Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827

Grootaert, Patrick & Shamshev, Igor V., 2012, The fast-running flies (Diptera, Hybotidae, Tachydromiinae) of Singapore and adjacent regions, European Journal of Taxonomy 5, pp. 1-162: 66-77

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.5

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B69F002A-C1A0-439D-9477-62BFA87DEAD7

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scientific name

Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827
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Genus Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827 

Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827: 86  . Type-species: Tachydromia ephippiata Fallén, 1815  , by monotypy. Ctenodrapetis Bezzi, 1904: 351 (as subgenus of Drapetis  ). Type-species: Drapetis (Ctenodrapetis) ciliatocosta Bezzi, 1904  by subsequent designation of Melander (1928: 309).

Recognition

The genus Elaphropeza  can be distinguished from other genera of the Drapetini  by the following combination of characters: occiput convex, antennae not upturned, postpedicel conical, its lower margin as straight as upper, stylus apical, anepisternum bare, wing with shortened cell br, abdominal tergites with squamiform setae, intersegmental modifications present between tergites 3-5 or 4-5.

Diagnosis

Small flies with body length 1.5-3.0 mm. Frons with sides divergent above. Face linear, narrow. Two pairs of vertical bristles, outer pair often only slightly prominent. Ocellar tubercle with 2 pairs of bristles but posterior pair usually minute. Antenna with pedicel bearing circlet of subequally short setae; postpedicel conical, of varying lengths; stylus terminal, arista-like, usually long. Gena not extended or, sometimes, barely extended below eye. Palpus elongate-ovate, usually small and with distinct apical seta but sometimes ( E. palpata de Meijere, 1911  ) long, strip-like, lacking apical seta. Thorax usually yellow, often with brownish black markings forming specific pattern, but sometimes uniformly brown to black, shining. Prothoracic episternum with (or without) 1 long upturned bristle just above fore coxa and usually 1 short bristle in upper part. Postpronotal bristle usually not prominent but sometimes present. Mesonotal bristles usually very prominent. Anepisternum bare. Legs long, slender, sometimes slightly thickened; hind tibia always with apical projection clothed in dense brownish setulae, lacking prominent bristles or bearing 1-2 (rarely more, E. palpata  ) anterodorsal bristles about middle and (or) 1-2 curved subapical bristles; also, sometimes 2 posterodorsal bristles present. Wings usually normally developed or sometimes narrow, with axillary lobe greatly reduced; more or less infuscate, hyaline or with distinct pattern; Rs originating before halfway along R 1, longer than crossvein bm-cu; R 2+3 evenly curved, complete; R 4+5 and M 1+2 parallel or slightly divergent near wing apex, usually both more or less straight; A 1 very weak, fold-like or absent; crossvein CuA 2 absent; crossvein bm-cu transverse or oblique; cell br always markedly shorter than cell bm but varying in length, usually about as long as half of cell bm, sometimes distinctly shorter. Halter with knob yellow to black. Abdomen with tergites 1-5 varying in shape and degree of sclerotisation; tergites 3 and 4 often broadest; tergite 5 usually very narrow; tergites 6-7 usually unmodified, of subequal width but sometimes modified; segment 8 always short, partially concealed by segment 7, rarely modified. Squamiform setae usually present on tergites 3, 4 and 5, or 4 and 5, sometimes restricted to one of these tergites or rarely absent ( E. lanuginosa Bezzi, 1914  ). Sternites usually unmodified, weakly sclerotised, sternites 3-5 often divided along midline. Gland-like intersegmental structures present between tergites 4 and 5 or between tergites 3, 4 and 5. Gland-like structures usually simple plate-like, but sometimes vessel-like. Terminalia rotated 90° to right; epandrium completely divided. Left epandrial lamella small and fused to hypandrium; left surstylus divided into 3 lobes, upper lobe without surstylar comb but sometimes with spines; right epandrial lamella usually large, positioned ventrally; right surstylus absent or present; if present, undivided, usually differentiated from and weakly articulated with epandrium; cerci separated or fused (sometimes incompletely) forming single lobe, sometimes bearing spines; hypandrium usually with 2 setae on apical portion; phallus very short or elongate and coiled, sometimes greatly double spiralled; one or two rod-shaped apodemes (i.e. ejaculatory and ventral apodemes) present. Female similar to male, sexual dimorphism slightly prominent, usually including only lack of ventral spinules on mid tibia; terminalia short to elongate; tergite 8 not fused or fused laterally with sternite 8; sternite 8 with or without folded apex; cercus elongate-ovate or broad-ovate.

Remarks

Elaphropeza  is second large genus of Tachydromiinae  after Platypalpus  and the largest group among Drapetini  genera. It has clear circumtropical distribution and currently includes 212 named species worldwide: Palaearctic – 4, Nearctic – 2, Afrotropics – 22, Australasia – 16, Neotropics – 35, Oriental – 133 ( Freitas-Silva & Ale-Rocha 2009; Grootaert & Shamshev 2009b; Shamshev & Grootaert 2007,

2009b). However, it is evident that this number is far from the real number of included species, because the genus has been only studied very locally.

Elaphropeza  is very diverse and quite common in Singapore, with 52 described species ( Shamshev & Grootaert 2007). However, thanks to the ' Singapore Mangrove Insects Project' during which 11 mangrove sites in Singapore were intensively sampled during four weeks in May-June 2009, additional data on 25 species of Elaphropeza  were recorded. Among them we found 8 new species for science and the males of E. modesta  and E. feminata  are recorded for the first time. That is why we give below the new data on the Elaphropeza  with descriptions of new species.

Adult Elaphropeza  are leaf-dwellers. Although nothing is known about the feeding habits of the adults, the strong hook-shaped labrum suggests that they are predators like most other Tachydromiinae  . A short note by Patnaik & Satpay (1984) suggests that the larvae are (hyper)parasites on other Diptera  . However, this observation needs confirmation. The ovipositor appear not adapted for digging in soil, lacking shovel-like spines (acanthae) like in most Dolichopodidae  and some Brachystomatidae  , but that leaves open all kinds of speculation.

Most species of Elaphropeza  have a habitat preference. A number of species with a black thorax occurs in sun-lit areas such as swamps where they are found on the leaves of short grasses. In Nee Soon, E. neesoonensis  was observed exclusively in the sunny-exposed marshland and was never caught in the surrounding forest. In the forest, species generally have a completely yellow thorax. A similar phenomenon occurs in forest-dwelling Platypalpus  and many Dolichopodidae  .

Most Elaphropeza  are terrestrial, but in the present study we found 43 species of Elaphropeza  occurring in mangroves. Twenty-two species are found exclusively in mangroves and two species that are dominant in mangroves have a few records in terrestrial forests. Dominant mangrove species are E. limosa  , E. monospina  , E. murphyi  , E. asexa  , E. crassicercus  , E. malayensis  , E. feminata  and E. riatanae  . The other species are found with less than 10 individuals. Ubiquist or eurytope species such as E. biuncinata  (2 ind. in mangroves of a total of 106 in other habitats in Singapore) and E. bicaudata  (9 ind. in mangroves of a total of 230 in Singapore), that are dominant in terrestrial habitats, occur only in very small numbers in mangroves. Apparently adaptation to the marine environment is specific so that even ubiquist species that can tolerate anthropogenic habitats are rare in marine habitats.

Shamshev & Grootaert (2007) arranged all species of Elaphropeza  into two informal species groups, namely the E. ephippiata  and E. biuncinata  groups, keyed below. We follow that subdivision again here. Within these proposed groups, the species are further divided into species complexes. The subdivision of the E. ephippiata  group is based on the presence of anterodorsal bristles on the hind tibia. Within this group two species complexes are recognised: 1) hind tibia lacking prominent bristles; 2) hind tibia with 1-2 anterodorsal bristles in middle.

The subdivision of the E. biuncinata  group is based on the presence of curved subapical bristles on the hind tibia. Within this group three species complexes are recognised: 1) hind tibia with 2 curved subapical bristles ( Fig. 113View Figs 109-116); 2) hind tibia with 1 curved subapical bristle; 3) hind tibia lacking prominent bristles.

It should be noted that this classification of the species complexes does not reflect completely (especially in the E. ephippiata  group) the phylogenetic relationships of the species included. The application of the classification proposed was stimulated rather for practical purposes. All species of Elaphropeza  treated below are arranged following this subdivision.

The key to species is solely based on the version presented in our earlier paper ( Shamshev & Grootaert 2007) and, thus, it is not limited to the species of Singapore but can be used for the whole Oriental Region. An updated key includes, besides new species described herein, some corrections, which could improve its diagnostic value, and three recently described species from Viet Nam ( Grootaert & Shamshev 2009b).

Key to Elaphropeza  species groups of the Oriental Region

1. Proepisternum bare just above fore coxa. Abdominal tergite 3 with unmodified setae, lacking squamiform setae.................................................................................................. E. ephippiata  group

- Proepisternum with long upturned bristle just above fore coxa. Abdominal tergite 3 with numerous squamiform setae............................................................................... E. biuncinata  group

Updated key to species of Elaphropeza  from the Oriental Region

1. Thorax entirely black or, rarely ( E. limosa Shamshev & Grootaert  and E. shufenae  sp. nov.) brownish (no paler markings on mesonotum or pleura).....................................................................................2

– Thorax yellow to reddish yellow (sometimes with brown or black markings)...................................22

2. Wing with more or less distinct pattern................................................................................................3

– Wing hyaline or uniformly infuscate....................................................................................................6

3. Hind tibia with 1 anterodorsal bristle. Postpedicel very short, 1.5 times as long as wide. All legs with tarsomere 5 black. Wing hyaline along anterior and posterior margins, otherwise brownish, including wing apex ( Indonesia, Java)...................................... E. strigifera ( de Meijere, 1911) 

– Hind tibia lacking anterodorsal bristles. Postpedicel long, 3-4 times longer than wide. Legs wholly yellow. Wing with different pattern....................................................................................................4

4. Wing deeply infuscate on basal half, with 2 brown spots in apical portion of cell r 1 and in basal part of cell r 2+3; apical half finely infuscate. Halter with brown knob ( Singapore).......................... ........................................................................................ E. darrenyeoi Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Wing with more or less distinct dark band in middle. Halter yellow.............................................5

5. Antenna wholly brownish yellow. Hind tibia lacking prominent bristles. Abdomen with tergite 3 and 4 bearing squamiform setae. Male: Right surstylus long, narrow, overlapping cerci ( Singapore) .................................................................................... E. singaporensis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Antenna with scape and pedicel yellow. Hind tibia bearing 2 straight subapical anterior bristles of different lengths. Abdomen with tergites 3, 4 and 5 bearing squamiform setae. Male: Right surstylus large, rather elongate oval, not overlapping cerci ( Singapore)... E. sime Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

6. Mid tibia with 1 long black flattened subapical posteroventral bristle; hind tibia narrowed in apical 1/3 with 1 strong anterodorsal bristle vertically sitting on tubercle and several appressed setae ( Singapore).............................................................................. E. pauper Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Mid tibia with ordinary subapical bristles. Hind tibia unmodified, with or without unmodified posteroventral bristles...........................................................................................................................7

[ Elaphropeza  sp. 51 recorded from Singapore and known only from a female specimen would key out

here]

7. Hind tibia lacking anterodorsal bristles...............................................................................................8

– Hind tibia with 1 or 2 anterodorsal bristles......................................................................................13

8. Halter dark............................................................................................................................................9

– Halter yellow.......................................................................................................................................11

9. Fore and hind tibiae and hind femur, except broadly at base, wholly dark brown; otherwise legs brownish yellow ( India: West Bengal)...................................................................... E. bicoloripes Brunetti, 1913 

– Legs almost wholly yellow, only tarsomere 5 blackish or brownish near apex of hind femur above and hind tibia near base..................................................................................................................10

10. Palpus yellow. Acrostichal bristles biserial, dorsocentrals uniserial. Legs with tarsomere 5 blackish ( Malaysia)............................................................................ E. belumut Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Palpus brown. Acrostichal and dorsocentral bristles multiserial. Legs with hind femur near apex above and hind tibia near base brownish ( Singapore)..... E. chekjawa Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

11. Larger, about 3.0 mm. Stylus 1.5 times longer than postpedicel. Abdominal tergites 4 and 5 with squamiform setae ( Singapore)............................................ E. temasek Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Smaller, about 1.5 mm. Stylus as long as postpedicel. Only abdominal tergite 5 with squamiform setae................................................................................................................................12

12. Legs with tarsomeres 3-5 brownish yellow. Male: cerci forming single tapered lobe ( Singapore)... .................................................................................... E. neesoonensis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Legs with tarsomere 5 black, remaining tarsomeres yellowish. Male: cerci forming single digitiform sinuate lobe ( Singapore)............................................................ E. yeoi Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

13. Hind tibia with 1 anterodorsal bristle..................................................................................................14

– Hind tibia with 2 anterodorsal bristles......................................................................................19

14. Antenna entirely brown. Thorax brownish........................................................................................15

– Antenna entirely or partly yellow. Thorax black.....................................................................16

15. Antennal stylus nearly as long as postpedicel. Palpus brownish yellow. Male: cerci separated, epandrium with scattered moderately long setae ( Singapore)....................... E. shufenae  sp. nov.

– Antennal stylus nearly 1.5 times as long as postpedicel. Palpus yellow. Male: cerci entirely fused into one digitiform lobe; epandrium with numerous very long setae ( Figs 124-126View Figs 123-126) ( Singapore) ............................................................................................... E. limosa Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

16. Fore tarsomeres 2-5 with dark rings at apex of each segment ( Singapore).................................... ............................................................................................... E. meieri Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Fore tarsus entirely yellow or with tarsomere 5 brown...................................................................17

17. Fore tarsus entirely yellow. Abdomen reddish yellow in basal half and black apically ( Sri Lanka) ........................................................................................................................... E. basalis Bezzi, 1904 

– Fore tarsomere 5 brown. Abdominal tergites 1-3 represented by pairs of long triangular lateral sclerites...........................................................................................................................................18

18. Antenna entirely yellow. Two pairs of vertical bristles present ( China, Guangxi).......................... ............................................................................................................. E. liui Yang & Gaimari, 2005 

– Antenna with postpedicel brownish yellow. One pair of vertical bristles present ( China, Guangxi).. ................................................................................................. E. guangxiensis (Yang & Yang, 1992) 

19. Mid tibia with 1 anterodorsal bristle at middle. Acrostichal bristles lacking ( Nepal).................. ...................................................................................................................... E. kala ( Smith, 1965) 

– Mid tibia lacking prominent bristles (except subapicals). Acrostichal bristles present, multiserial..........................................................................................................................................20

20. Antenna with postpedicel dark brown, scape and pedicel paler, brownish yellow. Hind femur brownish on apical 2/3 ( China: Guangdong)................. E. nankunshanensis Yang & Grootaert, 2006 

– Antenna entirely blackish. Hind femur black on apical half.............................................................21

21. Palpus brown. Tibiae and tarsi dark, wholly brown ( China, Guangxi)............................................... ........................................................................................ E. maoershanensis Yang & Grootaert, 2006 

– Palpus yellow. Tibiae and tarsi almost wholly yellow, only tarsomere 5 brown ( China, Henan)... .............................................................................................. E. henanensis Saigusa & Yang, 2002 

22. Occiput yellow, sometimes with dark spot near neck; rarely light brownish yellow ( E. ferruginea Brunetti  )..........................................................................................................................23

– Occiput black..................................................................................................................................44

23. Palpus elongate, strap-like, black on apical third. Larger (about 3.0 mm) ( Indonesia, Java; Singapore; Cambodia).............................................................................. E. palpata de Meijere, 1911 

– Palpus short ovate, wholly yellow. Smaller (about 2.0 mm).............................................24

24. Fore tibia with 1-2 short but distinct dorsal bristles.....................................................................25

– Fore tibia lacking dorsal bristles.............................................................................................29

25. Mid tibia with 1 anterodorsal bristle.............................................................................................26

– Mid tibia lacking prominent bristles (except subapicals)..................................................27

26. Scutellum smoothly arched. Hind tibia with only 1 anterodorsal bristle. Abdominal tergites 4 and 5 with squamiform setae ( Singapore) .................................... E. bezzii Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Scutellum truncate. Hind tibia with 1 anterodorsal and 2 curved subapical bristles. Abdominal tergites 3, 4 and 5 with squamiform setae ( Singapore).... E. combinata Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

27. Scutum wholly yellow. Hind tibia lacking prominent bristles ( Sri Lanka)................................... ...................................................................................................... E. distincta Senior-White, 1922 

– Scutum with indistinct brownish patch above wing base. Hind tibia with 1 anterodorsal and 1 short straight subapical bristle......................................................................................................28

28. Anterior ocellar bristles long, posterior ocellars minute. Tarsomere 5 of all legs brown ( Singapore) ...................................................................................................... E. ngi Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Anterior and posterior ocellar bristles subequally moderately long. Legs wholly yellow ( Singapore) ............................................................................................... E. spicata Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

29. Hind tibia lacking prominent bristles...........................................................................................30

– Hind tibia with curved subapical bristle(s), or with anterodorsal bristle(s) in middle......32

30. Scutum uniformly yellow. Scutellum blackish. Halter pale yellow ( India: W Bengal)........................................................................................................................................ E. ferruginea Brunetti, 1913 

– Scutum with brownish patch on each side. Scutellum yellow. Halter with dark knob...........31

[ Elaphropeza  sp. 50 recorded from Singapore and known only from a female specimen would key out

here]

31. Scutum with short narrow patch above wing base. Anepisternum (= mesopleuron) with large brown spot ( Singapore).............................................................. E. benitotani Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Scutum with brownish patch just behind anterior corner. Anepisternum yellow ( Singapore).......... ............................................................................................ E. sylvicola Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

32. Hind tibia with curved subapical bristle(s), no anterodorsal bristle(s) in middle....................33

– Hind tibia without curved subapical bristle(s) but with anterodorsal bristle(s) in middle part (rarely, E. luteoides Shamshev, Grootaert  , short straight subapical bristle present)...................................39

33. Hind tibia with 1 curved subapical bristle..........................................................................................34

– Hind tibia with 2 curved subapical bristles....................................................................….......36

34. Scutellum smoothly arched ( Singapore)..................... E. flavicaput Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Scutellum truncate at apex............................................................................................................35

35. Male: right epandrial lamella with unmodified setation, bearing numerous moderately long setae (Si ngapore)....................................................................... E. monacantha Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Male: right epandrial lamella with 3 very long unmodified subapical setae and 2 very long squamiform setae ( Fig. 163View Figs 161-164) ( Singapore)......................................................... E. collini  sp. nov.

[Females of these species unknown]

36. Wing darkened on basal half. Hind femur brown on apical 2/3.......................................................37

– Wing uniformly finely infuscate. Hind femur entirely yellow..............................................38

37. Scutum broadly brown along margin but yellow on prescutellar depression. Wing brownish infuscate on basal half, border between darker basal half and paler apical half indistinct ( Singapore)........................................................................... E. spiralis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Scutum with brownish patch on anterior corner, otherwise yellow. Wing yellowish infuscate on apical half, border between darker basal half and paler apical half distinct ( Singapore)................. ................................................................................................. E. yangi Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

38. Scutum with 2 elongate brownish spots on each side. Male genitalia: Figs 110-112View Figs 109-116 ( Singapore)......................................................................................... E. melanderi Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Scutum uniformly yellow ( Philippines, Singapore)..................... E. biuncinata ( Melander, 1928) 

[ Elaphropeza  sp. 57 recorded from Singapore and known only from a female specimen would key out

here]

39. Hind tibia with 1 anterodorsal bristle..............................................................................................40

– Hind tibia with 2 (sometimes 3) anterodorsal bristles in middle......................................................42

40. Scutellum, metanotum and metapleuron black (Taiwan) ................... E. xanthocephala Bezzi, 1912 

– Thorax entirely yellow........................................................................................................................41

41. Antenna with postpedicel yellow. Halter with dark knob ( Singapore)............................................. .......................................................................................... E. luteoides Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Antenna with postpedicel brown. Halter yellow ( Indonesia: Java)............. E. lutea (de Meijere, 1919) 

42. Postpedicel yellow. Thorax entirely yellow to reddish yellow. Acrostichals biserial ( Nepal)........... ............................................................................................................................. E. coei ( Smith, 1965) 

– Postpedicel black. Thorax with meron (= hypopleuron) and scutellum black. Acrostichals multiserial.................................................................................................................43

43. Fore tibia and all tarsi (except hind basitarsus) brownish. Metapleuron yellow ( Sri Lanka)......... ................................................................................................ E. nigropunctata Senior-White, 1922 

– Legs wholly yellow. Metapleuron brown ( Nepal)....................................... E. ukhalo ( Smith, 1965) 

44. Wing with more or less distinct pattern.......................................................................................45

– Wing hyaline or uniformly infuscate...............................................................................................46

45. Thorax brown, except prosternum, entire anepisternum and postalar callus yellow. Hind tibia lacking prominent bristles. Wing darkened on basal half (darker in middle of cell r 1 and in basal part of cell r 2+3), otherwise almost hyaline ( Singapore).... E. pluriacantha Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Thorax entirely yellow. Hind tibia with 3 anterodorsal bristles. Wing brownish infuscate, darker near middle of anterior margin ( Sri Lanka)................... E. fulvithorax van der Wulp, 1897 

46. Hind tibia lacking prominent bristles.............................................................................................47

– Hind tibia with subapical bristle(s) and/or with anterodorsal bristle(s)..................................54

47. Cross-vein bm-cu strongly oblique. Scutum with blackish spot above wing base and median vitta in anterior part ( Indonesia, Java)................................................... E. obliquinervis de Meijere, 1914 

– Cross-vein bm-cu transverse or somewhat oblique. Scutum uniformly coloured or with different pattern...................................................................................................................................48

48. Scutum uniformly yellow coloured..................................................................................................49

– Scutum with distinct brown pattern................................................................................................53

49. Prothoracic episterna lacking long upturned bristle just above fore coxa. Abdominal tergite 3 lacking squamiform setae. Antennal stylus normally pubescent. Halter entirely yellow. Male: abdominal segment 8 unmodified ( Singapore)............. E. sivasothii Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Prothoracic episterna with 1 long upturned bristle just above fore coxa. Abdominal tergite 3 with squamiform setae. Different combination of characters.............................50

50. Halter with dark knob. Acrostichal bristles extending to base of scutellum. Metanotum reddish yellow. Legs entirely yellow. (Male unknown. Sri Lanka)........ E. plumicornis Senior-White, 1922 

– Halter entirely yellow. Different combination of characters..............................................51

51. Abdominal tergites 3 and 4 with squamiform setae; gland-like structure present between tergites 3 and 4. Acrostichal bristles lacking on prescutellar depression. Legs entirely yellow. Male: segment 8 unmodified ( Viet Nam).......................... E. hirsutiterga Grootaert & Shamshev, 2009 

– Abdominal tergites 3, 4 and 5 with squamiform setae; gland-like structures present between tergites 3-4 and 4-5. Scutum entirely covered with setae. Legs with tarsomere 5 darkened. Male: segment 8 modified............................................................................................................................52

52. Metanotum reddish yellow. Male: abdominal segment 8 with slightly prominent projection bearing several moderately long strong setae ( Viet Nam)........ E. cattiensis Grootaert & Shamshev, 2009 

– Metanotum brownish yellow. Male: abdominal segment 8 with short, broad projection bearing several marginal spinules ( Viet Nam)..................... E. vietnamensis Grootaert & Shamshev, 2009 

53. Scutum broadly brown along margin but yellow on prescutellar depression. Male: mid femur with ventral tubercle near base ( Malaysia, P. Tioman)..... E. tiomanensis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Scutum with broad brown median vitta. Mid femur slender in both sexes........................................ ............................................................................................. E. acanthi Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

[ Elaphropeza  sp. 58 recorded from Singapore and known only from a female specimen would key out

here]

54. Hind tibia with curved subapical bristle(s), no anterodorsal bristle(s)..............................................55

– Hind tibia without curved subapical bristles, but with anterodorsal bristle(s) in middle part..........59

55. Hind tibia with 1 strong, black, curved subapical bristle..................................................................56

– Hind tibia with 2 strong, black, curved subapical bristles........................................................57

56. Metanotum entirely brown ( Singapore).................... E. crassicercus Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Metanotum largely yellow ( Singapore)............................... E. luanae Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

[ Elaphropeza  sp. 46 recorded from Singapore and known only from a female specimens would key out

here]

57. Scutum with brownish spot above wing base ( Sri Lanka)........ E. notatithorax Senior-White, 1922 

– Scutum uniformly yellow...............................................................................................................58

58. Stylus 4.0-4.5 times as long as postpedicel. Metanotum brownish yellow to brownish ( Indonesia, Java; Singapore; Malaysia; Thailand)............................................... E. hirsutitibia de Meijere, 1914 

– Stylus nearly 2.0 times as long as postpedicel. Metanotum yellow ( Singapore).............................. ........................................................................................... E. murphyi Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

59. Hind tibia with 1 anterodorsal bristle.......................................................................................60

– Hind tibia with 2 anterodorsal bristles..............................................................................79

60. Scutum with brown pattern..............................................................................................................61

– Scutum entirely yellow.....................................................................................................................66

61. Scutellum entirely yellow................................................................................................................62

– Scutellum entirely or in middle dark brown..........................................................................63

62. Abdominal sternite 4 with 2 tubercles. Elongate brownish patch on anterior corner of scutum and above notopleural depression ( Singapore)....... E. bulohensis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Abdominal sternite 4 ordinary. Scutum with large brown elongate subtriangular patch on each side. Male genitalia: Figs 166-168View Figs 165-168 ( Singapore).......................................................... E. kranjiensis  sp. nov.

63. Scutellum dark brown in middle. Scutum with dark brown median vitta abbreviated behind and spot above notopleuron ( Philippines)........................................................... E. uniseta Melander, 1918 

– Scutellum wholly brown to black. Scutum with different pattern......................................................64

64. Postpedicel long, about 5.0 times longer than wide. Scutum with small brownish patch above wing base including postalar callus ( Singapore)...................... E. riatanae Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Postpedicel shorter, 2.0-3.0 times longer than wide. Scutum with complicated pattern..............65

65. Antenna brownish yellow. Hind tarsomere 1 with spine-like ventral seta near base. Veins R 4+5 and M 1+2 somewhat divergent near wing apex. Smaller (about 2.0 mm) ( Singapore)...................... ...................................................................................... E. monospina Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

–Antenna with scape and pedicel yellow, postpedicel black. Hind tarsomere 1 with unmodified setation. Veins R 4+5 and M 1+2 parallel near wing apex.Larger(2.8-3.3mm)(Taiwan) ..... E. pictithorax Bezzi, 1912 

66. Hind tibia with long pointed apical projection. Scutellum and metanotum brown. Acrostichal bristles lacking on prescutellar depression. Halter yellow (Taiwan) ........ E. calcarifera Bezzi, 1907 

– Hind tibia with short, rounded apical projection. Different combination of characters....................67

67. Scutellum entirely yellow................................................................................................................68

– Scutellum largely brown or black.....................................................................................................74

68. Acrostichal bristles extending to base of scutellum. Halter darkened...........................................69

– Acrostichal bristles lacking on prescutellar depression. Halter yellow............................................70

69. Postpedicel about 6.0 times longer than wide. Metanotum reddish-yellow ( Singapore)................ .......................................................................................... E. asiophila Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Postpedicel about 4.5 times longer than wide. Metanotum brownish ( Singapore)........................... ......................................................................................... E. ubinensis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

[ Elaphropeza  sp. 49 recorded from Singapore and known only from a female specimen would key out

here]

70. Fore tibia and tarsus, mid and hind tarsomere 5 brownish. Abdominal tergites 4 and 5 with squamiform setae. Male: cerci broadly fused, digitiform; right epandrial lamella truncate apically, lacking spines......................................................................... E. furca Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Legs with only tarsomere 5 brown. Abdominal tergite 4 with slightly flattened setae, tergite 5 with squamiform setae................................................................................................................................71

71. Postpedicel nearly 4.0 times as long as wide. Male: fore tibia with black subapical spine or spine-like seta anteriorly; right epandrial lamella conical..............................................................72

– Postpedicel nearly 3.0 times as long as wide. Male: fore tibia with unmodified setation; right epandrial lamella truncate apically....................................................................................................73

72. Antennal stylus nearly as long as postpedicel. Male: fore tibia with black subapical spine anteriorly; right epandrial lamella 4 brownish subapical spines (3 spines closer to each other and 1 spine aside) ( Fig. 137View Figs 136-139) ( Singapore).................................................................... E. chanae  sp. nov.

– Antennal stylus nearly 1.5 times as long as postpedicel. Male: fore tibia with black subapical spinelike seta anteriorly; right epandrial lamella with unmodified setation, lacking spines ( Fig. 141View Figs 140-143) ( Singapore).............................................................................................................. E. gohae  sp. nov.

73. Larger: 2.1-2.2 mm. Male: right epandrial lamella with 3 black spines apically ( Figs 133-135View Figs 132-135) ( Malaysia, Singapore).................................................. E. malayensis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Smaller: 1.7-1.8 mm. Male: right epandrial lamella with unmodified setation, lacking spines ( Figs 145-147View Figs 144-147) ( Singapore)...................................................................................................... E. lowi  sp. nov.

74. Scutellum brown medially. Stylus as long as scape, pedicel and postpedicel combined (Taiwan) ..... ..................................................................................................................... E. marginalis Bezzi, 1912 

– Scutellum entirely brown or black. Stylus as long as or longer than scape, pedicel and postpedicel combined...............................................................................................................................75

75. Stylus nearly 2.0 times as long as scape, pedicel and postpedicel combined..........................76

– Stylus at most as long as scape, pedicel and postpedicel combined............................................78

76. Thorax with hypopleuron largely brown. Halter with dark knob ( Singapore)................................ .......................................................................................... E. singulata Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Thorax with hypopleuron yellow. Halter yellow..............................................................................77

77. Antennal stylus thick, with densely long pubescence. Veins R 4+5 and M 1+2 divergent near wing-apex. Smaller (about 1.5 mm) ( Philippines)...................................................... E. aristalis ( Melander, 1918) 

– Antennal stylus with normal pubescence. Veins R 4+5 and M 1+2 parallel near wing-apex. Larger (2.5- 2.7 mm) (Taiwan) ...................................................................................................... E. kerteszi Bezzi 

78. Legs with fore tibia and tarsus wholly brown, hind femur near apex above brownish ( Singapore) ............................................................................................ E. riatanae Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Legs only with tarsomere 5 brown to black.....................................................................................79

79. Acrostichal bristles lacking on prescutellar depression...................................................................80

– Acrostichal bristles extending to base of scutellum..........................................................................81

80. Larger (about 2.5 mm). Male: cerci narrowly fused; right epandrial lamella with unmodified setae subapically; left surstylus with shallow notch apically ( Figs 153-155View Figs 152-155). Female: abdominal segment 8 modified ( Singapore)..................................... E. feminata Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Smaller (about 2.0 mm). Male: cerci entirely fused forming single subrectangular lobe; right epandrial lamella bearing 4 short subapical spine-like setae, left surstylus produced apically ( Figs 157-158View Figs 156-160). Female: unknown ( Singapore)............................ E. semakau  sp. nov.

81. Antenna entirely yellow. Male genitalia: Figs 149-151View Figs 148-151 ( Singapore)............................................ ........................................................................................... E. modesta Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Antenna with scape and pedicel yellow, postpedicel brown (Taiwan)......... E. melanura Bezzi, 1912 

82. Scutum entirely yellow....................................................................................................................83

– Scutum with more or less distinct pattern......................................................................................90

83. Scutellum with black spot in middle or wholly black.....................................................................84

– Scutellum entirely yellow...................................................................................................................85

84. Scutellum entirely black. Hind tibia with 2 posterodorsal bristles in middle................................. ........................................................................................ E. demeijerei Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Scutellum with black spot in middle. Hind tibia lacking posterodorsal bristles (Taiwan) ................. ...................................................................................................................... E. scutellaris Bezzi, 1912 

85. Halter dark…....................................................................................................................................86

– Halter pale yellow..............................................................................................................................87

86. Fore tibia with 1 short anterodorsal bristle. Metanotum brown medially. Wing with veins R 2+3, R 4+5 and M 1+2 dark brown ( Singapore)............... E. asexa Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

– Fore tibia lacking prominent anterodorsal bristles. Metanotum wholly yellow. Wing with veins yellowish to brownish yellow. Male genitalia: Figs 118-120View Figs 117-122 ( Philippines; Singapore; Malaysia)... ........................................................................................................... E. bicaudata ( Melander, 1928) 

87. Legs with tibiae and tarsi brownish..............................................................................................88

– Legs with tarsomere 5 blackish.......................................................................................................89

88. Metapleuron entirely reddish yellow ( Nepal).......................................... E. litoralis ( Smith, 1965) 

– Metapleuron blackish on upper part ( Sri Lanka).................. E. abdominenotata Senior-White, 1922 

89. Veins R 4+5 and M 1+2 divergent near wing apex ( Philippines)......... E. acrodactyla ( Melander, 1928) 

– Veins R 4+5 and M 1+2 parallel near wing apex (Taiwan)................................ E. formosae Bezzi, 1907 

90. Scutellum entirely yellow. Scutum with single, more or less distinct spot on each side [except E. equalis Shamshev & Grootaert  and, sometimes, E. variata (Melander)  ].......................................91

– Scutellum entirely black or with black spot in middle. Scutum with different pattern (except E. scutellaris Bezzi  )................................................................................................................................98

91. Antennal stylus very thick, with densely long pubescence..........................................................92

– Antennal stylus with normal pubescence........................................................................................93

92. Mid tibia with 1 anterodorsal bristle at middle. Legs with fore tarsomeres 2-5 and mid and hind tarsomere 5 black ( Nepal).................................................................................. E. uralo ( Smith, 1965) 

– Mid tibia lacking prominent bristles (except subapicals). Legs wholly yellow ( Philippines)............. .......................................................................................................... E. cuneipennis ( Melander, 1918) 

93. Halter with dark knob......................................................................................................................94

– Halter yellow.......................................................................................................................................95

94. Hind tarsomere 1 with tooth and bristle at base. Scutal spots rounded ( Sri Lanka)....................... .................................................................................................................. E. metatarsata Bezzi, 1904 

– Hind tarsomere 1 unmodified. Scutal spots subtriangular, longer than wide ( Indonesia, Java)........... .............................................................................................................. E. binotata ( de Meijere, 1911) 

95. Katepisternum (= sternopleuron) and hypopleuron with brownish patch on lower part.............97

– Katepisternum and hypopleuron yellow............................................................................................98

96. Mesonotum with large elliptical black spot above wing base. Hind tarsomere 5 long slender ( Nepal).................................................................................................... E. sanguensis ( Smith, 1965) 

– Mesonotum with brownish spot on notopleural depression, postalar callus and before scutellum on line of dorsocentral bristles. Hind tarsomere 5 somewhat thickened ( Singapore)..................... ........................................................................................ E. equalis Shamshev & Grootaert, 2007 

97. Fore and mid tibiae and almost entire tarsi of all legs dark brown, tarsomere 5 black ( China: Guangxi)............................................................................................ E. anae Yang & Gaimari, 2005 

– Legs entirely yellow ( Burma; India)....................................................... E. variata ( Melander, 1918) 

98. Hind tibia with long sharply pointed apical projection. Scutum with complicated pattern. Hind tibia and tarsus dark brown (Taiwan) .............................................. E. longicalcaris (Saigusa, 1965) 

– Hind tibia with slightly prominent, more or less rounded projection. Scutum with simple pattern. Hind tibia and tarsus yellow...............................................................................................................99

99. Scutellum wholly black..................................................................................................................100

– Scutellum with black spot in middle..............................................................................................101

100. Scutum with broad black vitta running to base of scutellum (Taiwan)... E. lanuginosa Bezzi, 1914 

– Scutum black on middle ( India: Maharashtra)......................................... E. discoidalis ( Bezzi, 1904) 

101. Antenna with stylus about 4.0 times longer than postpedicel. Scutum with distinct median vitta disappearing before prescutellar depression and elongate lateral spots ( Indonesia: Java).............. ............................................................................................................. E. lineola de Meijere, 1911 

– Antenna with stylus about 2.5 times longer than postpedicel. Scutum with indistinct lateral spots and indistinct vitta on anterior margin (Taiwan) ............................................ E. scutellaris Bezzi, 1912 

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Hybotidae

Loc

Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827

Grootaert, Patrick & Shamshev, Igor V. 2012
2012
Loc

Elaphropeza

Melander A. L. 1928: 309
Bezzi M. 1904: 351
Macquart J. 1827: 86