Tityus parvulus Kraepelin, 1914

Moreno-González, Jairo A., O, Ranulfo González & D, Eduardo Flórez, 2019, Taxonomic revision of the Colombian Tityus (Archaeotityus) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) species: a morphological and morphometric approach, with a description of a new species, Zootaxa 4660 (1), pp. 1-94: 53-66

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4660.1.1

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scientific name

Tityus parvulus Kraepelin, 1914
status

 

Tityus parvulus Kraepelin, 1914 

Figures 9View FIGURE 9 G–H, 10G–H, 17D, 18D, 19D, 20D, 25D–F, 31, 32A, B, 33A, C, 34A, B, 35A, B, 36, 37, 38A–D, 39A, 40A, B, 45, 46D, E, 47D, 48, 49; Tables 1–3, 6–8, 10.

Tityus parvulus Kraepelin 1914: 19–21  .

References after Fet & Lowe (2000: 255). Tityus parvulus: Flórez 2001a: 60  , 61; Flórez 2001b: 28; Botero-Trujillo & Fagua 2006: 130; Lourenço 2006: 60; Teruel & García 2008: 12; Teruel & Cozijn 2011: 4.

Tityus betschi  syn. nov.: Lourenço 1992: 474–476, figures 1–4, 5, table I; Lourenço 2000: 456, 458, figure 13; Flórez 2001a: 57; Flórez 2001b: 28; Kovarik 2007: 3; Lourenço 2008: 196–198, 205, figures 1, 2, 3–9, 10, table 1; Botero-Trujillo & Fagua 2006: 129, 130, 131–132, figures 9–10; Lourenço 2006: 60; Teruel & García 2008: 10, 12; Kovarik et al. 2015: 36.

Type material. Tityus betschi  : Holotype: COLOMBIA: Valle del Cauca department: one adult female, Parque Nacional Farallones de Cali, Cerca a Pance , ix.1988, E. Flórez ( MNHN-RS-8552) (Examined).  Tityus parvulus  : Syntypes: COLOMBIA: Antioquia department: one adult female and one adult male, Angelópolis, 1911, Fuhrmann ( ZMH) ( Examined ). 

Examined material. COLOMBIA: Antioquia department: one adult female, Tarso, Finca Las Camelias , Vereda El Cedrón , 5°52’17.21’’ N 75°49’36.25’’ W, 1200 masl, inside a secondary forest, 3.iv.2007, J. M. Palacios ( MPUJ-SCO-369)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Tarso, Finca Las Camelias , Vereda El Cedrón , 5°52’17.21’’ N 75°49’36.25’’ W, 1200 masl, inside a Secondary forest, 3.iv.2007, J. M. Palacios ( MPUJ-SCO-370)GoogleMaps  . Caldas department: two adult males and one adult female, Chinchiná, 4°59’28.97’’ N 75°35’38.33’’ W, 1400 masl, vii.2012, manual capture, Coll. Indet . ( ICN-As-1004)GoogleMaps  ; four adult males, Villamaría, 5°2’06.98’’ N 75°31’35.14’’ W, 1450 masl, v.2012, Coll. Indet . ( MZSP 71738)GoogleMaps  . Cauca department: four adult females, Santander de Quilichao, Vereda El Carbonero , 2°59’30.4’’ N 76°28’29.1’’ W, night manual capture with UV light, 18.iii.2012, N. Hazzi ( ICN-As-991)GoogleMaps  . Quindío department: four adult females, Armenia, forest inside of Universidad del Quindío , 4°33’14.14’’ N 75°39’35.4’’ W, 1532 masl, xii.2011, night manual capture with UV light, R. Botero-Trujillo ( MZSP 71737)GoogleMaps  . Risaralda department: one juvenile male, La Virginia, Finca Alejandría , 4°53'47.22'' N 75°52'59.41'' W, 900 masl, 28.iv.2005, C. Bermúdez ( MUSENUV 27573)GoogleMaps  . Valle del Cauca department: one adult female, Cali, Vereda Los Limones , 3°28’41.46’’ N 76°33’51.49’’ W, 1214 masl, night manual capture, viii.2012, J. A. Moreno ( MZSP 71739)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Roldanillo, Vereda Cajamarca , 4°28’22.59’’ N 76°12’28.75’’ W, 1496 masl, night manual capture, viii.2013, O. Saenz ( ICN-As)GoogleMaps  ; three adult females, Yotoco, Natural Reserve Bosque de Yotoco , 3°52’32.2’’ N 76°26’07.8’’ W, 1573 masl, night manual capture with UV light, 5.ii.2010, J. A. Moreno ( ICN-As-843)GoogleMaps  ; six adult females, Yotoco, Natural Reserve Bosque de Yotoco , 3°52’32.2’’ N 76°26’07.8’’ W, 1573 masl, night manual capture with UV light, 5.ii.2010, J. A. Moreno ( ICN-As-992)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Calima- Darién , 3°55’54.03’’ N 76°29’0.63’’ W, 1520 masl, diurnal manual capture inside a house, vi.2011, N. Hazzi ( ICN-As-994)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Zarzal, Finca Las Pilas , 4°26’27.63’’ N 75°59’24.7’’ W, 1000 masl, 10.xi.2005, C. Bermúdez ( MUSENUV-27572)GoogleMaps  ; eight adult females, Tuluá, Vereda Mateguadua , Botanical Garden José María Céspedes , 4°1’33.0’’ N 76°9’44.0’’ W, 1100 masl, L. Báez ( ICN-As-508)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females and one subadult female, Tuluá, Vereda Mateguadua , Botanical Garden José María Céspedes , 4°1’33.0’’ N 76°9’44.0’’ W, 1100 masl, S. Jaramillo ( ICN-As-509)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Tuluá, Vereda Mateguadua , Botanical Garden José María Céspedes , 4°1’33.0’’ N 76°9’44.0’’ W, 1100 masl, Dry Tropical Forest , x.1998, ( MPUJ-SCO-295)GoogleMaps  ; one juvenile female, Tuluá, Vereda Mateguadua , Botanical Garden José María Céspedes , 4°1’33.0’’ N 76°9’44.0’’ W, 1100 masl, Dry Tropical Forest , x.1998, L.A.S ( MPUJ-SCO-296)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Tuluá, Vereda Mateguadua , Botanical Garden José María Céspedes , 4°1’33.0’’ N 76°9’44.0’’ W, 1100 masl, Dry Tropical Forest , x.1998, N. Contreras ( MPUJ-SCO-297)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Tuluá, Vereda Mateguadua , Botanical Garden José María Céspedes , 4°1’33.0’’ N 76°9’44.0’’ W, 1100 masl, Dry Tropical Forest , 6.x.1998, N. Contreras ( MPUJ-SCO-298)GoogleMaps  ; seven adult females, Buga, Natural Regional Park El Vínculo , 3°50’04.3’’ N 76°17’54.8’’ W, 1022 masl, Dry Tropical Forest , night manual capture with UV light, 16.v.2010, J. A. Moreno ( ICN-As-993)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. This species can be readily recognized from other Tityus (Archaeotityus)  species by the following combination of character states: Total length: 35.07–41.42 mm (males) and 34.59–39.15 mm (females). General body coloration ( Figure 30View FIGURE 30) dark yellow background slightly covered with dark brown variegated spots; metasomal segment V dark yellow slightly covered with dark brown variegated spots, with a distal pair VL dark brown spots and without dorsal spots ( Figure 33A, CView FIGURE 33). Metasomal segments II–IV ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40) without conspicuous distoterminal granules on the DL carinae. Metasomal segment V without the VSM2 macrosetae ( Figures 17DView FIGURE 17, 18DView FIGURE 18). Subaculear tubercle medium-sized pyramidal, flat, and triangle-like with an acute and coarse ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20). Dorsal margin of the subaculear tubercle with a pair of ventrodistal small rounded granules with apices pointing to the basal portion of the aculeus. Vesicle and subaculear tubercle with VM carina composed of coarse granules and feebly crenulate in lateral view ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20). Telson  with well-marked (female) ( Figure 19DView FIGURE 19) or obsolete (male) carinae ( Figure 20DView FIGURE 20). Metasomal intercarinal areas densely covered with fine granules ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40). Pectinal tooth counts and movable finger oblique rows of denticles: 12–14/ 12–13 (females) and 13–15/ 13–14 (males) ( Table 2, 3). Metasomal segments II–V ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40) slightly elongated and slender in both sexes; female pedipalp ( Figure 25View FIGURE 25 D–F) short and of a medium-width, and male pedipalp femur and patella  ( Figure 10G, HView FIGURE 10) slightly elongated and slender. Chela  ( Figure 36View FIGURE 36) incrassate in large males; metasomal segment V more slender ( Figure 40AView FIGURE 40) in large males.

Affinities with other Colombian species. Tityus parvulus  is most similar to T. columbianus  , sharing with it the presence of a subaculear tubercle that is medium-sized pyramidal, flat, and triangle-like with an acute and coarse apex in lateral view ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20). Tityus parvulus  can be readily distinguished because the metasomal segment V is dark yellow, slightly covered with dark brown variegated spots, with a pair of distal VL dark brown spots and without dorsal spots ( Figure 33A, CView FIGURE 33); metasomal segments II–IV without conspicuous distoterminal granules on the DL carinae ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40); metasomal intercarinal areas densely covered with fine granules ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40); subaculear tubercle with VM carina composed of fine granules and feebly crenulate in lateral view ( Figure 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20); metasomal segments ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40) and male pedipalp femur and patella  ( Figure 10G, HView FIGURE 10) slightly elongated and slender.

Conversely, in T. columbianus  the metasomal segment V is completely dark reddish-brown with three ventral black stripes and a dorsomedian area without spots ( Figure 6B, EView FIGURE 6); the metasomal segments II–III each has a distoterminal small and acute granule on the DL carinae ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16); the metasomal segment IV has a medium-sized blunt and coarse granule on the DL carinae ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16); the metasomal intercarinal areas are covered with coarse granules ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16); the subaculear tubercle has a VM carina composed of coarse granules and is strongly crenulate in lateral view ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20); the metasomal segments of both sexes ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16) and the male pedipalp femur and patella  ( Figure 10C, DView FIGURE 10) are short and of a medium-width.

Remarks. Lourenço (1999b) describes the male of Tityus parvulus  and provides a contradictory identification key. In this key, Tityus parvulus  is separated from T. columbianus  based on the presence of a subaculear tooth that is “strong and markedly rhomboidal” (Lourenço 1999b: 124). However, in the same paper Lourenço presents a draw- ing of the male metasoma of Tityus parvulus  ( Lourenço 1999b: figure 3) which clearly shows a subaculear tubercle that is medium-sized pyramidal, and triangle-like in lateral view. A subaculear tubercle size and shape which are also found in T. columbianus  ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20) and Tityus betschi  (Lourenço 1992: figure 4; Lourenço, 2008: figure 2). Later on, Botero-Trujillo & Fagua (2006: 131–132, figure 4) presents a new record for Tityus betschi  from Antioquia department. However, after it Teruel & Garcia (2008) criticizes this record arguing (italics added): ‘’... their specimens clearly belong to Tityus parvulus Kraepelin, 1914  …’’.

Therefore, to contribute to the solution of this taxonomic confusion, we examined the type material and specimens from localities between the type localities and near to the type localities of T. bestchi  and T. parvulus  . It is important to remark that both species are the only known members of Tityus (Archaeotityus)  inhabiting the Andean valley of the Cauca river. The following examined material from this region is listed: Cali, Valle del Cauca department (near the type locality of T. bestchi  ) ( MZSP 71739); Tarso- La Camelia, Antioquia (near the type locality of T. parvulus  ) (MPUJ-SCO-369, MPUJ-SCO-370), and from other intermediate localities in Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Quindío, and Risaralda departments (see examined material) ( Figure 45View FIGURE 45).

After the examination of these specimens from these different populations, we concluded that they all share the following: (1) similar total sizes ( Table 10); (2) similar coloration patterns (e.g., chelicerae, carapace, mesosoma  , and metasoma); (3) a subaculear tubercle medium-sized pyramidal, flat, and triangle-like with an acute and coarse apex in lateral view ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20); (4) metasomal intercarinal areas covered with fine granules ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40); (5) metasomal segments slightly elongated and slender with almost identical ratios ( Table 7, 8); (6) the absence of the VSM2 macrosetae on the metasomal segment V ( Figures 17DView FIGURE 17, 18DView FIGURE 18); and (7) the same ranges for pectinal tooth counts and the number of movable finger oblique rows of denticles ( Tables 2, 3). Therefore, given the morphological evidence and the shared geographical distribution, there are no reasons to support both species as valid entities; thus, we propose Tityus betschi Lourenço 1992  as a synonym of Tityus parvulus Kraepelin 1914  .

Redescription. Based on an adult female (ICN-As-1004) and an adult male (ICN-As-1004). For female live habitus see Figure 46D, EView FIGURE 46.

Total length. Female: 39.15 mm; male 41.24 mm.

Coloration. General body coloration (in ethanol 70%) ( Figure 31View FIGURE 31) with a dark yellow background slightly covered with brown variegated spots. Carapace ( Figure 32A, BView FIGURE 32) moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots; lateral and median eyes surrounded by black spots; posterior area to the median ocular tubercle with an inverted ‘’Y’’-shaped spot. Chelicerae ( Figure 34A, BView FIGURE 34) coxa and hand with a light yellow background; hand with a few brown reticulated spots on the anterior half and with a large area without spots on the anterior margin; movable and fixed fingers with dark brown spots on their posterior halves; teeth dark reddish-brown. Pedipalps ( Figure 31View FIGURE 31) moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots and yellow spots; trochanter, femur, and patella  ventrally yellow; trichobothrial pits yellow. Legs with all the segments having a light yellow background moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots on their prolateral surfaces. Coxosternal region ( Figure 31B, E, FView FIGURE 31) coxae I–IV, coxapophyses I–II, sternum, genital operculum, pectines, and basal pectinal piece light yellow; basal pectinal piece with an anterior white area (female). Mesosoma  ( Figure 31View FIGURE 31) tergites I–VII each with a dark yellow background slightly covered with dark brown spots and with four posterior dark reddish-brown spots (two submedian and two lateral); sternites III–VII each moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots; spiracles yellow. Metasoma ( Figure 33A, CView FIGURE 33) with a dark yellow background slightly covered with dark brown variegated spots and with ventral yellow spots; segment V dark yellow slightly covered with dark brown variegated spots, with a pair of distal VL dark brown spots and without dorsal spots ( Figure 33A, CView FIGURE 33). DL intercarinal areas of segments I–IV each with a posterior median brown spot; ML and VSM intercarinal areas of segments I–IV each with a pair of distal brown spots. Telson  ( Figure 31View FIGURE 31) almost completely dark yellow slightly covered with dark brown spots and with a lateral light reddish-brown stripe; subaculear tubercle and aculeus dark reddish-brown.

Morphology. Carapace ( Figure 35A, BView FIGURE 35) densely covered with fine granules and a few coarse granules; anterior margin with a shallow median notch; carinae (anterior median, lateral, and posterior median) and furrows (anterior, lateral, median ocular, posterior median, posterior marginal, and posterior lateral) well-marked; mediun ocular tubercle well-marked and located on the anterior half of the carapace; median eyes separated by about 1.2 (female) and 1.1 (male) ocular diameters. Lateral eye pattern type 4A: three pairs of major ocelli present (PLMa, MLMa and ALMa  ) and one pair of minor ocelli (ADMi).

Chelicerae ( Figure 34A, BView FIGURE 34) dentition characteristic of the family Buthidae ( Vachon 1963)  ; hand and fingers densely covered with setae on internal and ventral surfaces.

Pedipalps. Chela  short and of a medium-width (female) (Cl/Cw= 5.1) or incrassate (male, Cl/Cw= 3.9). Trichobothriotaxic pattern Type A with alfa configuration (hand: Eb3:Eb2:Eb1:Esb:Est:Et, fixed finger: eb:esb:est: et:db:dt:it) (e.g., Figure 3View FIGURE 3). Femur ( Figures 9GView FIGURE 9, 10GView FIGURE 10) with five well-marked and complete carinae: VI, DI, and DE crenulate; VE and IM serratocrenulate; intercarinal areas moderately covered with fine granules. Patella  ( Figures 9HView FIGURE 9, 10HView FIGURE 10) with seven carinae: VI, VE, DI, DE, and EM complete and crenulate; DM incomplete and crenulate; IM complete and serratocrenulate with a spur near the segment base. Chela  (Tibia) ( Figures 25View FIGURE 25 D–F, 36) with eight carinae: VI, VE, D, DS, DMA, and ES complete and crenulate; DI complete and feebly crenulate ( Figures 25View FIGURE 25 D–F, 36); SA incomplete and crenulate, only present on the anterior half of the hand. Pedipalp movable and fixed fingers with an obsolete basal lobe (male) ( Figures 36AView FIGURE 36) or without a basal lobe (female) ( Figure 25DView FIGURE 25); dorsal surface of the movable finger with 13–13 (female) and 14–14 (male) oblique rows of denticles.

Coxosternal region. Covered with fine granules and a few setae, except for the coxaphophyses I–II which are smooth. Sternum with posterior depression, outer ridge, and apical button well-marked. Genital operculum longitudinally divided and composed of two subtriangular plates.

Pectines. Basal piece sexually dimorphic (e.g., Figure 2View FIGURE 2) sub rectangular-shaped with an anterior elevated glandular area (female) or flat, shield-shaped with an anteriomedian notch well-marked (male) (e.g., Figure 2View FIGURE 2); pectinal tooth counts: 13–13 (female) and 13–14 (male). Intermediate plate, marginal plate, and fulcra moderately covered with setae ( Figure 38A, CView FIGURE 38). Pectinal teeth peg sensillae flattened with a slightly spatulate apex ( Figure 38B, DView FIGURE 38).

Legs. Carinae present; intercarinal areas with a few fine granules; telotarsus covered with numerous ventrosubmedian setae; claws short and symmetrical.

Mesosoma  . Tergites I–VI densely covered with fine granules and a few coarse granules; pre-tergite well-marked with the median carina visible on the posterior margin of the post-tergite; tergite VII with DSM and DL carinae complete and crenulate; median carina of the tergite VII composed of an anterior median crenulate eminence located on the anterior half of the post-tergite. Sternites moderately covered with coarse granules and a few fine granules; sternites III–VI each with a longitudinal median hyaline suture and a pair of elliptic spiracles on the posterior half; spiracles progressively larger towards sternite VI; posterior margin of the sternite V with a subtriangular glandular area; sternite VI with VSM carinae crenulate occupying the posterior half of the sternite; sternite VII with VSM carinae crenulate occupying the posterior 2/3 of the sternite and VL carinae crenulate occupying the anterior half of the sternite.

Hemispermatophore. General morphological characteristics as in other Tityus (Archaeotityus)  species. Capsule ( Figure 37View FIGURE 37 A–C) with a straight distal carina ending in a 90° angle; sperm duct reduced not overpassing the basal carina level and with a translucent area between the base of the basal hook and the base of the basal carina; translucent area basally wide but progressively narrower towards the distal region ( Figure 37View FIGURE 37 B–C); basal carina with rounded apex ( Figure 37CView FIGURE 37); basal hook semi ovate-shaped with anterior margin straight in lateral view ( Figure 37BView FIGURE 37) and slightly curved in anterior and posterior views; basal hook forming a narrow ‘’U’’-shaped curve with the stem ( Figure 37A, CView FIGURE 37); basal hook slightly elongated with an obtuse apex and approximately as long as its basal width in anterior view ( Figure 37A, CView FIGURE 37).

Metasoma. Segments II–V slightly elongated and slender in both sexes (Msl/Msw ratio= female/ male: II= 1.7/ 2.2; III= 2.0/ 2.5; IV= 2.2/ 2.8; V= 2.5/ 3.0). Segments I–II ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40AView FIGURE 40) with 10 complete, parallel and crenulate carinae (paired DL, ML, LIM, VL, and VSM); LIM on segment II composed of coarse granules on the two posterior thirds and fine granules on the first anterior third; intercarinal areas densely covered fine granules. Segment III–IV ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40AView FIGURE 40) with eight complete, parallel, and crenulate carinae (paired DL, ML, VL, and VSM; DL carinae serratocrenulate); intercarinal areas densely covered with fine granules. Segment V with five complete and crenulate carinae (VM, paired DL, and VL); intercarinal lateral and ventral areas densely covered with coarse granules and a few fine granules ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40AView FIGURE 40); intercarinal areas with granules irregularly distributed on the middle of each area. Segment I–IV with DL carinae without a conspicuous distoterminal granule ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40AView FIGURE 40).

Metasomal macrosetation. Segments I–IV each with two pairs of VSM macrosetae (2/2) and two pairs of VL macrosetae (2/2); pair VSM1 is located on the anterior third, and pair VSM2 is located near the posterior margin of the segment; pair VL1 is located near the anterior margin of the segment, and pair VL2 is located near the posterior third of the segment (e.g., Figure 1View FIGURE 1). Segment V ( Figures 17DView FIGURE 17, 18DView FIGURE 18) with two pairs of VSM macrosetae (2/2), three pairs of VL macrosetae (3/3), and a single pair of DL macrosetae; pair VSM1 is located near the anterior margin of the segment; pair VSM2 is absent, and pair VSM3 is located on the anal arch; pair VL1 is located near the anterior margin of the segment; pair VL2 is located on the posterior second third of the segment, and pair VL2 is located on the anal arch; pair DL1 is located near the posterior margin of the segment.

Telson  . Vesicle not elongated and suboval (Vl/Vw= 2.0 (female) ( Figure 19DView FIGURE 19) and Vl/Vh= 2.1 (male) ( Figure 20DView FIGURE 20)) with dorsal surface smooth and with a lateral longitudinal furrow on each side; VM, paired VSM, VL, and DL carinae composed of coarse granules; carinae well-marked (female) ( Figure 19DView FIGURE 19) or obsolete (male) ( Figure 20DView FIGURE 20); paired DL carinae located dorsally with respect to the lateral longitudinal furrow; VM carina feebly marked, basally crenulate, but fading progressively towards the subaculear tubercle apex ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20). Subaculear tubercle medium-sized pyramidal, flat, and triangle-like with an acute and coarse apex in lateral view ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20); dorsal margin of the subaculear tubercle with a pair of ventrodistal small rounded granules with apices pointing to the basal portion of the aculeus; VM carina composed of fine granules and feebly crenulate in lateral view ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20); aculeus strongly curved shorter than vesicle and with a ventral groove.

Variability. Total length (including telson  ): males 35.07–41.42 mm (n= 6; mean= 38.46; SD= 2.88); females 34.59–39.15 mm (n= 31; mean= 36.88; SD= 1.17) ( Table 10). Pectinal tooth counts: males 13–15 (n= 29; mode= 14); females 12–14 (n= 88; mode= 13) ( Table 2). Number of movable finger oblique rows of denticles: males 13–14 (n= 12; mode= 14); females 12–14 (n= 85; mode= 14) ( Table 3). Metasomal macrosetae counts: segments I–IV: males (n= 6) and females (n= 49): 2/2 VSM and 2/2 VL macrosetae on each segment; segment V: 1/1 VSM and 2/2 VL macrosetae on the segment. Relative position of the VSM2 macrosetae on the metasomal segment V: VSM2 macrosetae pair absent.

Male intrasexual variations: adult males exhibited different body sizes ranging between 35.07–41.42 mm, but despite this they did not show discrete size-classes but rather a progressive increase in their total lengths ( Figure 31View FIGURE 31 C–F, Table 10). However, as the total body size increases among males the following: (1) Carapace and tergites: the number of coarse and fine granules on all intercarinal surfaces increases; (2) Chela  : the manus is more incrassate without apparently exhibiting isometric growth (n= 6; Cl/Cw= 3.8–5.1; Cl/Ch= 3.8–4.9) ( Figure 36View FIGURE 36); (3) Metasomal segment V: segment is more slender without apparently exhibiting isometric growth (n= 6; Msl-V/Msw-V= 2.9–3.0; Msl-V/Msh-V= 2.7–2.9) ( Figure 40A, BView FIGURE 40), and the granules associated with carinae and intercarinal areas are less marked ( Figure 40A, BView FIGURE 40).

Distribution ( Figure 45View FIGURE 45). COLOMBIA: Antioquia department: Angelópolis. Quindío department: Armenia. Valle del Cauca department: Cali (P.N.N. Farallones) and Tuluá ( Figure 46EView FIGURE 46). New records. COLOMBIA: Antioquia department: Tarso. Caldas department: Chinchiná and Villamaría. Cauca department: Santander de Quilichao. Risaralda department: La Virginia. Valle del Cauca department: Cali (Vereda Los Limones), Buga ( Figure 46DView FIGURE 46), Darién (Calima), Roldanillo, Zarzal, and Yotoco.

ZMH

USA, Illinois, Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History (also used by Finnish Museum of Natural History)

ZMH

Zoologisches Museum Hamburg

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Buthidae

Genus

Tityus

Loc

Tityus parvulus Kraepelin, 1914

Moreno-González, Jairo A., O, Ranulfo González & D, Eduardo Flórez 2019
2019
Loc

Tityus betschi

Kovarik, F. & Teruel, R. & Lowe, G. & Friedrich, S. 2015: 36
Teruel, R. & Garcia, L. F. 2008: 10
Kovarik, F. 2007: 3
Botero-Trujillo, R. & Fagua, G. 2006: 129
Lourenco, W. R. & Jesus-Junior, M. M. B. & Limeira-De-Oliveira, F. 2006: 60
Florez, E. 2001: 57
Florez, E. 2001: 28
Lourenco, W. R. 2000: 456