Paranotosoma subrotundatum

Antić, Dragan Ž. & Makarov, Slobodan E., 2016, The Caucasus as a major hotspot of biodiversity: Evidence from the millipede family Anthroleucosomatidae (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida), Zootaxa 4211 (1), pp. 1-205 : 92-97

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Paranotosoma subrotundatum


Paranotosoma subrotundatum gen. et sp. nov.

Figs 74–78 View FIGURE 74 View FIGURE 75 View FIGURE 76 View FIGURE 77 View FIGURE 78

Diagnosis. Differs from the other two species of the genus by the presence of nearly rounded anterior shields of the anterior gonopods, by the development of a lateral club-shaped process on the posterior part of the anterior gonopods, by the presence of a posterior bone-shaped coxal process on the posterior gonopods, of two short, posterior coxal processes on male leg-pair 7, and of especially well-developed lateral keels.

Etymology. An adjective; to emphasize the nearly rounded shape of the anterior shield of the anterior gonopods.

Material studied (total: 7 males, 14 females, 1 juvenile). Holotype. RUSSIA: male, Krasnodar Province, Sochi, Khosta , Caucasian Nature Reserve , Taxus & Buxus grove, pitfall trapping, 14 Sep.–15 Oct. 2006, Y. Chumachenko leg. ( ZMUM ρ3155).

Paratypes (total: 4 males, 5 females). All from RUSSIA : 2 males, 2 females (ZMUM ρ3159), 1 male ( IZB), same data as holotype ; 1 male, 1 female, same data, except: 15 Oct.–3 Nov. 2006 ( ZMUM ρ3160) ; 1 female, Sochi, Khosta , 13 Aug. 1974, S. Golovatch leg. ( ZMUM ρ3161) ; 1 female, Krasnodar Province, Caucasian Nature Reserve, Pslukh ca 20 km E of Krasnaya Polyana, Fagus , Quercus , Abies , Picea , etc. Forest , 1000 m asl, litter, 11– 12 Aug. 1986, S. Golovatch leg. ( ZMUM ρ3162).

Other material (total: 2 males, 9 females, 1 juvenile). RUSSIA, Adygea : 1 female, Sakhray River, Manki Schum , 19 Aug. 2005, K. Voigtländer leg. ( SMNG) ; 1 male, 2 females, Sakhray River valley, 200 m asl, near confluence with River Kuna , 30 Aug. 2005, K. Voigtländer leg. ( SMNG) ; 2 females, Novoprokhladnoye , 31 Aug. 2005, K. Voigtländer leg. ( SMNG) .

ABKHAZIA: 1 female, Sukhumi District, Bzyb Valley, Pskhu , 700–950 m asl, Fagus , Quercus , Castanea , etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 15–16 Aug. 1986, S. Golovatch ( ZMUM ρ3317) ; 1 male, 1 juvenile, Sukhumi District, Tsebelda , 300 m asl, Caprinus, Acer & Buxus scrub, litter, 19 Aug. 1986, S. Golovatch ( ZMUM ρ3318).

GEORGIA: 2 females ( ZMUM ρ3319), 1 female ( IZB), 10 km N of Jvari, 800 m asl, Buxus , Fagus , Picea , Taxus , etc. forest, litter, 20–21 Aug. 1986, S. Golovatch.

Type locality. RUSSIA: Krasnodar Province, Sochi, Khosta, Caucasian Nature Reserve , Taxus & Buxus grove.

Description. Body with 30 segments (including telson) in adults.

MEASUREMENTS. Males 14–16 mm long, vertical diameter of the largest pleurotergite 1.2 mm. Females 15– 18.5 mm long, vertical diameter of the largest pleurotergite 1.4–1.6 mm.

COLORATION ( Fig. 74 View FIGURE 74 ). Yellowish brown to darker brown, some specimens with greyish lateral sides of prozonites, lateral keels yellowish. In some specimens, antennae dark brown with a darker dorsal side, juveniles with paramedial and lateral grey spots.

HEAD. Slightly concave in males. Labrum with three medial teeth and 6+6 labral and 2+2 supralabral setae. Promentum triangular, without setae. Lingual plates with 6+7 setae, on each plate arranged in two irregular rows. Stipites with 19+19 setae. Antennae 2.32 mm long in paratype male. Length of antennomeres (in mm): I (0.1), II (0.25), III (0.67), IV (0.3), V (0.61), VI (0.22), VII (0.16) and VIII (0.01). Length/breadth ratios of antennomeres I– VII: I (1), II (2), III (5.6), IV (3), V (5), VI (1.5) and VII (1.2). Antennomeres II, IV, V, VI and VII with one, three, one, four and one sensillum, respectively. Number of ocelli 24–25, arranged in 5 rows in males; 23–25 in 5 rows in females.

COLLUM. Narrower than head, with six macrochaetae. Anterior edge semi-circular, posterior margin gently concave.

BODY SEGMENTS ( Figs 74 View FIGURE 74 , 75 View FIGURE 75 ). Lateral keels very well-developed, especially so in males. Inner and medial macrochaetae short, outer medium-sized, all trichoid. CIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.5; MIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.6; PIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.7; MA (pleurotergite 15) ~ 100˚.

TELSON. Epiproct with a pair of spinnerets and 3+3 setae (1+1 paramedian, 2+2 marginal). Hypoproct with 1+1 apical setae. Paraprocts with 3+3 marginal setae.

WALKING LEGS. In both sexes, leg-pairs 1 and 2 with tarsal combs; prefemora with several long and robust setae; femora and postfemora with a group of several long and robust setae.

MALE SEXUAL CHARACTERS ( Fig. 76 View FIGURE 76 ). Leg-pairs 3–7 enlarged. Leg-pairs 3 and 4 each with a basal exterior protrusion on prefemur. Leg-pair 5 with a small oral protrusion on prefemur. Leg-pair 6 without peculiarities. Legpair 7 with two posterior, short, coxal processes. Leg-pairs 10 and 11 with coxal glands, no other peculiarities.

ANTERIOR GONOPODS ( Figs 77 View FIGURE 77 A–C, 78). Sternal plate (sp) with a medial, anterior, triangular, hairy, sternal sac (ss). Anterior coxal processes (cp) wide, fused, only distally with a notch, forming a nearly round shield. Distal parts of shields with several teeth and curved posteriorly. Mesal edges folded inside and forming a lamellar posterior projection (ppr) with two short horns (h). Anterior and posterior coxal processes (pp) fused basally. Posterior coxal processes (pp) consisting of an anterior, relatively long and acuminate horn (ah) nestled to inner side of anterior coxal process, and a posterior lamellar structure (lsp) wide in lateral view and bearing a lateral clubshaped process (lpp). Posteromesal edges of posterior coxal processes with one longitudinal row of short setae (rs). Hairy coxal vesicles (cv) present medially on posterior side. At base of posterior coxal processes, telopodital (t) remnants can be seen, yet only in the form of a small pigmented mass.

POSTERIOR GONOPODS ( Figs. 77 View FIGURE 77 D, 78C–E). Coxites (c) divided. Telopodites (t) present on posterolateral side, with or without a small claw. Both coxites with two coxal processes: an anterior one (ap) with an acuminate apex and a posterior bone-shaped one (pp). Coxal vesicles (cv) present on anterior side.

Distribution. Abkhazia, Georgia, Russia ( Fig. 167 View FIGURE 167 , red square).


Zoological Museum, University of Amoy


Senckenberg Museum fuer Naturkunde Goerlitz