Leporinus multimaculatus , Birindelli, José L. O., Teixeira, Tulio F. & Britski, Heraldo A., 2016

Birindelli, José L. O., Teixeira, Tulio F. & Britski, Heraldo A., 2016, Two new species of Leporinus Agassiz, 1929 (Characiformes: Anostomidae) from tributaries of the lower Amazon basin in Brazil, Zootaxa 4178 (1), pp. 97-115: 98-105

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4178.1.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0C795CEE-65CE-4903-9B64-DBC18BFC0A06

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B25219-9B34-FFFA-FF31-88D2641B9684

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Leporinus multimaculatus
status

new species

Leporinus multimaculatus  , new species

( Figs. 1–3View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3)

Leporinus  “sp.3”.— Santos & Jégu, 1989: 174, fig. 13, plate VII (fig. 17) (abridged description, comments on species diagnosis, illustration of teeth, picture of preserved specimen; lower rio Tocantins, Pará, Brazil).

Leporinus  “spotted juveniles? maculatus”.—Lowe McConnel, 1991: 68 (checklist; roadside streams, Córrego do Bacaba, Sangadina stream, Rio das Mortes, rio Araguaia basin, Serra do Roncador, Brazil).

Leporinus  “sp.1”.— Venere & Garutti, 2011: 51, photo (short description, biological data, picture of recently preserved specimen; Parque Estadual da Serra Azul, Mato Grosso, Brazil).

Leporinus megalepis  (non Günther, 1863).— Buckup et al., 2011: fig. 7.8D (checklist; picture of live specimen, rio Fresco, rio Xingu basin).

Leporinus  sp.— Lima & Caires, 2011: 235, 238, 245 (listed; rio Novo, Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins, rio Tocantins basin; mentioned as a potential undescribed species).

Holotype. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 119000, 87.4 mm SL; Brazil: Mato Grosso: Barra do Garças: Araguaia-Tocantins basin: Córrego Grande , tributary of rio das Mortes, approximately 30 km from the city, 15°35'43"S 52°22'39"W; V. Garutti, P. Vênere, V. Oliveira & M. S. M. Ramos, 27 Jul 2005.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes. Brazil, Goiás (Araguaia-Tocantins basin). MCPAbout MCP 15921, 5, 80.2–97.8 mm SL; Niquelândia: rio do Peixe, tributary of rio Bagagem , on road between Niquelândia and Colinas, 14°27'S 48°14'W; R. E. Reis et al., 16 Jul 1992.GoogleMaps  MNRJAbout MNRJ 47513, 2, 78.1–81.2 mm SL; same data as MCPAbout MCP 15921View Materials.GoogleMaps  MPEGAbout MPEG 34059, 3, 79.9–84.5 mm SL; same data as MCPAbout MCP 15921View Materials.GoogleMaps  MZUEL 5962, 2, 65.3–79.5 mm SL; Pirenópolis: Ribeirão Conceição , tributary of rio das Almas, 15°47'36.7"S 49°04'51.9"W; O. A. Shibatta et al., 15 Jul 2007.GoogleMaps  MZUEL 5981, 1, 79.5 mm SL; Pirenópolis: Córrego Santa Rita , 15°51’06.5”S 49°07’01.2”W, O. A. Shibatta et al., 15 Jul 2010.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94473, 1, 83.4 mm SL; Crixás: Ribeirão D’Anta, under the bridge of the road GO-336, rio Crixás-Açú basin, 14°32'06"S 50°02'12"W; M.R.S. Melo et al., 29 Jul 2005.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 114360, 4, 39.9–63.9 mm SL; Cavalcante: rio Muquem, tributary of rio Claro , under the bridge between Colina e Cavalcante , after the village of Capela , 13°56'56.5"S 47°42'26.2"W; O. T. Oyakawa et al., 29 Nov 2012.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 115361, 2, 74.5–91.7 mm SL; Taquaral: Taquarizinho , 15°40'41.5"S 52°17'51.5"WGoogleMaps  ; P. Venere & H. Batista, 9 May 2013. Mato Grosso (Araguaia- Tocantins basin). MZUEL 7631, 2, 91.9–102.2 mm SL; Barra do Garças: rio Taquaral , 15°40'41.4"S 52°17'52.3"WGoogleMaps  ; L. R. Jarduli et al., 30 Jul 2008.— MZUEL 7632, 2, 46.9–47.9 mm SL; Barra do Garças: rio Insula , 15°34'44.8"S 52°22'35.8"WGoogleMaps  ; L. R. Jarduli et al., 30 Jul 2008.— MZUEL 7633, 2, 43.6–49.3 mm SL; Barra do Garças: tributary of rio Insula , 15°34'19.7"S 52°13'25.6"WGoogleMaps  ; L. R. Jarduli et al., 1 Aug 2008.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 88145, 2, 94.3–108.1 mm SL; collected with holotype. Mato Grosso ( Xingu basin)  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91809, 2, 72.5–82.7 mm SL; Paranatinga: rio Sucurí, tributary of rio Culuene , 13°55'40"S 53°17'10"W; J. L. Birindelli et al., 21 Aug 2006.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94442, 3, 38.3–77.3 mm SL; Campinápolis: Córrego do Lício, tributary of rio Culuene , 13°50'22"S 53°14'59"W; F. C. T. Lima et al., 0 5 Oct 2007.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 96901, 5, 37.0– 88.1 mm SL; same data of MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94442View Materials.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94871, 3, 45.3–56.0 mm SL; Paranatinga: rio Culuene , 13°49'00"S 53°15'00"W; L. M. Sousa, 2 Jul 2007.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 97047, 4, 58.7–78.6 mm SL; Campinápolis: Córrego Água Fria, tributary of rio Couto de Magalhães , nearby the village of São José do rio Couto , 13°49'25"S 53°04'30"WGoogleMaps  ; F. C. T. Lima et al., 6 Oct 2007. Pará (Araguaia-Tocantins basin). MCNIP 1309, 3, 74.2–88.2 mm SL; Ourilândia do Norte: tributary of Igarapé Motosserra , rio Itacaiunas drainage, 6°32'10"S 51°06'19"WGoogleMaps  ; S. A. Santos et al., 11 Sept 2011.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 29175, 8, 64.9–99.3 mm SL; Caldeirão: Igarapé Pojuca, tributary of rio Itacaiunas at Serra dos Carajás, 5°52'00"S 50°32'00"WGoogleMaps  ; M. Goulding, 15 Oct 1983.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 105509, 3, 36.4–43.4 mm SL; Marabá, rio Tapirapé at Tatuzão camp site, Bacaba base of REBIO Tapirapé , 5°36'47"S 50°26'42"WGoogleMaps  ; I. Fichberg & J. Muriel-Cunha, 0 9 Aug 2008.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 105596, 1, 79.0 mm SL; Marabá: rio Itacaiunas, upstream of confluence with rio Tapirapé , 5°41'18"S 50°17'51"WGoogleMaps  ; I. Fichberg & J. Muriel-Cunha, 12 Aug 2008.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 105806, 2, 46.5–46.6 mm SL; Marabá: rio Tapirapé at Cachoeirinha , upstream of REBIO Tapirapé , 5°32'02"S 50°40'04"WGoogleMaps  ; I. Fichberg & J. Muriel-Cunha, 11 Aug 2008. Pará (Xingu basin). LIAAbout LIA 36, 1, 93.4 mm SL; Vitória do Xingu: Seca Farinha , rio Bacajá drainage, 3°43'37"S 51°33'59"WGoogleMaps  ; D. Bastos et al., 23 Sep 2012.— LIAAbout LIA 37, 2, 90.1–92.9 mm SL; Vitória do Xingu: Seca Farinha, rio Bacajá drainage, 3°43'37"S 51°33'59"WGoogleMaps  ; D. Bastos et al., 23 Sep 2012.— LIAAbout LIA 240, 1, 76.1 mm SL; Senador José Porfírio: rio Bacajaí , 3°48'46"S 51°41'47"WGoogleMaps  ; A. Gonçalves et al., 9 Jul 2014.— LIAAbout LIA 1795, 1, 67.2 mm SL; Brasil Novo: 3°44'45"S 52°39'46"WGoogleMaps  ; D. Bastos, 23 Jul 2014.— MCNIP 1308, 1, 77.9 mm SL; Ourilândia do Norte: rio Carapanã, tributary of rio Mogno , 6°33'27"S 51°09'45"WGoogleMaps  ; S. A. Santos et al., 14 Jul 2014.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 35990, 1, 98.0 mm SL; São Félix do Xingu: rio Fresco at Gorotire , 7°46'00"S 51°08'00"WGoogleMaps  ; M. Petrere Jr., Aug 1983.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 36037, 2, 59.4–72.2 mm SL; São Felix do Xingu: Igarapé Ponte, tributary of rio Ponte at Gorotire , 7°46'00"S 51°08'00"WGoogleMaps  ; M. Petrere Jr., 25 Aug 1983.— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 111723, 1, 92.4 mm SL; Medicilândia: small tributary of rio Xingu, about 4 km from the city, road to Itaituba , 3°27'20"S 52°55'36"WGoogleMaps  ; J. L. O. Birindelli et al., 19 Nov 2011. Tocantins (Araguaia-Tocantins basin). MZUSPAbout MZUSP 46609, 1, 76.3 mm SL; Natividade: rio do Peixe , nearby road TO-280, 11°44'S 47°47'WGoogleMaps  ; D. F. Pereira. — MZUSPAbout MZUSP 83799, 2, 71.3–109.8 mm SL; Ponte Alta do Bom Jesus: rio Palmeiras, 10 km from ferry boat by road TO 485 to Ponte Alta do Bom Jesus , 12°15'43"S 46°53'36"W; C. R. Moreira & J. C. Nolasco, 17 Nov 2002.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 83888, 1, 69.5 mm SL; Porto Alegre do Tocantins: rio Manuel Alves da Natividade in front of Porto Alegre do Tocantins, 11°36'41"S 47°02'39"W; C. R. Moreira & J. C. Nolasco, 14 Nov 2002.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 84064, 1, 76.7 mm SL; Ponte Alta do Bom Jesus: Ribeirão do Inferno on the road BR-010 to Ponte Alta do Bom Jesus , 11°58'23"S 46°29'30"W; C. R. Moreira & J. C. Nolasco, 30 Jul 2002.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94444, 1, 83.4 mm SL; Ponte Alta do Tocantins: rio do Sono at Cachoeira da Velha.  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 98493, 3, 74.5–105.0 mm SL; Mateiros: rio Novo, near the mouth of Córrego Lajeiro , 10°46'23"S 46°43'08"W; F. C. T. Lima et al., 1 Feb 2008.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 114166, 2, 79.1–82.4 mm SL; Arraias: rio Santa Isabel at the road TO-050, 12°38'34.6"S 47°07'10.2"W; J. L. Birindelli et al., 1 Dez 2012.GoogleMaps 

Non-type specimens. All from Brazil. Amapá. MPEGAbout MPEG 3193, 1, 101.3 mm SL; Ferreira Gomes: rio Cupixi , bridge on road to Serra do Navio; M. Goulding, 31 Jul 1984  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 103467, 1, 85.5 mm SL; Laranjal do Jari: rio Iratapuru, tributary of rio Jari , 0°33'59"S 52°34'40"W; J. L. O. Birindelli et al., 20 Fev 2009GoogleMaps  . Goiás (Araguaia- Tocantins basin). MCPAbout MCP 15858, 1, 73.9 mm SL; Niquelândia: Ribeirão da Laje, Fazenda Aranha , 14°18'S 48°44'W; R. E. Reis et al., 17 Jul 1992GoogleMaps  .— MCPAbout MCP 41375, 3, 50.0– 68.8 mm SL; Piranhas: rio Piranhas , near mouth of córrego das Pedras, 16°32'03"S 51°49'58"W; S. Rosa, 7 Nov 2005GoogleMaps  .— MCPAbout MCP 41404, 1, 67.3 mm SL; Piranhas: rio Piranhas, near mouth of rio São Domingos , 16°33'06"S 51°49'52"W; S. Rosa, 23 Jul 2006GoogleMaps  .— MCPAbout MCP 42405, 1, 100.0 mm SL; Piranhas: rio Piranhas, near mouth of rio São Domingos , 16°33'06"S 51°49'52"W; Equipe CTA, 16 Jul 2007GoogleMaps  .— MCPAbout MCP 43680, 5, 82.3–97.4 mm SL; Piranhas: rio Piranhas, near mouth of rio São Domingos , 16°33'06"S 51°49'52"W; Equipe CTA, 24 Jan 2008GoogleMaps  .— MCPAbout MCP 43749, 1, 77.6 mm SL; Piranhas: rio Piranhas, near mouth of rio São Domingos , 16°33'06"S 51°49'52"W; Equipe CTA, 10 Jul 2008GoogleMaps  .— MNRJAbout MNRJ 12637, 1, 70.8 mm SL; Niquelândia: rio Indaial , tributary of rio Maranhão, 14°12'S 48°37'W; G. W. Nunan & D. F. Mores Jr., 9 Oct 1985GoogleMaps  .—MNRJ 13036, 1, 75.0 mm SL; Minaçu: tributary of Córrego Lageado; D. F. Moraes et al., 16 Jan 1988. Mato Grosso (rio Araguaia-Tocantins basin). MZUEL 7630, 1, 77.5 mm SL; Barra do Garças: Córrego Fundo , 15°51'32.2"S 52°19'01.0"W; L. R. Jarduli et al., 29 Jul 2008GoogleMaps  . Mato Grosso (Xingu basin). MNRJAbout MNRJ 34073, 4, 66.2–93.3 mm SL; Santa Cruz do Xingu: creek tributary of rio Pacari , on road MT430, 10°31'43"S 52°31'43"W; M. R. Britto et al., 7 Oct 2008GoogleMaps  .— MNRJAbout MNRJ 34075, 2, 52.4–93.8 mm SL; Cumarã do Norte: rio Trairão, tributary of rio Fresco , 7°56'34"S 50°47'48"W; J. L. O. Birindelli et al., 9 Oct 2008GoogleMaps  .— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 89938, 3, 75.9–85.7 mm SL; Paranatinga: rio Culuene, Cachoeira do Adelino , 13°51'08"S 53°15'22"W; A. Akama & J. L. Birindelli, Jan 2006GoogleMaps  .— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91840, 47, 46.1–88.2 mm SL; Paranatinga: Córrego do Lício, tributary of rio Culuene , 13°50'22"S 53°14'59"W; J. L. Birindelli et al., 21 Aug 2006GoogleMaps  .— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94441, 1, 27.9 mm SL; Campinápolis: rio Culuene , 13°49'00"S 53°15'00"W; F. C. T. Lima et al., May 2007GoogleMaps  .— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 95539, 2, 50.7–53.4 mm SL; Campinápolis: rio Couto de Magalhães, nearby village of São José do Rio do Couto, 13°50'17"S 53°03'53"W; F. C. T. Lima et al., 0 6 Oct 2007GoogleMaps  .— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 89940, 7, 28.9–52.2 mm SL; Paranatinga: rio Culuene , 13°49'S 53°15'W; A. Akama & J. L. Birindelli, 15 Jan 2006GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 97011, 1, 42.7 mm SL; Campinápolis: rio Couto de Magalhães, at the mouth of Córrego Água Clara , 13°48'02"S 53°03'43"W; F. C. T. Lima et al., 10 Oct 2007GoogleMaps  .— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 97454, 1, 68.5 mm SL; Campinápolis: creek tributary of rio Culuene , 13°48'27"S 53°12'43"W; F. C. T. Lima et al., 5 Oct 2007. Pará (Araguaia-Tocantins basin)GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 1565, 9, 39.4–92.3 mm SL; Tucuruí: Igarapé Valentim, tributary of rio Tocantins; G. M. Santos, 6 Jul 1982  .— INPAAbout INPA 1904, 10, 90.2–95.6 mm SL; Tucuruí: Igarapé Valentim, tributary of rio Tocantins; G. M. Santos, 24 Nov 1981  . – INPAAbout INPA 24903, 1, 107.3 mm SL; Curionópolis: Córrego Cupuzeiro, tributary of rio Parauapebas ; G. M. Santos, 5 Aug 2005  . Pará (Xingu basin). LIAAbout LIA 1743, 1, 79.5 mm SL; Vitória do Xingu: tributary of rio Paquiçamba , 3°17'15"S 51°53'22"W; A. Gonçalves et al., 30 May 2012GoogleMaps  .— LIAAbout LIA 2342, 1, 65.9 mm SL; São Felix do Xingu: Igarapé do Pontal at Parna Serra do Pardo , 5°48'18"S 52°40'19"W; A. Gonçalves et al., 18 May 2015GoogleMaps  .— MNRJAbout MNRJ 34078, 2, 90.3–100.6 mm SL; Ourilândia: tributary of rio Jauri, tributary of rio Fresco , 7°13'24"S 50°37'10"W; J. L. O. Birindelli et al., 10 Oct 2008GoogleMaps  .— MNRJAbout MNRJ 34080, 1, 92.6 mm SL; Ourilândia: rio Branco, tributary of rio Fresco , 7°03'57"S 50°49'03"W; M. R. Britto et al., 10 Oct 2008GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 110623, 1 SK, 105.0 mm SL; Medicilândia: small tributary of rio Xingu, road to Itaituba , 4 km from the city, 3°27'20"S 52°55'36"W, J. L. O. Birindelli et al., 19 Nov 2011GoogleMaps  . Tocantins (Araguaia-Tocantins basin). MZUSPAbout MZUSP 83997, 15, 70.1–117.1 mm SL, 1 CS, 91.0 mm SL; Novo Jardim: Lagoa Bonita , 11°40'24"S 46°39'24"W; C. R. Moreira & J. C. Nolasco, 28 Jul 2002GoogleMaps  .— MZUSPAbout MZUSP 84134, 8, 82.3–96.8 mm SL; same data as MZUSPAbout MZUSP 83997View Materials.GoogleMaps  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 84118, 8, 75.1–92.5 mm SL; Conceição do Tocantins: rio Palma , 12°22'08"S 47°03'21"W; C. R. Moreira et al., 1 Aug 2002GoogleMaps  .— UNTAbout UNT 5292, 2, 80.0– 80.2 mm SL; Brejinho de Nazaré: rio Crixás ; NEAMB-UFT, 19 Ago 2000  .— UNTAbout UNT 9087, 1, 79.0 mm SL; Sucupira: rio Santa Tereza ; A. Akama & A. B. Soares, 2 Nov 2008  .— UNTAbout UNT 11216, 3, not measured; São João do Araguaia: rio Ubá.  

Diagnosis. Leporinus multimaculatus  is distinguished from all other anostomids except Hypomasticus julii  , H. megalepis  , H. pachycheilus  , Leporinus gomesi  , L. granti  , L. nijsseni  , L. santosi  and L. torrenticola  , by having one dark blotch on midline of anterior portion of the flank (between opercle and pelvic-fin origin) surrounded by five to seven dark blotches (vs. anterior portion of flank with dark longitudinal stripes, or with dark transversal bars, or with dark blotches not forming the aforementioned pattern). Leporinus multimaculatus  is distinguished from Hypomasticus julii  , H. pachycheilus  , Leporinus gomesi  , L. granti  , L. nijsseni  , and L. santosi  , by having three teeth on premaxilla (vs. four), and subinferior mouth (vs. inferior in Hypomasticus julii  and H. pachycheilus  , and terminal in Leporinus gomesi  , L. granti  , L. nijsseni  , and L. santosi  ); and from H. megalepis  and L. torrenticola  by having 12 scale rows around caudal peduncle (vs. 16). See discussion for additional notes on species diagnosis.

Description. Morphometric data in Table 1. Body small, relative to congeners. Largest examined specimen 110.6 mm SL. Head and body elongate and moderately compressed. Dorsal profile convex from snout tip to vertical through anterior nostril, gently convex from latter point to supraoccipital spine, gently convex or straight from that point to dorsal-fin origin, straight along dorsal-fin base, approximately straight from dorsal-fin terminus to adipose fin, and slightly or distinctly concave from adipose fin to anteriormost dorsal caudal-fin procurrent ray.

Ventral profile relatively straight from tip of lower jaw to vertical through pectoral-fin origin, convex from that point to pelvic-fin origin, approximately straight from latter point to anal-fin origin, straight along anal-fin base, and concave from anal-fin terminus to anteriormost ventral caudal-fin procurrent ray. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin.

Mouth subinferior, its cleft longitudinally aligned with ventral margin of eye in specimens of around 40 mm SL, and with ventral margin of infraorbital series in specimens of 60 mm SL or more. Snout rounded. Premaxillary bone with 3* (93) incisiform teeth gently decreasing in size from symphyseal tooth ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Dentary bone with 4* (81) or 5 (1) incisiform teeth also gently decreasing in size laterally. Teeth with two or more rudimentary cusps in specimens of around 60 mm SL or less, cusps more developed in lateralmost teeth.

Scales cycloid, with 9 to 10 (2) radii reaching posterior margin. Lateral line complete with 36 (34), 37* (46), 38 (11) or 39 (1) perforated scales, extending from supracleithrum to base of median caudal fin rays. Horizontal scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line 4* (85) or 5 (8). Horizontal scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin 3.5 (2) or 4* (91). Horizontal scale rows around caudal peduncle 12* (93). Predorsal scales from tip of supraoccipital spine to dorsal-fin origin 10 (5), 11* (22) or 12 (9).

Dorsal-fin rays ii,10* (36); its origin slightly anterior to vertical through pelvic-fin insertion and anterior to middle of standard length; distal margin of dorsal fin rounded. Adipose fin small, teardrop shaped, its origin approximately at vertical through base of fourth to sixth anal-fin ray. Pectoral-fin rays i,14 (16), i,15* (17) or i,16 (3); tip of fin extending from half to two-thirds distance between of pectoral and pelvic-fin insertions; distal margin convex. Pelvic-fin rays i,8* (36); origin at vertical through base of second to sixth dorsal-fin branched ray; distal margin rounded. Anal-fin rays ii,8* (36); origin slightly posterior to half the distance between pelvic-fin origin and ventralmost caudal-fin procurrent ray; adpressed fin almost reaching anteriormost caudal-fin procurrent rays; distal margin convex in most specimens and straight with rounded border in few specimens. Principal caudal-fin rays i,9,8,i* (36); caudal fin forked, lobes rounded, upper lobe slightly longer than lower lobe. Supraneurals 5 (2). Vertebrae 36 (1) or 37 (1), with ribs present on vertebrae 5 to 23 (1) or 24 (1). First dorsal-fin pterygiophore inserted posterior to neural spine of vertebra 10 (2). First anal-fin pterygiophore inserted posterior to haemal spine of vertebra 25 (2).

Color in alcohol. Ground color of head and body beige or light brown and countershaded ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). Posterior tip of upper lip conspicuously dark. Snout with two dark stripes, one from posterior nostril to eye, the second from posterior tip of upper lip to eye; stripes present in specimens of all sizes, although inconspicuous in some large specimens. Upper half of opercle with two dark blotches, one at middle portion, the other at upper portion; blotches present in specimens of all sizes, although inconspicuous in some specimens. Dorsal portion of head with one dark transversal band at interorbital region and another on supraoccipital in all examined specimens irrespective of size, although inconspicuous in some specimens. Body scales with dark chromatophores concentrated on distal margin resulting in overall reticulated pattern in specimens of all sizes, with concentration of chromatophores on upper and lower portion of each body scale forming inconspicuous longitudinal lines in few specimens. In specimens around 30 mm SL, body with eight dark transversal bands, interrupted in the middle of body, except for seventh and eighth bands, which are continuous; two small dark midlateral blotches on anterior portion, plus one large dark midlateral blotch below dorsal fin and another above anal-fin origin ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 a). In specimens of approximately 40 mm SL, body with dark transversal bands interrupted in the middle and partially fragmented ventrally. In specimens of approximately 50 mm SL, body with eight to eleven dark transversal band on dorsum, and several rounded blotches on flank, including one dark blotch on midline of anterior portion of the flank (between opercle and pelvic-fin origin) surrounded by five to seven dark blotches, one large blotch below dorsal fin, another above analfin origin, and another one smaller at caudal peduncle. In specimens of 60 mm SL or larger, body with ten to fourteen dark transversal bands on dorsum, and many rounded dark blotches on flank, including one dark blotch on midline of anterior portion of the flank (between opercle and pelvic-fin origin) surrounded by five to seven dark blotches, and three large midlateral ones below dorsal fin, above anal-fin origin and in front of caudal fin. Blotches on body varying in number from fifteen to approximately thirty; blotches also varying in shape from ovoid to rounded to subrectangular. Blotches formed exclusively by dermal pigmentation, except for three large midlateral blotches formed by epidermal pigmentation underlaid by dermal pigmentation. Base of median caudal-fin rays bearing a dark spot in specimens smaller than 50 mm SL; spot gradually faded or fused to midlateral blotch of caudal peduncle in larger specimens. Dorsal, pectoral, pelvic, anal and caudal fins completely hyaline or with rays darkened in specimens of 40 mm SL or more. Dorsal and anal fins with base darkened in specimens of approximately 30 mm SL. Adipose fin with base and distal margin darkened.

Color in life. Coloration in life similar to coloration in alcohol, except for head and body generally more yellow and silvery; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins more yellow or orange; anterior rays of pelvic and anal fins distinctly orange in some specimens; adipose fin light red in some specimens, exposed posterior portion of body scales on dorsoanterior portion of flank silvery ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2).

Geographical distribution. Leporinus multimaculatus  is known from small tributaries at the rio Araguaia, rioTocantins and rio Xingu basins at Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará and Tocantins states, in the rio Jari basin, a tributary of the left margin of the Amazon river in the border between Amapá and Pará states, and also from coastal drainages of Amapá state, in Brazil ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Etymology. From the Latin multus meaning many and maculatus meaning spot, in reference of the presence of many dark blotches on the body. An adjective.

Habitat and ecological notes. Our observations in the field corroborated Santos & Jégu (1989: 177) and Venere & Garutti (2011: 51), who had earlier stated that Leporinus multimaculatus  (their Leporinus  “sp.3” and “sp.1”, respectively) prefers small tributaries instead of large rivers. Venere & Garutti (2011: 51) reported the species to be herbivorous, feeding mainly on leafs, flowers, fruits, seeds and filamentous algae.

Conservation status. Leporinus multimaculatus  is widespread across small and medium sized tributaries of the rio Araguaia, rio Tocantins and rio Xingu basins, occupying a broad area in the central and northern portions of Brazil. Even though this area currently faces a very significant anthropogenic pressures via the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, there are still several number of protected areas where the species is likely maintaining healthy populations, such as Parque Indígena do Xingu, Parque Nacional do Araguaia, Parque Estadual da Serra Azul, Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins, among others. Therefore, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria (IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee, 2014), Leporinus multimaculatus  should be classified as Least Concern (LC).

Remarks. Géry (1977: 171, 173) mentioned that Hypomasticus megalepis  (identified by him as Leporinus  “ maculatus ”) was found in the Guianas as well as in the southern portion of the Amazon basin, and presented two pictures of living specimens in aquarium that were recently bred by H. Azuma. One of the pictures showed onemonth-old specimens with eight dark transversal bands on the body and one dark longitudinal stripe on the head (crossing through the eye), a color pattern typical of most species of Anostomidae  (J.L. Birindelli, unpubl. data). The other picture showed four-months-old specimens with the body covered by dark blotches, including one on midline of anterior portion of flank surrounded by five or six dark blotches. It is most likely that Azuma’s specimens do not belong to Hypomasticus megalepis  , since they present the dark midline blotch aligned to the three midlateral blotches, and possibly centered with the lateral line. On the other hand, it is impossible to determine if Azuma’s specimens belong to L. multimaculatus  or L. torrenticola  , because it is not possible to count the scale rows around the caudal peduncle, the main feature that distinguishes both new species. It is more likely, however, that Azuma’s specimens belong to Leporinus multimaculatus  that is more widespread and less demanding (in terms of water quality) than L. torrenticola  .

Bartolette et al. (2012: 59) and Albrecht et al. (2012: 203) cited specimens of Leporinus  identified as Leporinus  sp. from the Tocantins river basin at UHE Serra da Mesa, Goiás, Brazil, within the distribution range of L. multimaculatus  . Nevertheless, the specimens used in those studies ( UNTAbout UNT 699 [ex. UNTAbout UNT 2347] and UNTAbout UNT 700 [ex. UNTAbout UNT 3248]) belong to L. ortomaculatus  .

TABLE 1. Morphometric data for Leporinus multimaculatus. SD = Standard deviation.

  n mean range SD holotype
Standard length (SL) 36 86.0 55.8 110.6 87.4
Percents of SL
Body depth 36 26.5 24.0 29.5 1.4 26.8
Caudal peduncle depth 36 10.3 9.1 12.0 0.6 10.2
Head length 36 24.2 22.8 29.2 1.2 22.8
Predorsal distance 36 48.1 45.6 51.8 1.2 46.1
Prepelvic distance 36 50.7 47.7 53.2 1.3 50.0
Percents of head length
Eye diameter 36 28 21 35 3.1 27
Snout length 36 40 37 43 1.6 36
Bony interorbital 36 39 34 42 2.1 38
MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MCP

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

LIA

Cryobank of Microorganisms

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

UNT

Universidad nacional de Tucumn

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Characiformes

Family

Anostomidae

Genus

Leporinus

Loc

Leporinus multimaculatus

Birindelli, José L. O., Teixeira, Tulio F. & Britski, Heraldo A. 2016

2016
Loc

Leporinus

Venere 2011: 51

2011
Loc

Leporinus

Lima 2011: 235

2011
Loc

Leporinus

McConnel 1991: 68

1991