Orthopristis hybrid

Marceniuk, Alexandre Pires, Caires, Rodrigo Antunes, Machado, Leonardo, Cerqueira, Najila Nolie Catarine Dantas, Serra, Rayla Ro, 2019, Redescription of Orthopristis ruber and Orthopristis scapularis (Haemulidae: Perciformes), with a hybridization zone off the Atlantic coast of South America, Zootaxa 4576 (1), pp. 109-126: 120-121

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Orthopristis hybrid


Orthopristis hybrid  ( O. ruber  x O. scapularis  )

( Figure 3View FIGURE 3, Tables 3 & 4)

Material examined. Brazil: LBP 24105View Materials, 1: 158–180 mm CP, Guarapari, Espírito Santo  ; LBP 24142View Materials, 5: 96–142 mm CP, Vitória, Espirito Santos.

Morphological. Specimens with intermediate counts of rakers in the first and second gill arches, in comparison with Orthopristis ruber  and O. scapularis  , were identified as hybrids. These hybrids have 13–15 rakers on the lower limb of the first gill arch (vs. 10–12 in O. scapularis  , Table 4g), and 17–19 rakers in the second arch (vs. 20–23 in O. ruber  , Table 4h).

Molecular diagnosis. Analysis of the COI sequences indicated that all the putative hybrid specimens have sequences similar to that of Orthopristis ruber  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). In a complementary analysis, we sequenced the first intron of the nuclear S7 gene of four O. scapularis  specimens from the northern coast of Brazil, five O. ruber  specimens from the southern coast, and six putative hybrids. These sequences were also compared with that of O. chrysoptera  (Genbank number JQ741907View Materials). We identified five polymorphic positions that corroborated the hybridization hypothesis ( Table 2). For example, specimens from northern Brazil have the nucleotides G or T at position 318, as in the hybrids, whereas those from southern Brazil have only G at this position ( Table 2). By contrast, the northern specimens invariably present nucleotide C at position 134, whereas the southern specimens and hybrids have either C or T at this position ( Table 2).

Distribution. Oorthopristis ruber  specimens were observed off the eastern, southern and southeastern coast of Brazil, while O. scapularis  were found off the northern-northeastern coast. All of the putative hybrids were found off Espírito Santo state, on the eastern Brazilian coast ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Color in life. Body whitish gray to silvery, head silvery, dark grey on upper head margin from snout to vertical passing through the pre-opercular margin. Small light brown spots in infraorbital region to operculum, larger (nearly ¼ pupil diameter) on the flanks over the rear border of the scales, forming faint oblique lines. Faint brown horizontal line from the rear eye border to the posterior margin of operculum, width slightly smaller than pupil length. Humeral spot and vertical bars absent. Dorsal fins hyaline with orange hue, anal fin and caudal fin dusky ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3).

Color of preserved specimens. Ground color light gray, upper half of flanks with dark brown spot at center of scales forming oblique lines; head dusky on upper margin from snout to vertical passing through pre-operculum border, light gray in infraorbital region; scales on opercle with brown pigmentation ventrally, forming small irregular spots. Black spot nearly size of pupil on rear border of operculum, over opercular spine and well behind center of eye. Humeral spot conspicuous, about equal to eye size just behind opercular spot; dark bars and marking otherwise absent. Dorsal and anal fins gray with dusky hue in inter-radial membranes and distal margin; caudal fin dusky, darker in middle rays ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3).