Alveospongia sinuosclera , Santos, George Garcia, Pinheiro, Ulisses, Hajdu, Eduardo & Soest, Rob Van, 2016

Santos, George Garcia, Pinheiro, Ulisses, Hajdu, Eduardo & Soest, Rob Van, 2016, New Genus and species of Heteroxyidae from Brazil (Axinellida: Demospongiae: Porifera), with a revised identification key for the family, Zootaxa 4158 (1), pp. 105-116: 108-112

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scientific name

Alveospongia sinuosclera

sp. nov.

Alveospongia sinuosclera  sp. nov.

( Figure 2View FIGURE 2, 3View FIGURE 3, 4View FIGURE 4, 5View FIGURE 5 F; Table 1)

Material examined. Holotype: UFPEPOR 1597, Off Canavieiras city (15°35’5.91” S, 38°46’36.35” W), Bahia State, Brazil, 25–50 m depth, VII.2011GoogleMaps  . Paratype: UFPEPOR 1625 (same locality).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific epithet “ sinuosclera  ” is used as a noun in apposition, and refers to the sinuous acanthomicrostrongyles present in the new species.

Diagnosis. As for the genus.

Description of type material. The holotype ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A –D) is a saccular sponge, 30 x 15 x 1.1 mm (height x length x wall thickness), bearing scattered circular pseudoscular openings flush with surface (1–2 mm in diameter, Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A –B). Microhispid surface. Body easily compressible and resilient. Color beige (ethanol 96 %). The paratype is an alveolate sponge, 39 x 17 x 1.1 mm (height x length x wall thickness), microhispid surface, easily compressible and resilient. Color beige (ethanol 96 %).

Skeleton ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A –B). The ectosomal architecture is a layer of mostly tangentially placed, confusedly strewn megascleres, with some of the larger spicules protruding beyond the surface. The choanosomal skeleton exhibits a vague reticulation produced by loose multispicular tracts with no trace of spongin, intermingled with dispersed single styles/strongyles. A few canals or lacunae (120–590 µm in diameter) are also visible. Microscleres are distributed all over, but are not very common.

Spicules ( Fig. 3–4View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4). Megascleres ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 C –Q; 4A –B): styles to strongyles and intermediate forms, smooth, usually straight, with a fairly high percentage (~90 %) of malformations, in which one end of the spicule may be looped (Holotype: 241– 342.9 –411 / 4.7– 7.2 –10.7 µm; Paratype: 229– 323.2 –363 / 5.7– 8.1 –9.7 µm). Microscleres ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 C –E): sinuous, thin, acanthomicrostrongyles, sometimes ramified and curved (Holotype: 69– 83.0 –105 / 1.9– 2.0 –2.3 µm; Paratype: 59– 85.8 –112 / 1.8– 2.1 –2.3 µm).

TABLE I. Main morphological characters of Alveospongia  gen. nov. contrasteđ to those of ađđitional genera currently classifieđ within the Heteroxyiđae  accorđing to van Soest et al. (2016).

References are numbeređ in parentheses anđ listeđ at the foot of the table.

Genus Alveospongia  Acanthoclada  Alloscleria  Desmoxya  Didiscus  Heteroxya  Julavis  Microxistyla  Myrmekioderma  Negombo  Parahigginsia  gen. nov.

Growth form saccular or thickly small encrusting or massive- thickly thickly encrusting- massive or massive fistular erect, lamellate alveolate encrusting calcareous massive amorphous to encrusting encrusting massive encrusting anđ lobate

bođy lobate

Ectosomal layer of đense cortex of n.r. formeđ by thick, tough perpenđicu- smaller erect, plumose without specialiseđ tangential surface containing only

skeleton tangentially birrotules acanthoxe-as crust lar palisađe spineđ bunđles of spiculation although layer of spongin anđ placeđ composeđ of of smaller strongyles smooth smaller (acanth- saniđaster-like scatteređ megascleres smaller oxeas acanthoxe-as lying microxeas)oxeas protruđe from acanthose acanthoxeas lying strewn in tangential to forming nearly subectosomal region microrhabđs tangential to confusion surface continuous surface palisađe on


Choanosomal vague lax, composeđ parallel tracts vaguely confuseđ confuseđ halichon- confuseđ collagenous, halichonđroiđ conđenseđ axial

skeleton reticulation in of ascenđing of styles plumo- rađial tracts arrange-ment đroiđ halichonđroiđ confuseđ tracts of large reticulation of all đirections tracts of long forming a reticulate of generally of spicules reticulation reticulation of halichonđroiđ mass styles anđ/or oxeas forming smooth styles halichonđro-iđ larger oxeas anđ vague smooth robust of larger oxeas irregular isotropic skeleton reticulation styles without choanosomal tracts fibres megascleres

(acanthoxeas, oxeas, strongyles, styles)

Megascleres styles/strongy- smooth styles, smooth styles / strongylote oxeas smooth or vermiform styles two đistinct smooth styles anđ smooth oxeas of a les (with varieđ rhabđostyles strongyles or oxeote anđ spineđ acanthose categories of oxeas oxeas single category tips) acanthoxea hastate strongyles, (acanthose),

oxeas/tor- anđ longer strongyles, or more notes, anđ smooth rarely styles

acanthoxe-as strongyles/


Microscleres sinuous acanthose centrotylote raphiđes điscorhabđ- absent raphiđes acanthomi- raphiđes acanthose acanthose acanthomi- clađotoxas anđ acanthoxeas like croxeas microrhabđs microxeas crostrongyles birotules (saniđasters)

Distribution Bahia State New Zealanđ France (2) Australia (3) Brazil, North Tuvalu, NE Atlantic Wiđely đistributeđ Japan, Sri Lanka, known only from ( Brazil) (1) Caribean, Atlantic (1) central anđ Sea of in shallow tropical Tanzania (1) New Zealanđ (1)

Međiterra- Pacific, anđ Okhotsk (1) anđ subtropical

nean, NE Jamaica (1) oceans (1)

Atlantic, W



Inđonesia (1)

References: (1) Hooper (2002); (2) Topsent (1927); (3) Hallmann (1917).

Distribution ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). So far known only from the type locality, Off Canavieiras (Bahia, Brazil), at 25–50 m depth.