Taraxacum benevolens Štěpánek & Kirschner, 2022

Štěpánek, Jan & Kirschner, Jan, 2022, A hotspot of endemism: Oreophytic Taraxacum species (Compositae, Crepidinae) in the mountains of Bulgaria, Phytotaxa 569 (1), pp. 1-139 : 25-26

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.569.1.1



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Taraxacum benevolens Štěpánek & Kirschner

sp. nov.

. Taraxacum benevolens Štěpánek & Kirschner , sp. nov.

Type:— Bulgaria, urbs Sofia, montes Vitoša, mons Černi vrch (2290 m), herbosis circum refugium Samara , ad pedem ± borealem montis Samara (2108 m), ca. 2000 m, ca. 42° 34’ N, ca. 23° 17’ E, 27 Jul 1998, J. Štěpánek, cultivated as JŠ 6897, collected in 2000 ( PRA, no. det. 35763, holotype; isotype: PRA, no. det. 27323, and duplicates) GoogleMaps .

Etymology:—Kind, benevolent, good-natured (from Latin, bene, well, and volens, wishing).

Exsiccates:— Taraxaca Exs., no. 1329–1333.

Diagnosis:—Species ex affinitate Taraxaci chrysocephali, a quo acheniis fulvis paulo suberubescentibus, pyramide anguste cylindrica, phyllariis involucralibus exterioribus numerosis, irregulariter erecto-patentibus usque patentibus, stigmatibus pallide luteis et foliis luteo-viridibus bene dignoscenda.

Plants small to medium-sized, usually 8–15 cm tall, with rich, compact leaf rosettes. Plant base without tunic, with sparse brownish hairs among petiole bases. Petioles ± glabrous, pale green, broadly to narrowly winged, 1–2.5 cm long. Leaves variously prostrate-patent, some suberect-patent, very light green to yellowish green, not spotted, glabrous, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate or narrowly oblong, usually 5–12 × 1.5–3.5 cm, pinnatisect to pinnatipartite, with numerous approximated segments and short interlobes; terminal segment helmet-shaped to broadly so, sometimes subhastate-triangular, usually 1–2 × 1.3–3 cm, obtuse or rounded to obtusely acute, sometimes mucronate, distal margin convex to subsigmoid, entire or with a shallow incision, basal lobules short, broad, acute, patent to subrecurved, proximal margin ± straight, entire; lateral segments in (3) 4–6 pairs, usually short and broad, usually 5–14 mm long, 5–16 mm wide at base, ± triangular-deltoid, patent to hamate-recurved, acute, distal margin convex to sigmoid, entire, proximal margin subconcave to ± straight, entire or with a single sub-basal tooth; interlobes approximated, short and broad, usually 1–4 × 4–10 mm, margin raised, undulate, surface not blotched, margin green or very narrowly suffused darker, entire or with a single raised short and broad tooth; mid-vein pale green, rarely faintly brownish. Scapes pale green, very sparsely arachnoid to glabrous, overtopping leaves. Capitulum golden yellow, ± flat, 3–4 cm wide. Involucre not pruinose, usually 7–8 mm wide and ± rounded at base. Outer phyllaries 17–22, variously irregularly erect-patent to patent, relatively short, reaching 1/3–1/2 of the inner ones, usually lanceolate to narrowly so, 5–6 (–7) × 2–2.5 mm, abaxially whitish green to olivaceous-green, ± evenly coloured, ± darker at the apex, along margins and on midrib, with a ± abrupt transition into a dirty membranous border ca. 0.1 mm wide, margin shortly minutely ciliate or glabrous, apex flat, distal part sometimes suffused brownish-purplish; inner phyllaries 12–13 mm long, of unequal width (some coalesced). Outer ligules flat, broad, striped pale greyish olivaceous or pale purplish olivaceous outside, apical teeth grey or reddish, inner ligules canaliculate, their teeth dark yellow. Stigmas light coloured, yellow, with hyaline pubescence outside. Pollen abundantly present, irregular in size. Achenes very light beige (sometimes with a greyish or yellowish tinge), 4.1–5.1 × 0.9–1.0 mm, body with suberect low squamules and comb-like structures, and with thin spinules not longer than 0.15 mm, body ± gradually narrowing into a ± cylindrical cone 0.8–1.1 × 0.3 mm (often with distal part not coloured); beak 4.5–6 mm, pappus whitish, 4.5–5.5 mm. – Agamosperm. – Fig. 2A, 6, 7.

Distribution and habitat:— Taraxacum benevolens is known to occur in the western Bulgarian mountains (Vitosha, Pirin), between 2000 and 2550 m. It grows in subalpine and alpine floristically diverse grasslands and meadows, quite frequently at semi-disturbed sites, along paths and in the vicinity of alpine chalets. We estimate its IUCN conservation status as VU.

Specimens examined:— BULGARIA. Pirin, Bansko, valley of Banderica, eastern slopes in the valley of Vichrenska voda, above the alpine chalet of Vichren , 2200–2400 m, 41° 45–46’ N, 23° 24–25’ E, 9 Aug 1997, J. Štěpánek, cultivated as JŠ 9341 ( PRA, no. det. 27643) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, JŠ 9338 ( PRA, no. det. 27319). – Bansko, valley of Banderica, below the pass of Vichrenski preslap between Mt. Chvojnati vrch and Mt. Vichren , ca. 2450–2550 m, 41° 45–46’ N, 23° 24–25’ E, 9 Aug 1997, J. Štěpánek, J. Kirschner & B. Trávníček, cultivated as JŠ 6304 ( PRA, no. det. 27326) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, JŠ 9319 ( PRA, no. det. 27321) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, JŠ 9323 ( PRA, no. det. 27320) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, JŠ 9321 ( PRA, no. det. 27315). GoogleMaps The Vitosha Mts., Dragalevci, NW. slopes below the summit of Mt. Goljam Rezen, ca. 2200–2250 m, ca. 42° 34’ N, ca. 23° 18’ E, 27 Jul 1998, J. Štěpánek, cultivated as JŠ 6981 ( PRA, no. det. 27324) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem ,. JŠ 6975 ( PRA, no. det. 27322) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, JŠ 6987 ( PRA, no. det. 27318). GoogleMaps Vitosha , Mt. Černi vrch (2290 m), around Samara shelter, at the N. foot of Mt. Samara , ca. 2000 m, ca. 42° 34’ N, ca. 23° 17’ E, 27 Jul 1998, J. Štěpánek , cultivated as JŠ 6897 ( PRA, no. det. 27323). GoogleMaps Vitosha , Mt. Goljam Rezen (2277 m), northern slope, ca. 2150 m, 27 Jul 1998, R. Bělohlávková, cultivated as TaB 44 ( B 44 ) ( PRA, no. det. 27317) GoogleMaps ; Ibidem, cultivated as TaB 45 ( B 45 ) ( PRA, no. det. 27316) GoogleMaps .


University of the Witwatersrand


Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences


Nanjing University


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile