Taraxacum pandum Štěpánek & Kirschner, 2022

Štěpánek, Jan & Kirschner, Jan, 2022, A hotspot of endemism: Oreophytic Taraxacum species (Compositae, Crepidinae) in the mountains of Bulgaria, Phytotaxa 569 (1), pp. 1-139 : 123

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.569.1.1



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Taraxacum pandum Štěpánek & Kirschner

sp. nov.

8. Taraxacum pandum Štěpánek & Kirschner , sp. nov.

Type:— Bulgaria, montes Vitoša , distr. Sophia : secundum viam turisticam inter montes Malak Rezen (2191 m) et Černi Vrah (2290 m), ca. 500 m situ occid. a summo montis Malak Rezen, ca. 2000 m, 29 Jun 1985, J. Štěpánková, cultivated as JŠ 2147, collected in 1987 ( PRA, no. det. 35736, holotype; isotype: PRA, no. det. 27673, and duplicates) .

Etymology:—Curved, bent (from Latin, pandus).

Exsiccates:— Taraxaca Exs., no. 1271–1272.

Diagnosis:—Species distinctissima petiolis inalatis purpureis, foliis glabratis lobis lateralibus remotis angustis, aliformibus, phyllariis exterioribus basi adpressis, ceterum erectis vel erecto-patentibus, pagina abaxiali obscure olivaceo-viridibus, in sicco atroviridibus, in marginem angustissimam scariosam abrupte transeunte, acheniis subpallide usque saturate brunneis, saepe paulo ferruginescentibus vel cinerascentibus et pyramide conica 0.6–1.0 mm longa.

Plants medium-sized to subrobust, usually 9–17 cm tall. Plant base without tunic, with sparse hairs among petiole bases. Petiole light to deep pink-purple, unwinged or narrowly winged, 1–2 (–2.5) cm long. Leaves variously erectpatent to prostrate, mid-green, not spotted, glabrous, elliptical to narrowly elliptical in outline, usually 6–11 (–15) × 2–4.5 cm; terminal segment sagittate to broadly triangular or triangular, usually 1–2.5 × 1.2–3 cm, distal margin variously shaped, usually subconcave to ± straight, entire, basal lobules long and narrow, subrecurved to recurved, sometimes patent, proximal margin concave to ± straight; lateral segments in 3–4 ± remote pairs, ± patent, bird-wingshaped, from a broad base subabruptly narrowing in a very narrow, often lingulate distal part, acute, distal margin usually sigmoid, entire or denticulate near the base, proximal margin subconcave to straight, entire; interlobes long and narrow, 5–12 × 2–4 mm, entire or remotely dentate with thin long teeth, margin distally raised, unbordered; mid-vein usually pale, often spotted purple or wholly purplish. Scapes pale green at anthesis, sparsely arachnoid and glabrescent, overtopping or equalling leaves. Capitulum deep yellow, ca. 3.5 cm wide, ± flat to subconvex. Involucre not pruinose, broadly obconical and 7–8 mm wide at base. Outer phyllaries 13–18, not imbricate, loosely appressed at base, otherwise erect to erect-patent, reaching 1/2–2/3 of the inner phyllaries, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, rarely to ovate, the lowermost ones sometimes linear-lanceolate, 6.5–8 × 2–3.5 mm, adaxially light green, often suffused purple, abaxially ± evenly dark olivaceous-green (black-green when dry), distally suffused purplish, with ± abrupt transition in a whitish-membranous or reddish border 0.05–0.1 mm wide, margin glabrous, apex flat; inner phyllaries ca. 13 mm long, of ± unequal width. Outer ligules flat, not very distinctly striped grey-green, sometimes purplish greygreen outside, apical teeth dirty yellow to grey, inner ligules canaliculate, their apical teeth smoky yellow. Stigmas medium dark discoloured, dirty yellow-green to grey-green, with a dark pubescence outside. Pollen present, pollen grains irregular in size. Achenes light brown or medium deep brown, with a rusty or greyish hue, 4.0–4.8 × 0.9–1.0 mm, body with subdense short obtuse spinules and tricuspidate imbricate squamules, subabruptly narrowing into a subconical to conical cone 0.6–0.8 (–1.0) mm long, with rare minute spinules near the base; beak 7–9 mm long, pappus whitish to dirty white, 6 mm long. – Agamosperm. – Fig. 74A View FIGURE 74 , 75 View FIGURE 75 .

Diagnostic notes:—At first sight, T. pandum is distinct in the leaves with relatively remote, narrow, ± patent, birdwing-shaped lateral segments, long and narrow interlobes, and the pink-purple petiole and mid-vein. Its achenes are light to medium brown, relatively large but ± slender, with ± dense, short, suberect squamules and spinules. It belongs to the group around T. salutator and T. recognitum .

Variation:—In the Rila, there is a population matching T. pandum in many respects but deviating from it in the achene body more densely covered with thinner, subarcuate spinules, and in the shorter beak. It occurs above so called Komplesk Maljovica, at about 1800 m (cultivated as JŠ 6533, PRA, no. det. 27671).

Distribution and habitat:—Probably confined to Bulgaria; safely known from the Vitosha and Rhodopes. It grows in subalpine and alpine meadows, occasionally also on wet montane meadows (1700–2250 m). Its IUCN conservation status is estimated as NT.

Specimens examined:— BULGARIA. Sofia, the Vitoša, between Mt. Malak Rezen (2191 m) et Mt. Černi Vrah   GoogleMaps (2290 m), 500 m W. of summit of Mt. Malak Rezen   GoogleMaps , 2000 m, 29 Jun 1985, J. Štěpánková ( PRA, no. det. 27675, 27672) ; Ibidem, cultivated as JŠ 2146 ( PRA, no. det. 27674) ; Ibidem, JŠ 2147 ( PRA, no. det. 27673). Dragalevci , NW. slopes below the summit of Mt. Goljam Rezen , ca. 2200–2250 m, ca. 42° 34’ N, ca. 23° 18’ E, 27 Jul 1998, J. Štěpánek, cultivated as JŠ 6986 ( PRA, no. det. 27670) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, JŠ 6988 ( PRA, no. det. 27668) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, JŠ 6985 ( PRA, no. det. 27666). GoogleMaps Vitoša, Mt. Černi   GoogleMaps vrach (2290 m), below the meteostation, 2250 m, 27 Jul 1998, R. Bělohlávková, cultivated as TaB 41 ( PRA, no. det. 27669) . – Sofia, the Vitoša, between Mt. Malak Rezen (2191 m) et Mt. Černi Vrach (2290 m), ca. 2100 m, 27 Jul 1998, R. Bělohlávková, cultivated as TaB 50 ( PRA, no. det. 27667). Rodopi , Čepelare , the Mursalica Mts. , village of Široka Laka, N. slopes of Mt. Čaeva čuka (1826 m), 41° 38–39’ N, ca. 24° 29–30’ E, 23 Jul 1998, J. Štěpánek, R. Bělohlávková, V. D. Vladimirov & D. Petkova, cultivated as JŠ 6822 ( PRA, no. det. 36001). Less certain identifications: Rodopi , Čepelare , the Prespa Mts. , village of Manastir , NE. slopes of Mt. Prespa , ca. 2 km SE. of the village, 1850–1950 m, ca. 41° 42–43’ N, 24° 54’ E, 25 Jul 1998, J. Štěpánek, cultivated as JŠ 6952 ( PRA, no. det. 27665). Rila, the Maljovica Chalet , 16 Jul 1976, R. Doll [as T. rhaeticum ] ( JE, no. det. 19045) .


University of the Witwatersrand


Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences


Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena