Heterocaucaseuma longicorne

Antić, Dragan Ž. & Makarov, Slobodan E., 2016, The Caucasus as a major hotspot of biodiversity: Evidence from the millipede family Anthroleucosomatidae (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida), Zootaxa 4211 (1), pp. 1-205 : 77-82

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Heterocaucaseuma longicorne


Heterocaucaseuma longicorne gen. et sp. nov.

Figs 61–65 View FIGURE 61 View FIGURE 62 View FIGURE 63 View FIGURE 64 View FIGURE 65

Diagnosis. Differs from the other Heterocaucaseuma gen. nov. species by the presence on the anterior gonopods of very long lateral horns with lateral shoulders and a high medial projection of the medial syncoxal part, which is acuminate in anterior view, as well as by the development of a rounded coxal process on male leg-pair 7.

Etymology. An adjective; to emphasize the presence of two long lateral horns on the anterior gonopods.

Material studied (total: 6 males, 4 females, 9 juveniles). Holotype. ABKHAZIA: male, Cave Adzaba, 40 m deep, near Sukhumi , 1 May 1970, N. T. Zalesskaja leg. ( ZMUM ρ3302).

Paratypes (total: 4 males, 2 females). All from ABKHAZIA, Cave Adzaba, near Sukhumi : 1 female, 26 Apr. 1971, N.T. Zalesskaja leg. ( ZMUM ρ3303) ; 3 males, 1 female, 14 Sep. 2014, I. S. Turbanov leg. (ZMUM ρ3304); 1 male, 7 Aug. 1966, S. Ljovuschkin leg. (IZB).

Other material (total: 1 male, 2 females, 9 juveniles) . All from ABKHAZIA, near Sukhumi: 7 juveniles, Cave Vostochnogumistinskaya , 17 Sep. 1969, S. I. Ljovuschkin leg. ( ZMUM ρ3305) , 1 male, 1 female, Cave Zmeyka , 6 Jun. 1969, N. T. Zalesskaja leg. ( ZMUM ρ3306) ; 1 juvenile, near Eshera, Cave Verkhneesherskaya , 8 Nov. 1969, N. T. Zalesskaja leg. ( ZMUM ρ3307) ; 1 female, 1 juvenile, Cave Kazanji (Ali), 90 m deep, 30 Apr. 1970, N.T. Zalesskaja leg. ( ZMUM ρ3308).

Type locality. ABKHAZIA: Cave Adzaba, near Sukhumi.

Description. Body with 30 segments (including telson) in adults.

MEASUREMENTS. Males 21–26 mm long, vertical diameter of the largest pleurotergite 1.7–1.8 mm. Holotype male 26 mm long, vertical diameter of the largest pleurotergite 1.8 mm. Females 20–25 mm long, vertical diameter of the largest pleurotergite 2–2.2 mm.

COLORATION ( Fig. 61 View FIGURE 61 ). Specimens kept in alcohol for almost 50 years yellowish, with traces of a darker pigmentation on head, antennae and dorsal side, and on lateral keels of the first few body segments. Fresh specimens almost uniformly brown.

HEAD. Densely setose, convex. Labrum (paratype male) with three medial teeth and 7+7 labral and 2+2 supralabral setae. Promentum triangular, without setae. Lingual plates (paratype male) with 8+10 setae, on each plate arranged in two irregular rows. Stipites with ca 30+30 setae. Antennae elongated, 3.77 mm long in paratype male. Length of antennomeres (in mm): I (0.15), II (0.4), III (1.05), IV (0.5), V (1.05), VI (0.35), VII (0.25) and VIII (0.02). Length/breadth ratios of antennomeres I–VII: I (1), II (2.2), III (8), IV (3.8), V (7), VI (2.05) and VII (1.8). Antennomeres II, IV, V, VI and VII with one, three, one, four and one sensillum, respectively. Number of ocelli 19–25, arranged in 5–6 rows in males; 20–25 in 5–6 rows in females.

COLLUM. Narrower than head, with six macrochaetae. Anterior edge semi-circular, posterior margin gently concave.

BODY SEGMENTS ( Figs 61 View FIGURE 61 , 62 View FIGURE 62 ). Lateral keels well-developed. Macrochaetae relatively long and trichoid. CIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.5; MIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 0.85; PIX (pleurotergite 15) ~ 1.1; MA (pleurotergite 15) ~ 110˚.

TELSON. Epiproct with a pair of spinnerets and 3+3 setae (1+1 paramedian, 2+2 marginal). Hypoproct with 1+1 apical setae. Paraprocts with 3+3 marginal setae.

WALKING LEGS ( Fig. 61 View FIGURE 61 ). In both sexes, leg-pairs 1 and 2 with tarsal combs; prefemora with several long and robust setae; femora and postfemora with a group of several long and robust setae.

MALE SEXUAL CHARACTERS ( Fig. 63 View FIGURE 63 ). Leg-pairs 3–7 enlarged. Leg-pairs 3 and 4 each with a basal exterior protrusion on prefemur. Leg-pair 5 with a well-developed, oral, basal protrusion on prefemur. Leg-pair 6 without peculiarities. Leg-pair 7 with a posterior coxal excavation and a rounded coxal process. Leg-pair 10 with coxal glands and a well-developed, posterior, coxal horn. Leg-pair 11 with coxal glands and a short, apical, posterior, coxal protrusion.

ANTERIOR GONOPODS ( Figs 64 View FIGURE 64 A, 65). Sternal plate (sp) anteriorly with a medial, hairy, sternal sac (ss). Gonopods consisting of a medial syncoxal part (s) and two lateral, horn-like parts (lp) [= s sensu Golovatch and Makarov (2011): 19, fig 44]. Syncoxite subtriangular, with (paratype male) or without (holotype male) developed shoulders (msh), acuminate in anterior and posterior views, wide and somewhat sigmoid in lateral view; posteriorly, with remnants of coxal vesicles (cv). Lateral horns (lp) well-developed, long, apically twisted, curved posteriorly; subapically, with a hairy lamellar structure (ls) with a posterior opening (o), probably with a function in sperm transfer; much higher than medial part. Anterior gonopods laterally with a well-developed shoulder (sh) with (paratype male) or without (holotype male) a subtriangular tooth (sto). Posteriorly, two longitudinal rows of short setae (rs).

POSTERIOR GONOPODS ( Fig. 64 View FIGURE 64 B). Coxites (c) [= cx sensu Golovatch and Makarov (2011): 19, fig 43] divided. Laterally and posteriorly, telopodital remnants (t) [= te sensu Golovatch and Makarov (2011): 19, fig 43] and a pigmented mass present. Coxal vesicles (cv) [= k sensu Golovatch and Makarov (2011): 19, fig 43] present anteriorly. Each coxite bearing a pair of flagelliform coxal processes (cp) [= pr sensu Golovatch and Makarov (2011): 19, fig 43].

Distribution. Abkhazia (known only from a few caves near Sukhumi) ( Fig. 167 View FIGURE 167 , yellow circle). Note. With some troglomorphic features such as somewhat reduced pigmentation in some specimens or somewhat elongated walking legs and antennae.


Zoological Museum, University of Amoy