Protoptila orotina orotina Flint

Holzenthal, Ralph W. & Blahnik, Roger J., 2006, The caddisfly genus Protoptila in Costa Rica (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae), Zootaxa 1197, pp. 1-37: 25-37

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.2646265

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A642B3B3-3C8C-4925-8555-0236DCCC3291

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BB87BE-FFCE-AE16-FED1-9615FC9BFE5D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Protoptila orotina orotina Flint
status

 

Protoptila orotina orotina Flint 

Fig. 14View FIGURE 14

Flint 1974: 13.

This species is most similar to P. orotina raposa  , P. ixtala  , and P. bribri  . All have a similarly developed phallicata, which is elongate and very angularly bent in the middle. The different species differ most in the development of the apex of this structure. In P. orotina orotina  it is somewhat enlarged apically and has a subacute apicoventral projection. Diagnostic differences in the two subspecies of P. orotina  were illustrated by Flint (1974). Considering that active selection appears to be occurring within this group for structures at the apex of the phallus, it seems possible that the two subspecies may actually represent different species. There are also minor differences among the species in the shapes of the apical section of tergum X, the parameres, and the apex of sternum VIII, as shown in the illustrations.

Material examined. COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: Río Tizate, 7.2 km NE Cañas Dulces, 10°46’23”N, 085°26’56”W, el. 275 m, 28.vi.1986, Holzenthal, Heyn, Armitage — 1 maleGoogleMaps  ; Limón: Reserva Biológica Hitoy­Cerere, Río Cerere, Est . Miramar, 09°40’16”N, 083°01’41”W, el. 90 m, 23­24.iii.1987, Holzenthal, Hamilton, Heyn — 2 males, 1 femaleGoogleMaps  ; Puntarenas: Río Ceibo, route 2 ca. 6 km W rd to Buenos Aires , 09°08’56”N, 083°22’37”W, el. 250 m, 20.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 103 males (in alcohol)GoogleMaps  ; Río Rincón, 6.5 km (air) S Rincón, 08°38’17”N, 083°28’48”W, el. 20 m, 7.iv.1987, Holzenthal, Hamilton, Heyn — 8 males (in alcohol)GoogleMaps  ; Río Singrí, ca 2 km (air) S Finca Helechales, 09°03’25”N, 083°04’55”W, el. 720 m, 21.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 9 males (in alcohol), 2 males (in alcohol) (INBIO)GoogleMaps  ; Reserva Biológica Carara, Quebrada Bonita, 09°46’30”N, 084°36’18”W, el. 35 m, 18­20.v.1990, Holzenthal & Blahnik — 2 males (in alcohol)GoogleMaps  ; San José: Reserva Biológica Carara, Río del Sur, 1.5 km (rd) S Carara, 09°46’08”N, 084°31’52”W, el. 160 m, 13.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 1 male (in alcohol)GoogleMaps  ; Reserva Biológica Carara, Río Carara in Carara, 09°46’41”N, 084°31’52”W, el. 200 m, 14.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 1 male (NMNH).GoogleMaps 

Protoptila spirifera Flint 

Fig. 15View FIGURE 15

Flint 1974: 14.

The species was named for the spiral paramere spines and seems to be a member of the condylifera complex of Flint (1991). As in those species the phallicata has a relatively long, narrow, arched “neck” and inflated apex and the ventral apex of segment VIII is long and narrow and not at all bifid apically. It differs from its relatives in the shape of the apical section of tergum X, which has hook­like apicomesal processes.

Material examined. COSTA RICA: Cartago: Ojo de Agua, rt. 2, km 75, 30.vi.1967, Flint & Ortiz — male paratype (NMNH).

Protoptila strepsicera  , new species

Fig. 16View FIGURE 16

This species is most similar to P. tojana  , especially in the structure and development of the apical sections of tergum X and the shape and development the ventral apex of sternum IX. However, the species differ greatly in the processes emanating from the posterodorsal margin of sternum VIII. In P. tojana  they are very narrow and sometimes down­curved apically (straight in the specimen illustrated by Flint, 1974), whereas in P. strepsicera  they are very prominent, enlarged basally and tapering apically. In P. strepsicera  these structures are also somewhat spirally curved, almost as in the horns of some antelopes, making the species very easy to identify.

Adult. Length of forewing: male 2.7–3.1. Color brown (in alcohol), wing markings indistinct.

Male genitalia. Sternum VI process prominent, slightly curved, subtriangular, apex subacute. Tergum VIII posterior margin with row of elongate setae; sternum VIII produced ventrally, not bifurcate apically, broadly rounded, sclerotized and setose basally, membranous apically, apparently fused to sternum IX apicoventrally; dorsolateral margin of sternum VIII basally with very long, prominent, sinuous, apically acute process. Segment IX with anterior margin broadly rounded; sternum IX medially produced, in lateral view forming short, acute, strongly upturned process, weakly bifid mesally when viewed ventrally; posterolateral margin of segment IX without processes. Preanal appendages absent. Tergum X divided mesally to form sclerotized lateral parts with basal and apical sections; basal section subquadrate, about as long as wide, apical section short, divided apically to form acuminate dorsal projection and more elongate, sinuously upturned, apically acuminate ventral projection. Phallobase dorsally with large, semicircular, laterally compressed apodeme; ventrally with short, rod­like, articulated appendages with apical setae, appendages fitting into sclerotized pockets on ventral margin of phallobase; posteroventral margin of phallobase with short, paired, upturned, apically acute basal processes and also dorsolateral processes; dorsolateral processes short, apically truncate; paramere absent; phallicata very short, ventrally curved, with pair of short apicoventral spine­like processes; endophallus membranous, enlarged when everted; phallotremal sclerite spine­like, sclerotized apically, somewhat divided basally.

Holotype male: COSTA RICA: Limón: Reserva Biológica Hitoy­Cerere, Río Cerere , Est. Miramar, 09°40’16”N, 083°01’41”W, el. 90 m, 23­24.iii.1987, Holzenthal, Hamilton, Heyn ( UMSP000208540View Materials) ( UMSP).GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: Same data as holotype — 6 males ( UMSP)  , 2 males ( NMNH)  , 1 male ( INBIO)  ; COSTA RICA: Limón: Río Uatsi , ca. 8 km (air) W Bribri, 09°37’12”N, 082°54’00”W, el. 60 m, 25.iii.1987, Holzenthal, Hamilton, HeynGoogleMaps  1 male ( UMSP)  .

Etymology. The name strepsicera  comes from Latin for “twisted horn,” and refers to the processes from the lateral margin of sternum VIII of this species.

Protoptila talamanca Flint 

Fig. 17View FIGURE 17

Flint 1974: 14.

This is another distinctive species, unlikely to be confused with any other. Its most unusual character is the development of the ventral margin of segment IX, which possesses a pair of rod­like, apically acute processes, each of which is branched preapically to form a secondary tine­like process. Another distinctive character is the shape and structure of the phallicata, which has its apical half enlarged. The dorsal margin of this apex has two apically diverging lateral ridges, separated by a concave depression.

Material examined. COSTA RICA: Alajuela: Reserva Forestal San Ramón, Río San Lorencito & tribs., 10°12’58”N, 084°36’25”W, el. 980 m, 30.iii­1.iv.1987, Holzenthal, Hamilton, Heyn — 7 males (in alcohol) (UMSP), 2 males (in alcohol) (NMNH), 2 males (in alcohol) (INBIO); same, except 6­10.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 9 males, 4 females (in alcohol); Cartago: Reserva Tapantí, waterfall, ca. 1 km (road) NW tunnel, 09°41’24”N, 083°45’36”W, el. 1600 m, 24.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 1 male, 3 females (in alcohol); Río Reventazón, CATIE along Sendero Espaveles, 09°53’35”N, 083°39’04”W, el. 500 m, 22.iii.1991, Muñoz­Quesada — 1 male (in alcohol).

Protoptila tica Bueno­Soria 

Fig. 18View FIGURE 18

Bueno­Soria 1984: 392.

The species has no obvious relationship to any other described species. It is easily diagnosed by the absence of parameres and the unique structure of sternum VIII, which forms broad, widely separated apical lobes, each with a fringe of thickened apical setae and a distinct apicodorsal spine­like process.

Material examined. COSTA RICA: Puntarenas: Parque Nacional Corcovado, Río Camaronal, 08°28’55”N, 083°35’20”W, el. 30 m, 13.iv.1989, Holzenthal & Blahnik — 1 male (in alcohol); same, except 08°28’52”N, 083°35’38”W, el. 5 m, 12­13.iv.1989, Holzenthal & Blahnik — 4 males (in alcohol).

Protoptila tojana Mosely 

Fig. 19View FIGURE 19

Mosely 1954: 331.

This species is most similar to P. strepsicera  and the two are undoubtedly closely related. Both species differ greatly in the processes emanating from the posterodorsal margin of sternum VIII. In P. tojana  they are very narrow, whereas in P. strepsicera  they are very prominent and shaped like the horns of an antelope.

Material examined. COSTA RICA: Alajuela: Río La Paz Pequeña, route 9, 7.8 km N Vara Blanca, 10°12’40”N, 084°09’58”W, el. 1230 m, 13.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 1 male; COSTA RICA: Alajuela: Río La Paz Pequeña, route 9, 7.8 km N Vara Blanca, 10°12’40”N, 084°09’58”W, el. 1230 m, 13.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 1 male; Cartago: Río Chitaría, rt 10, 10 km NW Río Reventazón, 09°55’12”N, 083°36’14”W, el. 740 m, 21.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 2 males (in alcohol); Guanacaste: Río Tempisquito, ca. 3 km S Route 1, 10°47’24”N, 085°33’07”W, el. 75 m, 6.iii.1986, Holzenthal & Fasth — 3 males (in alcohol) (INBIO); Río Tizate, 7.2 km NE Cañas Dulces, 10°46’23”N, 085°26’56”W, el. 275 m, 28.vi.1986, Holzenthal, Heyn, Armitage — 1 male; Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Río Poza Salada, 10°47’56”N, 085°39’07”W, el. 10 m, 24.vii.1987, Holzenthal, Morse, Clausen — 7 males, 15 females; Limón: Río Barbilla, ca. 8 km W B­Line, 10°04’01”N, 083°22’08”W, el. 30 m, 31.i.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 1 male, 5 females; Puntarenas: Quebrada Pita, ca. 3 km (air) W Golfito, 08°38’31”N, 083°11’35”W, el. 15 m, 15.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 49 males (in alcohol); Río Bellavista, ca. 1.5 km NW Las Alturas, 08°57’04”N, 082°50’46”W, el. 1400 m, 18.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 2 males, 13 females (in alcohol); Río Ceibo, route 2 ca. 6 km W rd to Buenos Aires, 09°08’56”N, 083°22’37”W, el. 250 m, 20.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth — 4 males (in alcohol) (INBIO); Reserva Biológica Carara, Río Carara, 4.3 km (rd) E Cost. Sur, 09°48’36”N, 084°34’19”W, el. 20 m, 12.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 138 males (in alcohol), 355 females (in alcohol), 3 males (pinned), 11 females (pinned); Reserva Biológica Carara, Quebrada Bonita, 09°46’30”N, 084°36’18”W, el. 35 m, 18­20.v.1990, Holzenthal & Blahnik — 89 males (in alcohol), 11 males (pinned), 53 females (pinned); same, except 11.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 245 males (in alcohol), 1 male (pinned), 11 females (pinned); Río Rincón, 6.5 km (air) S Rincón, 08°38’17”N, 083°28’48”W, el. 20 m, 7.iv.1987, Holzenthal, Hamilton, Heyn — 2 males (in alcohol); Parque Nacional Corcovado, Río Claro, 1.5 km SE Est. Sirena, 08°28’19”N, 083°35’17”W, el. 15 m, 8.iv.1989, Holzenthal — 33 males, 29 females (in alcohol); Parque Nacional Corcovado, Rio Camaronal, 08°28’55”N, 083°35’20”W, el. 30 m, 13.iv.1989, Holzenthal & Blahnik — 66 males (in alcohol), 2 males (pinned), 2 females (pinned); same, except 08°28’52”N, 083°35’38”W, el. 5 m, 12­ 13.iv.1989, Holzenthal & Blahnik — 162 males (in alcohol); San José: Reserva Biológica Carara, Río del Sur, 1.5 km (rd) S Carara, 09°46’08”N, 084°31’52”W, el. 160 m, 13.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 34 males (in alcohol); Reserva Biológica Carara, Río Carara in Carara, 09°46’41”N, 084°31’52”W, el. 200 m, 14.iii.1991, Holzenthal, Muñoz, Huisman — 91 males (in alcohol). PANAMA: Panama: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Island, Snyder­Molino trail, marker 3, 22.vi.­6.ix.1988, Wolda — 2 males, 2 females (in alcohol); same, except 26.vi.­3.xii.1990, Wolda — 2 males, 1 females (in alcohol).

Protoptila trichoglossa  , new species

Fig. 20View FIGURE 20

This species is unique and easily diagnosed from all others by the structure of sternum VIII of the male, which is elongate and tapered apicoventrally and margined with enlarged, coarse setae. The posterodorsal margin of sternum VIII is also modified on either side into a short, digitate process terminating with enlarged setae.

Adult. Length of forewing: male 3.6–3.8 mm. Color dark brown, with distinct transverse bar of whitish setae along cord and a few whitish apical spots.

Male genitalia. Sternum VI process prominent, slightly curved, longer than wide, apex subacute. Tergum VIII posterior margin with row of very elongate setae with attenuate, curved apices; sternum VIII strongly produced ventrally, not bifurcate apically, strongly narrowed, attenuate, apex acute, dorsolateral and apical margins with thick dense setae; dorsolateral margin of sternum VIII basally with short digitate process, bearing several long thickened setae. Segment IX with anterior margin broadly rounded; sternum IX medially produced posteriorly, narrow, apically rounded, with pair of apical setae; posterolateral margin of segment IX without processes. Preanal appendages absent. Tergum X divided mesally to form sclerotized lateral parts with basal and apical sections; basal section subquadrate, longer than wide, apical section longer than basal section, nearly uniform in width, apex narrowed and forming short, acute dorsomesal process. Phallobase dorsally with large, semicircular, laterally compressed apodeme; ventrally with short, rod­like, articulated appendages with apical setae, appendages fitting into sclerotized pockets on ventral margin of phallobase; posteroventral margin of phallobase with single, cupped, upturned, apically acute basal process, but without dorsolateral processes; paramere elongate, membranous, paramere spine short, sinuously curled, acute apically; phallicata elongate, narrow, strongly arched near middle, apex expanded and bulbous; endophallus reduced, not noticeably everted; phallotremal sclerite lightly sclerotized, an incomplete basal ring, with curved, apicomesal projection.

Holotype male: COSTA RICA: Puntarenas: Río Bellavista , ca. 1.5 km NW Las Alturas, 08°57’04”N, 082°50’46”W, el. 1400 m, 18.ii.1986, Holzenthal, Morse, Fasth ( UMSP000091739View Materials) ( UMSP).GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: Same data as holotype — 1 male (in alcohol) ( UMSP)  ; COSTA RICA:

Puntarenas: Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Río Cotón , Sitio Cotón , 08°56’28”N, 082°47’13”W, el. 1460 m, 15.iv.1989, Holzenthal & Blahnik — 1 male (in alcohol) ( NMNH)GoogleMaps  .

Etymology. The name trichoglossa  comes from Greek roots for “hairy tongue” and refers to the elongate, tapered, setose sternum of segment VIII of this species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to Dr. Oliver S. Flint, Jr., Smithsonian Institution, for providing material for examination and for his insights into protoptiline taxonomy. We thank Desiree Robertson and Lourdes Chamorro, University of Minnesota, for useful discussions on morphology. Julie Martinez rendered the beautiful illustration of Protoptila ixtala  . This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 9400632, 9971885, and 0 117772.

REFERENCES

Blahnik, R.J. & Holzenthal, R.W. (2004) Collection and curation of Trichoptera, with an emphasis on pinned material. Nectopsyche, Neotropical Trichoptera Newsletter, 1, 8–20. Available from http://www.entomology.umn.edu/museum/links/news.html (accessed 15 September 2005).

Bueno­Soria, J. (1984) Three new species of the genus Protoptila from Mexico and Costa Rica (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 97, 392–394.

Flint, O.S., Jr. (1963) Studies of Neotropical caddis flies, I: Rhyacophilidae and Glossosomatidae (Trichoptera). Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 114, 453–478.

Flint, O.S., Jr. (1967) Studies of Neotropical caddis flies, IV: new species from Mexico and Central America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 123, 1–24.

Flint, O.S., Jr. (1974) Studies of Neotropical caddisflies, XVIII: new species of Rhyacophilidae and Glossosomatidae (Trichoptera). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 169, 1–30.

Flint, O.S., Jr. (1991) Studies in Neotropical caddisflies, XLV: the taxonomy, phenology, and faunistics of the Trichoptera of Antioquia, Colombia. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 520, 1–113.

Flint, O.S., Jr., Holzenthal, R.W., & Harris, S.C. (1999) Catalog of the Neotropical Caddisflies (Trichoptera). Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio, 239 pp.

Holzenthal, R.W. & Andersen, T. (2004) The caddisfly genus Triaenodes in the Neotropics (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae). Zootaxa, 511, 1–80.

Morse, J.C. (1988) Protoptila morettii (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae), a new caddisfly species from the southeastern United States. Rivista di Idrobiologia, 27, 299–308.

Mosely, M.E. (1937) Mexican Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 86, 151–189.

Mosely, M.E. (1954) The Protoptila group of the Glossosomatinae (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, 3, 317–346.

Wiggins, G.B. (1996) Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), 2nd edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 457 pp.

UMSP

University of Minnesota Insect Collection

NMNH

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History