Sinophasma bii , Ho, George Wai-Chun, 2012

Ho, George Wai-Chun, 2012, Notes on the genera Sinophasma Günther, 1940 and Pachyscia Redtenbacher, 1908 (Phasmatodea: Diapheromeridae: Necrosciinae), with the description of four new species from China, Zootaxa 3495, pp. 57-72: 60-64

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.214059

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B59FEEBB-A7B2-44C8-8372-087EB5F7A9D8

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B387C0-7270-3462-EEDF-02028D10FA99

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sinophasma bii
status

sp. nov.

Sinophasma bii  sp. nov.

( Figs. 1–5 View Figure )

Type-material. Holotype 3, 850 m., Wengdang, Mengla, Jinping, Yunnan Province, China, 26.V. 2009, Liu Xianwei et al., 12001012 (SEM); Paratypes 2 ƤƤ, 850 m., Wengdang, Mengla, Jinping, Yunnan Province, China, 26.V. 2009, Liu Xianwei et al., 12001015 & 12001017 (SEM).

Diagnosis. Medium Sinophasma  . Closely related to S. jinxiuense Chen & He, 2008  [Guangxi, China] but S. bii  sp. nov. [Yunnan, China] is well distinguished by broadly emarginated hind margin of the anal segment of male, which has the postero-lateral angles square in shape, and with elongate praeopercular organ on seventh sternum in female. Also closely related to S. atratum Chen & He, 2000  [Guangxi, China] but S. bii  sp. nov. [Yunnan, China] can be separated by the postero-lateral angles of ninth tergum rounded in male and gonapophyses reaching to the base of anal segment and alae reaching to sixth tergum in female.

Description. Male ( Figs. 1–3 View Figure ). Body slender and elongate. General colouration of body, legs, tegmina and costal region of alae brown. Smaller and more slender than the female.

Head: Brown, slightly darker along the median furrow. Oval, longer than wide, smooth. Vertex flat, with two small oval depressions between the bases of antennae. Occiput slightly convex. Median and lateral furrows indistinct. Eyes small, oval and protruding, brown, with a black transverse stripe. Antennae brown dorsally and dark brown ventrally, exceeding the end of anal segment; the first segment cylindrical, constricted at base, 2 x length of second segment.

Thorax: Brown as body, with granulations. Pronotum with three blackish longitudinal stripes, covered with very few granules, rectangular, shorter than head, anterior margin curved inward, posterior margin rounded, longitudinal sulcus and transverse sulcus crossing before middle. Mesonotum with a blackish medio-longitudinal band running from anterior margin to the hind margin, parallel-sided, 3.3 x length of pronotum, densely covered with irregular sizes of small granules, medially carinate, with two longitudinal carinae being closely laterad of the lateral margins. Mesopleurum less granulated than mesonotum, with a lateral carina. Mesosternum granulated, less distinct near posterior, with a thin dark brown longitudinal stripe. Metapleurum and metasternum indistinctly granulated.

Abdomen: Slender, brown, lacking granulation. Second to sixth tergites parallel-sided. Seventh tergum and eighth tergum expanded posteriorly. Ninth tergum strongly convex medially, as long as anal segment, deeply curved inward at hind margin, postero-lateral angles broadened and rounded. Anal segment longer than eighth tergum, decurved downward vertically, with a rounded depression medially, median carina indistinct, hind margin broadly emarginated, lateral angles square-shaped. Poculum strongly convex, goose-bill shaped in lateral view, almost reaching end of anal segment. Cerci brown, cylindrical, straight, apices rounded, not exceeding posterolateral angles of the anal segment.

Legs: Very elongate. Brown as body, with dark brown stripe along all carinae of femora and tibiae. All tibiae and tarsi dark brown at the apex. Dorsal and ventral carinae of all femora and tibiae smooth, lacking armature. Profemora curved basally, longer than mesothorax. Mesofemora almost as long as mesotibiae. Metafemora slightly shorter than metatibiae.

Wings: Tegmina brown at anterior region, dark brown at posterior region, oval, rounded posteriorly, shorter than pronotum, elevated angle blunt and black, with a white longitudinal stripe being laterad of the black elevation. Alae long, reaching end of sixth tergum, costal region brown, posterior margin with a dark brown longitudinal band.

Female ( Figs. 4–5 View Figure ). Generally similar to male, but larger and more robust.

Head: Rounded, almost as long as wide, 1.6 x length of pronotum. Brown, with eight faint and blackish longitudinal bands segregated by median and six lateral furrows. Occiput slightly convex. Eyes oval, with a black transverse stripe. Antennae long; the first segment 2 x length of second segment.

Thorax: Granulated. Pronotum with three thin blackish longitudinal stripes, longitudinal sulcus and transverse sulcus crossing before middle. Mesonotum 4 x longer than pronotum, densely granulated, granules slightly bigger along the blackish median carina, two lateral carinae distinct being laterad of lateral margins. Mesopleurum, mesosternum, metapleurum and metasternum indistinctly granulated.

Abdomen: Cylindrical and smooth. Tapering posteriorly. Segments gradually increase in length from second tergum to sixth tergum, the sixth tergum about 1.25 x length of second tergum. Seventh sternum with prominent praeopercular organ, elongate posteriorly, apex pointed. Anal segment as long as eighth tergum, longer than ninth tergum, hind margin pointed, truncate in lateral view. Supra-anal plate indistinct. Subgenital plate short, reaching half length of ninth tergum, apex slightly pointed. Gonapophyses exposed, reaching base of anal segment. Cerci long and straight, cylindrical, slightly exceeding end of the anal segment.

Legs: Broader than in male. Unarmed. With dark brown stripe on all carinae of femora and tibiae. Apex of all femora and tarsi dark brown. Mesofemora as long as mesotibiae.

Wings: Similar to the male. Tegmina oval and brown. Alae reaching sixth tergum, costal region brown, posterior margin with a dark brown longitudinal band.

Measurements in table 1.

Notes. This is the first Sinophasma  known from Yunnan Province.

Distribution. Yunnan (Jinping), China.

Etymology. This new species is named in honour and memory of Prof. Bi Daoying for his contribution to the taxonomic study of Chinese Phasmatodea  .

Type-material. Holotype 3, 1050 m., Mt. Baishanzu, Qingyuan, Zhejiang Province, China, 22.VII. 1963, Jin Gentao, 12000455 (SEM); Paratypes 13, 2ƤƤ, 1100 m., Mt. Baishanzu, Qingyuan, Zhejiang Province, China, 23.VII. 1963, Jin Gentao, 12000365, 12000387 & 12000388 (SEM); Paratype Ƥ, 1000 m., Mt. Baishanzu, Qingyuan, Zhejiang Province, China, 15.X. 1963, Jin Gentao, 12000386 (SEM).

Diagnosis. Medium Sinophasma  . Closely related to S. mirabile Günther, 1940  [Type from Fujian, also found in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Hunan and Zhejiang, China] but well distinguished by broadly emarginated hind margin of the anal segment, which parallel to ninth tergum, flattened cerci, and posteriorly elongated hind margin of poculum in male and deeply emarginated hind margin of the anal segment in female.

Description. Male ( Figs. 6–7 View Figure ). Body slender and elongate. General colouration of body, legs, tegmina and costal region of alae brown. Smaller and thinner than the female.

Head: Brown, with a broad and dark brown longitudinal band along the median furrow, starting from the vertex to the back of head. Genae with a faint and dark brown postocular band. Also with a pale brown band along the lateral furrows between the occipital band and the postocular band. Head oval, longer than wide, longer than pronotum, smooth. Vertex flat, with small oval depression between the bases of antennae. Occiput slightly convex. Median and lateral furrows distinct. Eyes small, oval and protruding, brown, with a black transverse stripe. Antennae brown, filiform, reaching seventh abdominal tergum; the first segment cylindrical, slightly constricted at base, 1.5 x length of second segment, as long as third segment.

Thorax: Brown as body, with granulations. Pronotum with a broad and dark brown longitudinal band along the longitudinal sulcus, covered with very few granules, rectangular, shorter than head, anterior margin near truncate, posterior margin slightly rounded, longitudinal sulcus and transverse sulcus crossing before middle. Mesonotum slightly darker, slightly parallel-sided, 4 x length of pronotum, densely covered with irregular sizes of small and rounded brown granules, medially carinate, with two longitudinal carinae closely being laterad of lateral margins. Granulations indistinct on mesopleurum, mesosternum, metapleurum and mesosternum.

Abdomen: Slender, brown. Smooth. Second to seventh tergites parallel-sided. Eighth tergum expanded posteriorly. Ninth tergum elongate, strongly convex medially, 1.5 x length of anal segment, curved inward at hind margin, postero-lateral angles broadened and rounded projecting over the antero-lateral angle of the anal segment. Ninth tergum of uniform width. Anal segment almost as long as eighth tergum, parallel to ninth tergum, median carina indistinct; hind margin broadly emarginated, u-shape, lateral angles rounded, with small teeth. Poculum strongly elongate posteriorly, lateral margins curved in lateral view, apex pointed, and reaching base of the anal segment. Cerci brown, longer than anal segment, generally flattened but cylindrical at base, dilated in one-fourth region, knife-shape, apices slightly rounded and curved inward, exceeding postero-lateral angles of the anal segment.

Legs: Long and slender. Sparsely covered with bristles. Brown as body. Left foreleg, both midlegs and right hindleg lost in the solely known holotype male. Right profemur, right protibia, left metafemur and left metatibia with dark brown at the apex. Dorsal and ventral carinae of the legs lacking armature. Right profemora curved basally, longer than mesothorax. Left metafemur almost as long as the corresponding metatibia.

Wings: Tegmina brown, with dark brown to blackish brown at posterior region, oval, rounded posteriorly, shorter than head, elevated angle blunt and black, with a white longitudinal stripe being laterad of the black elevation. Alae short, reaching anterior of fifth tergum, light brown along the margin of costal region, other area of the costal region dark brown, veins light brown, anal region rose.

Female ( Figs. 8–9 View Figure ). Generally similar to male, but larger and robust.

Head: Smooth. Brown, with a broad and dark brown longitudinal band along the median furrow as in the male. Genae with a thin postocular band. Oval, longer than wide, longer than pronotum. Occiput convex. Eyes oval, rufous brown, with a black transverse stripe. Antennae long, reaching end of alae; the first segment 1.5 x length of second segment.

Thorax: Granulated. Pronotum with a faint dark brown longitudinal band along the longitudinal sulcus, longitudinal sulcus and transverse sulcus crossing before middle, sparsely granulated. Mesonotum 5 x length of pronotum, brown, densely granulated, median line indistinct. Mesopleurum, mesosternum, metapleurum and metasternum indistinctly granulated.

Abdomen: Cylindrical and smooth. Tapering posteriorly. Seventh sternum lacking praeopercular organ. Anal segment as long as eighth tergum, longer than ninth tergum, medially carinate, hind margin with a deep u-shaped emargination, lateral angles rounded. Supra-anal plate small, apex slightly pointed, exceeding hind margin of the anal segment. Subgenital plate short, reaching half of ninth tergum, apex slightly pointed. Gonapophyses exposed, reaching base of the anal segment. Cerci long and straight, cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, apices pointed, projecting over end of the anal segment.

Legs: Thicker than the male. Unarmed. Generally brown, but left metafemur and left metatibia green in one paratype female. Profemora curved basally, longer than protibiae. Mesofemora longer than the corresponding tibiae. Metafemora slightly as long as mesonotum.

Wings: Similar to the male. Tegmina oval and brown. Alae short, reaching anterior region of fifth tergum, almost as long as the combined length of pronotum and mesonotum together, costal region brown, posterior margin with a dark brown longitudinal band.

Measurements in table 2.

Notes. This is probably a green species in nature based on the green left metafemur and left metatibia of one paratype female. The colouration of most Sinophasma  species is green on body, legs and part of wings, which is a colour that is easily lost due to the original collecting and preserving methods. The description of the colouration is based on the dried specimens.

Distribution. Zhejiang (Mt. Baishanzu), China.

Etymology. This new species is named in honour and memory of Prof. Bi Daoying for his contribution to the taxonomic study of Chinese Phasmatodea  .