Paranotosoma cordatum

Antić, Dragan Ž. & Makarov, Slobodan E., 2016, The Caucasus as a major hotspot of biodiversity: Evidence from the millipede family Anthroleucosomatidae (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida), Zootaxa 4211 (1), pp. 1-205 : 86-92

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Paranotosoma cordatum


Paranotosoma cordatum gen. et sp. nov.

Figs 69–73 View FIGURE 69 View FIGURE 70 View FIGURE 71 View FIGURE 72 View FIGURE 73

Diagnosis. Differs from the other two species of the genus by the presence of cordiform anterior shields, by the absence of any lateral processes in the posterior part of the anterior gonopods and by the development of rudiments of posterior coxal processes on male leg-pair 7.

Etymology. An adjective; the new species is named after the cordiform anterior shield of the anterior gonopods.

Material studied (total: 13 males, 9 females). Holotype. GEORGIA: male , Ajaria, Zelenyi Mys, Batumi Botanical Garden , forest litter, 20–150 m asl, 9 Oct. 1981, S. Golovatch leg. ( ZMUM ρ3311).

Paratypes (total: 5 males, 5 females). All from GEORGIA: 1 male, 3 females, same data as holotype, except: 13 Oct. 1978 ( ZMUM ρ3312) ; 2 males, 1 female ( ZMUM ρ3313), 2 males, 1 female ( IZB), same data as holotype, except: 10 Oct. 1981, J. Boháč leg.

Other material (total: 7 males, 4 females) . All from GEORGIA: 2 males, 1 female , Ajaria, Kintrishi Nature Reserve , Zeraboseli , 450–600 m asl, deciduous forest, litter and under stones, 13 Oct.1981, S. Golovatch leg. ( ZMUM ρ3314) ; 2 males, same data, except: 800 m asl, Rhododendron thicket, litter ( ZMUM ρ3315) ; 3 males, 3 females, Tskhaltubo, near Cave Belaya (= Tetri), deciduous forest on rock, litter and under stones, 26 Oct. 1981, S. Golovatch leg. ( ZMUM ρ3316).

Type locality. GEORGIA : Ajaria, Zelenyi Mys, Batumi Botanical Garden.

Description. Body with 30 segments (including telson) in adults.

MEASUREMENTS. Males 12–15 mm long, vertical diameter of the largest pleurotergite 1–1.1 mm. Females 12– 16.5 mm long, vertical diameter of the largest pleurotergite 1.2–1.3 mm.

COLORATION ( Fig. 69 View FIGURE 69 ). Dorsal and dorsolateral sides greyish to brownish with yellowish spots dorsolaterally. Ventrolateral sides yellowish. Antennae dark brown.

HEAD. Slightly concave in males. Labrum with three medial teeth and 6+6 labral and 2+2 supralabral setae. Promentum triangular, without setae. Lingual plates with 8+8 setae, on each plate arranged in two irregular rows.

Stipites with 25+25 setae. Antennae 2.07 mm long in paratype male. Length of antennomeres (in mm): I (0.11), II (0.2), III (0.58), IV (0.28), V (0.52), VI (0.22), VII (0.14) and VIII (0.02). Length/breadth ratios of antennomeres I– VII: I (1), II (1.7), III (5.8), IV (2.8), V (4.3), VI (1.7) and VII (1.4). Antennomeres II, IV, V, VI and VII with one, three, one, four and one sensillum, respectively. Number of ocelli 22–28, arranged in 6 rows in males; 25–27 in 6 rows in females.

COLLUM. Narrower than head, with six macrochaetae. Anterior edge semi-circular, posterior margin gently concave.

BODY SEGMENTS ( Figs 69 View FIGURE 69 , 70 View FIGURE 70 ). Lateral keels developed, but to a lesser degree than in P. subrotundatum gen. et sp. nov., more prominent in males. Inner and median macrochaetae shorter than outer one, medium-sized, all trichoid. CIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.65; MIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.8; PIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.6; MA (pleurotergite 15) ~ 95˚.

TELSON. Epiproct with a pair of spinnerets and 3+3 setae (1+1 paramedian, 2+2 marginal). Hypoproct with 1+1 apical setae. Paraprocts with 3+3 marginal setae.

WALKING LEGS. In both sexes, leg-pairs 1 and 2 with tarsal combs; prefemora with several long and robust setae; femora and postfemora with a group of several long and robust setae.

MALE SEXUAL CHARACTERS ( Fig. 71 View FIGURE 71 ). Leg-pairs 3–7 enlarged. Leg-pairs 3 and 4 each with a basal exterior protrusion on prefemur. Leg-pair 5 with a barely visible oral protrusion on prefemur. Leg-pair 6 without peculiarities. Leg-pair 7 only with rudiments of two posterior coxal processes present in P. subrotundatum gen. et sp. nov. Leg-pairs 10 and 11 with coxal glands, no other peculiarities.

ANTERIOR GONOPODS ( Figs 72 View FIGURE 72 A–C, 73). Sternal plate (sp) with a medial, anterior, triangular, hairy, sternal sac (ss). A thin medial lamella (mdl) present between sternal sac and anterior shield. Anterior coxal processes (cp) wide, distal third divided, remaining parts fused, cordiform, only an anterior longitudinal groove (lg) present in basal two-thirds. Distomesal parts of shields denticulate and curved posteriorly. Mesal edges folded inside and forming a projection with two short horns (h). Anterior and posterior (pp) coxal processes fused basally. Posterior coxal processes (pp) consisting of an anterior, relatively long and more or less acuminate horn (ah) which abuts to inner side of anterior coxal process, and a posterior lever (lv) with an anterior (alv) and a posterior (plv) branch. Posterior branch curved anteriorly; anterior branch orientated anteriorly. Posterior coxal processes without lateral process. Posteromesal edges of posterior coxal processes with one row of short setae (rs). Hairy coxal vesicles (cv) present medially on posterior side.

POSTERIOR GONOPODS ( Fig. 72 View FIGURE 72 D). Coxites (c) divided. Telopodites (t) present on posterolateral side, apically with a small claw and one or two setae; two-segmented. Both coxites with two coxal processes: an anterior narrower and shorter (ap), and a posterior wider and acuminate (pp). Coxal vesicles (cv) present on anterior side.

Distribution. Georgia ( Fig. 167 View FIGURE 167 , black square).

Notes. The population from Tskhaltubo, near Cave Belaya, is characterized by the presence of a lamellar structure between alv and plv, a condition which can be seen neither in populations from the Batumi Botanical Garden nor from the Kintrish Nature Reserve. Bearing in mind that the Tskhaltubo population is remote enough from the two latter populations, and that such a difference is only minor compared to the differences from P. attemsi gen. et sp. nov. and P. subrotundatum gen. et sp. nov., we assign it to P. cordatum gen. et sp. nov. Similarly to Caucaseuma variabile sp. nov., this taxon is probably in a stage of active speciation.


Zoological Museum, University of Amoy