani

Schmitz 1946: 63