Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758,

Freyhof, Jörg, Bayçelebi, Esra & Geiger, Matthias, 2018, Review of the genus Cobitis in the Middle East, with the description of eight new species (Teleostei: Cobitidae), Zootaxa 4535 (1), pp. 1-75: 36-37

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4535.1.1

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BB0D18-1F1B-FFD5-718B-FC99FEF7F82A

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scientific name

Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758
status

 

Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758 

( Fig. 28View FIGURE 28)

Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758: 303  (type locality: Lake Mälaren, Sweden)

Cobitis spilura Holandre, 1837: 253  (type locality: Belgium: Liège / France: Moselle River, stream Nied below Malroy, Meuse River below Saint Mihiel)

Cobitis taenioides Băcescu & Maier, 1969: 52  [p. 39 of translation] (type locality: western Europe and Danube basin)

Material examined. FSJF 288, 5, 65–78 mm SL; Ukraine: Zhitomirskaya Region. Novgorod Volynsky district, Dnieper drainage, 50.789 27.393  .— FSJF 465, 31, 40–89 mm SL; Germany: River Oder at 3 km east of Schwedt , 53.059 14.308  .— FSJF 1946, 5, 54–70 mm SL; Turkey: Balıkesir prov.: stream Susurluk east of Susurluk , 39.917 28.165  .— FSJF 2006, 1, 68 mm SL; Turkey: Bursa prov.: Lake Ulubat at Gölyazı 40.159 28.674  .— FSJF 2280, 11, 45–67 mm SL; Turkey: Çanakkale prov.: stream Akçin between Ayvacık and Ezine at Bahçeli , 39.688 26.391  .— FSJF 2342, 3, 61–74 mm SL; Turkey: Çanakkale prov.: stream Tuzla about 1 km north of Assos , 39.498 26.333  .— FSJF 2387, 17, 57–78 mm SL; Turkey: Çanakkale prov.: stream Koca about 2 km west of Akçakoyun , 39.826 27.146  .— FSJF 2426, 16, 45–74 mm SL; Turkey: Çanakkale prov.: stream Menderes below Bayramiç dam, east of Bayramiç , 39.820 26.663  .— FSJF 3144, 8, 59–79 mm SL; Turkey: Zonguldak prov.: stream Devrek 6 km south of Devrek , 41.187 31.931  .— FSJF 3177, 2, 41–67 mm SL; Turkey: Zonguldak prov.: stream Yenice about 15 km west of Yenice , 41.232 32.204  .— FFR 5534, 2, 62–64 mm SL; Turkey: Çanakkale prov.: stream Kocaköy about 5 km east of Yenice , 39.941 27.310  .— FFR 0 5530, 9, 60–79 mm SL; Turkey: Balıkesir prov.: stream Sakar at Manyas Lake , 40.049 27.262  .— FFR 0 5546, 8, 54–62 mm SL; Turkey: Bursa prov.: stream Nilüfer at Nilüfer   .— ZMH 2474View Materials, 1View Materials, 76View Materials mm SL  ; ZMH 4736View Materials, 10View Materials, 34–70View Materials mm SL; Turkey: Lake İznik   .

Material used in molecular genetic analysis. FSJF DNA- 1630; Turkey: Zonguldak prov.: stream Yenice about 15 km west of Yenice, 41.232 32.204. (BOLD accession number: EUFWF 2483-18).— FSJF DNA- 1636; Turkey: Zonguldak prov.: stream Devrek about 6 km south of Devrek, 41.187 31.931. (BOLD accession number: EUFWF 2481-18).— FSJF DNA- 263; Turkey: Turkey: Çanakkale prov.: stream Tuzla about 1 km south of Ayvacık, 39.596 26.438. (BOLD accession number: EUFWF 4325-18).— FSJF DNA- 2910; Turkey: Çanakkale prov.: Karamenderes River at Karakul, 39.941 27.310. (GenBank accession number: MH 795390View Materials).— FSJF DNA- 2912; Turkey: Balıkesir prov.: stream Sakar flowing to Lake Manyas, 40.050 27.962. (GenBank accession number: MH 795392View Materials, MH 795393View Materials, MH 795394View Materials).— FSJF DNA- 2913; Turkey: Zonguldak prov.: stream Aydınlar, 41.268 31.541. (GenBank accession number: MH 795403View Materials, MH 795404View Materials).— FSJF DNA- 1191; Germany: Odra River at Reitwein (GenBank accession number: KM 286530View Materials)— ZFMK ICH- 53777; Poland, Vistula drainage, 52.998 18.702. (BOLD accession number: EUFWF 267-18).— ZFMK ICH- 67470; Germany: Elbe drainage, 53.278 10.895. (BOLD accession number: EUFWF 261-18).— ZFMK ICH- 59248; Lithuania: Minija River, 55.936 21.625. (BOLD accession number: EUFWF 263-18).— NRM 51845View Materials; Sweden: Lake Vanern, 59.290 13.000. (GenBank accession number: KP 050512View Materials).— ZFMK ICH- 53836; Latvia: Venta River, 56.989 22.075. (BOLD accession number: EUFWF 265-18).— NRM 52492View Materials; Sweden: Lake Yngaren, 58.817 16.645. (GenBank accession number: KJ 128460View Materials).

Diagnosis. Cobitis taenia  is distinguished from C. saniae  , C. satunini  and C. splendens  by having a large focal zone in the sub-dorsal scales (about 1/2–1/3 of vertical scale diameter vs. focal zone small, about or less than 1/3 of the maximum scale diameter) and a small, comma-shaped or ovoid black spot at the upper caudal-fin base (vs. large, often roundish). Cobitis taenia  is further distinguished from C. saniae  by having the base of the lamina circularis narrowly connected to the pectoral-fin ray (vs. widely connected). It is further distinguished from C. splendens  by the pigmentation in Z3 reaching from the pectoral-fin base and the caudal peduncle in the male (vs. pigmentation much reduced, not reaching the vertical of the dorsal-fin origin) and blotches in Z4 anterior to the dorsal-fin origin being horizontally elongate, often very densely set and fused into short or longer stripes (vs. vertically elongate, not fused to each other fused).

Cobitis taenia  is distinguished from C. puncticulata  from the Marmara Sea basin by having well separated and large blotches in Z2 and Z4 (vs. very small, indistinct or confluent), un-pigmented flank below Z4 (vs. pigmented) and a pale yellowish or whitish background coloration (vs. brownish). Cobiti s taenia  is distinguished from C. simplicispina  by having one laminae circularis in the males (vs. two).

Distribution. In Asia, C. taenia  is known from the Yenice and Bartın River drainages in the south-western Black Sea basin. It is also distributed in the southern Marmara Sea basin from the Tuzla River east to Lake İznik basin including the Simav River drainage. Cobitis taenia  is widespread in Central and Eastern Europe.

Remarks. Cobitis taenia  is widespread in Eastern and Central Europe including the northern Black Sea basin, where it is found from the Dniester River east to the Dnieper ( Kottelat & Freyhof 2007). Similar looking Cobitis  in the eastern Black Sea basin have been identified as C. satunini  and those from the adjacent northern Anatolia and the southern Marmara Sea basin had been identified as C. splendens  , C. fahireae  and C. kurui  by Erk'akan et al. (1999). Cobitis taenia  is the only species of Cobitis  in the Black Sea basin having a large focal zone in the subdorsal scales and a small black spot at the upper caudal-fin base. These two characters are the only external characters distinguishing C. taenia  from C. satunini  . Cobitis taenia  is also unique among all Cobitis  species studied in the Black Sea basin for having 48 chromosomes (vs. 50 in C. elongatoides  , C. pontica  , C. taurica  , and C. tanaitica  ) ( Janko et al. 2005, Vasil'eva & Vasil'ev 2006). The chromosome numbers have not been studied in C. satunini  or in the populations identified here as C. taenia  from the northern Black Sea basin and the southern Marmara Sea basin.

Our DNA barcode data separate the Anatolian C. taenia  from European C. taenia  (minimum KP2 distance 1.6%) as well as from C. satunini  (minimum KP2 distance 1.6%). The RAG1 molecular data presented by Perdices et al. (2018) does not support the Anatolian C. taenia  (considered as Cobitis  sp. Marmara-Black Sea), European C. taenia  (only partially supported) and C. satunini  as monophyletic species (although they were supported in cyt b phylogenies). Also both PTP approaches applied by us suggest Anatolian C. taenia  , European C. taenia  and C. satunini  to represent one unit. But by far not enough populations and individuals have been studied for their molecular characters in Anatolia and for the time being, we keep accepting C. satunini  as a valid species, but identify western Anatolian populations as C. taenia  , as we see no strong enough support to describe them as a new species. It is beyond the possibilities of this study to resolve the case as we could not apply karyological methods. Chromosome studies of Anatolian C. taenia  and C. satunini  are urgently needed, to decide, if one, two or three species are involved. Externally, we are able to distinguish C. satunini  from C. taenia  , but we found no consistent character to distinguish Anatolian C. taenia  from European C. taenia  . To complicate the situation further, there are Cobitis  populations in Anatolia, which cannot be distinguished from C. taenia  except that some individuals have a small focal zone in the scales while others have a large or intermediate focal zone. These loaches have been found in the Tuzla River, which flows into the norther most Aegean Sea basin as well as in the Simav River drainage, which flows to the southern Marmara Sea basin. We identify these as C. taenia  as suggested by their DNA barcode haplotypes. Indeed, these Cobitis  have been found within the distribution range of those identified as C. taenia  in the Marmara Sea basin and we suspect that all belong to one species, in which the focal zone of the subdorsal scales is variable.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Cypriniformes

Family

Cobitidae

Genus

Cobitis

Loc

Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758

Freyhof, Jörg, Bayçelebi, Esra & Geiger, Matthias 2018
2018
Loc

Cobitis taenioides Băcescu & Maier, 1969: 52

Bacescu & Maier 1969: 52
1969
Loc

Cobitis spilura

Holandre 1837: 253
1837
Loc

Cobitis taenia

Linnaeus 1758: 303
1758