Cobitis turcica Hankó, 1924

Freyhof, Jörg, Bayçelebi, Esra & Geiger, Matthias, 2018, Review of the genus Cobitis in the Middle East, with the description of eight new species (Teleostei: Cobitidae), Zootaxa 4535 (1), pp. 1-75: 38-41

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Cobitis turcica Hankó, 1924


Cobitis turcica Hankó, 1924 

(Fig. 29)

Cobitis taenia turcica Hankó, 1924: 154  , pl. 3 fig. 8 (type locality: Turkey: Ereğli).

Cobitinula Anatoliae Hankó, 1924: 152  , pl. 3 fig. 6 (type locality: Turkey: Lake Ak-Göl (Ereğli).

Material examined. FSJF 1860, 29, 44–98 mm SL; Turkey: Aksaray prov.: stream Melendiz below canyon at road from Nevsehir to Ihlara , 38.326 34.241  .— FSJF 2481, 3, 44–85 mm SL; Turkey: Aksaray prov.: spring in Köşk Park within Sultanhanı , 38.241 33.545  .— FSJF 2528, 22, 50–79 mm SL; Turkey: Konya prov.: stream north of Sarı Yayla, draining to former Lake Samsam , 39.118 32.759  .— FSJF 2611, 27, 41–82 mm SL; Turkey: Aksaray prov.: stream Tuz at Gölyazı, at road from Eskil to Cihanbeyli , 38.552 33.200  .

Diagnosis. Cobiti s turcica  is distinguished from other Cobitis  species in the Mediterranean and the endorheic basins in Central Anatolia by usually having a flank pattern composed of many small blotches and spots not organised in the Gambetta zones (vs. organised in Gambetta zones in C. aliyeae  , C. battalgilae  , C. bilseli  , C. erkakanae  , C. evreni  , C. levantina  , C. simplicispina  , C. sipahilerae  and some individuals of C. phrygica  , Z4 often dissociated into a wide band or field of small blotches and spots in C. battalgilae  , C. dorademiri  and C. phrygica  ). In some individuals of C. turcica  , there are rows of blotches along the flank probably homologous with the Gambetta zones Z2 and Z4. In these individuals of C. turcica  , the blotches in Z4 are as large as the blotches in Z2 or even smaller (vs. blotches in Z4 much larger than in Z 2 in C. dorademiri  , C. evreni  , C. levantina  , C. simplicispina  and C. sipahilerae  and most individuals of C. battalgilae  and C. phrygica  or a dark-brown stripe in Z4). In many individuals of C. turcica  , the flank pattern is completely or partly absent (vs. always complete and present in all other Cobitis  in the Middle East). Cobitis turcica  is further distinguished from C. dorademiri  by having a more narrow caudal peduncle (caudal-peduncle depth 0.6–0.8 times in caudal-peduncle length vs. 1.0– 1.2), from C. phrygica  and C. simplicispina  and by having a longer caudal peduncle (16–18% SL vs. 11–14 in C. phrygica  , vs. 10–15 in C. simplicispina  ), a shorter prepelvic distance in the male (54.0% SL vs. 56–60 in C. phrygica  , vs. 56–57 in C. simplicispina  ) and a shorter pectoral-fin length in the female (15–17% SL vs. 18–21 in C. phrygica  ). Cobitis turcica  and some individuals of C. phrygica  are superficially very similar, but both species are clearly distinguished by a minimum of 6.2% K2P distance based on COI.

Cobitis turcica  and C. battalgilae  closely cluster together in the molecular analysis ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). Indeed, few individuals of C. battalgilae  have the Gambetta zones dissociated into fine spots and blotches. In these individuals, the dissociated blotches in Z4 are organised in a wide band (vs. not organised in a band in C. turcica  ). Male C. turcica  are further distinguished from male C. battalgilae  by having a more slender dorsal-fin depth (17–18% SL vs. 21–22), shorter caudal and pectoral fins (17–18% SL vs. 19–20 caudal-fin length; 15–17% SL vs. 19–20 pectoral-fin length) and C. battalgilae  grows much larger, no female C. turcica  was found to be larger than 98 mm SL (vs. female growing up to 135 mm SL in C. battalgilae  ).

Cobitis turcica  is distinguished from C. bilseli  from Lake Beyşehir basin by having two laminae circularis in the male (vs. one) and it is further distinguished from C. evreni  and C. levantina  by having a pelvic axillary lobe or a very shallow pelvic axillary pad (vs. lacking).

Distribution. Cobitis turcica  is found in the wider Lake Tuz basin where it is reported from Ereğli, Melendiz (Ihlara Valley), springs in Sultanhanı, and a stream north of Sarı Yayla and a stream at Gölyazı. Most likely it is more widespread in the area.

Remarks. Cobitis turcica  and C. battalgilae  closely cluster together in the resulting topology, but are distinguished by 1.2% K2P distance. However, both PTP approaches did not detect a species boundary between the two mitochondrial lineages in our phylogenetic reconstruction. The K2P distance of 1.2% indicates that both species are closely related and both could also be treated as one species. We accept populations with similar K2P distance as conspecific if we find no morphological differences (see chapters about C. fahireae  and C. taenia  and discussion below). But in contrast to these cases almost all individuals of C. turcica  and C. battalgilae  can be distinguished from each other and therefore qualify as two species.

Hanko (1924) described C. t. turcica  and C. anatoliae  in the same paper. As a First Reviser, Kottelat, (2012:29) gave precedence to C. turcica  .

Molecular data ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1) place C. turcica  in the C. simplicispina  species group ( C. battalgilae  , C. bilseli  , C. dorademiri  , C. joergbohleni  , C. phrygica  , C. pirii  , C. simplicispina  , and C. sipahilerae  ). See below for details to distinguish C. turcica  from C. joergbohleni  and C. pirii  .














Cobitis turcica Hankó, 1924

Freyhof, Jörg, Bayçelebi, Esra & Geiger, Matthias 2018


Cobitis taenia turcica Hankó, 1924 : 154

Hanko, B. 1924: 154


Cobitinula Anatoliae Hankó, 1924 : 152

Hanko, B. 1924: 152