Pareiorhina rosai, Silva, Gabriel S. C., Roxo, Fábio F. & Oyakawa, Osvaldo T., 2016

Silva, Gabriel S. C., Roxo, Fábio F. & Oyakawa, Osvaldo T., 2016, Description of a new species of Pareiorhina (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil, Zootaxa 4107 (3), pp. 381-391: 382-386

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4107.3.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:99327359-4F8F-421F-8338-0505A625B681

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BD0B09-D759-FF8F-30CE-472CFA9FF834

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pareiorhina rosai
status

sp. n.

Pareiorhina rosai  , sp. n.

Fig. 1View FIGURE 1; Table 1

Holotype. MZUSP 118120, male, 47.3 mm SL, Brazil, Minas Gerais State, municipality of Congonhas, unknown river, tributary of rio Maranhão, rio Paraopeba, rio São Francisco basin, 20 ° 26 ' 39.6 "S 43 ° 53 ' 24.5 "W, 10 March 2014, coll. Pereira GA.

Paratypes. All from Brazil, Minas Gerais State, rio São Francisco basin (51 specimens). LBP 19656View Materials (7 males, 37.6 –42.0 mm SL, 6 females, 30.1–37.9 mm SL, 1 c&s, 38.4 mm SL, sex not determined), collected with holotype. LBP 6497 (1 male, 29.2 mm SL, 1 female, 30.7 mm SL), municipality of Brumadinho, unknown river, tributary of Rio das Velhas, 20 °05' 47.8 "S 44 °02' 32.9 "W, 17 June 2008, coll. Teixeira RAS, Silva GJC, Ferreira AT, Henriques JM. LBP 6536 (3 males, 33.3 – 29.5 mm SL, 1 male c&s, 31.4 mm SL, 15 females, 23.4–30.7 mm SL, 1 female c&s, 28.2 mm SL), municipality of Brumadinho, unknown river, tributary of Rio das Velhas, 20 °00' 37.1 "S 43 ° 58 ' 8.3 "W, 19 June 2008, coll. Teixeira RAS, Silva GJC, Ferreira AT, Henriques JM. LBP 16299View Materials (1 male c&s, 30.3 mm SL, 7 females, 20.4–28.4 mm SL, 1 female c&s, 28.0 mm SL), unknown river, tributary of rio Paraopeba, municipality of Nova Lima, 20 °06'04.9"S 43 ° 52 ' 39.5 "W, 12 June 2012, coll. Mehanna M, Ferreira AT, Devidé R, Ramirez RS. MZUSP 118121 (3 males, 40.2–41.4 mm SL, 1 female, 39.4 mm SL), collected with holotype. NUP 17759View Materials (1 male, 37.2 mm SL, 1 female, 29.8 mm SL), collected with holotype.

Diagnosis. Pareiorhina rosai  can be distinguished from all congeners, except P. brachyrhyncha  by having the dorsal surface of the caudal peduncle strongly concave (vs. a caudal peduncle flat in P. rudolphi  , slightly concave in P. cepta  and P. pelicicei  , and slightly concave with a ridge in P. carrancas  and P. hyptiorhachis  ). Additionally, the new species can be further distinguished from P. carrancas  , P. hyptiorhachis  , P. pelicicei  and P. rudolphi  by having 30 vertebrae (vs. 29 in P. hyptiorhachis  and P. pelicicei  , and 31 in P. carrancas  and P. rudolphi  ); from P. rudolphi  , P. carrancas  and P. hyptiorhachis  by having bicuspid teeth (vs. unicuspid teeth, both in premaxilla and dentary); from P. ce p t a and P. pelicicei  by having a conspicuous cylindrically-shaped papilla between the oral valve and premaxilla, Fig. 2 AView FIGURE 2. A (vs. a V -shaped papilla, Fig. 2View FIGURE 2. A B); from P. cepta  by having smaller odontodes along the snout margin, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 (vs. larger odontodes along the snout margin); from P. brachyrhyncha  , P. cepta  , P. hyptiorhachis  and P. pelicicei  by having a smaller orbital diameter, 7.5 –10.0% of HL (vs. 10.7–14.1 % of HL in P. brachyrhyncha  ; 10.7–14.8 % of HL in P. cepta  ; 11.1–15.5 % of HL in P. hyptiorhachis  ; 10.5–14.9 % of HL in P. pelicicei  ); from P. cepta  and P. rudolphi  by having a higher head width, 93.8–103.8 % of HL (vs. 83.4–90.5 % of HL in P. cepta  ; 65.5–82.1 % of HL in P. rudolphi  ); from P. brachyrhyncha  by having a shorter interorbital width, 29.3–36.9 % of HL (vs. 37.1–41.9 % of HL), a shorter predorsal length, 36.6–44.9 % of SL (vs. 45.6–48.9 % of SL), a shorter cleithral width, 27.9–31.3 % of SL (vs. 31.9–36.9 of SL) and a shorter caudal peduncle depth, 7.2–8.5 % of SL (vs. 8.9–10.7 % of SL).

P. rosai  , P.  rosai, 10 P.  rosai, , n= 6 Holotype Range Mean SD Range Mean SD Range Mean SD SL 47.3 36.5‾47.3 40.2 3.2 37.3‾47.3 41.7 3.1 36.5‾39.7 37.6 1.2 Percents of SL Predοrsal length 42.4 36.6‾44.9 42.9 2.0 36.6‾44.8 42.5 2.2 41.1‾44.9 43.6 1.4 Preanal length 58.8 55.6‾62.4 59.5 1.6 58.0‾61.3 59.4 0.9 55.6‾62.4 59.7 2.4 Head length 30.3 29.5‾33.6 31.0 1.0 29.5‾33.6 30.9 1.3 30.7‾31.8 31.3 0.4 Cleithral width 28.5 27.9‾31.3 29.7 1.0 27.9‾31.3 29.5 1.0 28.1‾31.3 30.1 1.1 Dοrsal-fin unbranched ray length 21.5 20.8‾25.3 22.6 1.2 20.8‾25.3 22.4 1.4 22.1‾24.0 22.9 0.8 Base οf dοrsal fin length 15.7 14.5‾19.0 16.8 1.2 14.5‾19.0 16.5 1.3 15.6‾18.1 17.2 0.8 Τhοrax length 13.4 13.2‾17.1 14.8 1.2 13.2‾17.1 14.8 1.3 13.2‾16.0 14.8 1.1 Pectοral-fin unbranched ray length 21.1 21.1‾25.9 23.5 1.3 21.1‾25.9 23.1 1.5 22.8‾25.0 24.1 0.8 Abdοmen length 24.3 22.6‾27.0 24.7 1.0 22.6‾26.4 24.4 0.9 23.8‾27.0 25.3 1.1 Pelvic-fin unbranched ray length 22.9 20.3‾25.2 22.1 1.2 21.3‾25.2 22.7 1.1 20.3‾22.5 21.1 0.8 Anal-fin length 15.1 12.6‾18.2 15.9 1.4 12.6‾18.2 16.0 1.5 14.1‾17.8 15.9 1.2 ventral unbranched caudal ray 23.0 19.1‾25.6 22.9 1.5 19.1‾24.4 22.6 1.4 20.8‾25.6 23.3 1.6 Caudal-peduncle depth 7.2 7.2‾8.5 7.9 0.3 7.2‾8.5 7.9 0.4 7.5‾8.5 7.9 0.3 Pοstanal length 37.1 32.8‾38.5 35.7 1.6 34.4‾38.3 35.7 1.4 32.8‾38.5 35.6 2.1 Anal width 13.8 12.2‾14.0 13.1 0.5 12.2‾14.0 13.2 0.5 12.7‾13.7 13.1 0.3 Percents of HL Head width 99.5 93.8‾103.8 97.0 2.5 93.8‾103.8 97.7 2.8 93.8‾98.7 95.9 1.7 Head depth 65.7 63.2‾75.2 68.3 2.6 63.2‾75.2 67.8 3.2 68.1‾69.9 69.3 0.7 Snοut length 60.7 54.9‾61.1 59.0 1.7 57.8‾61.1 59.8 1.1 54.9‾60.3 57.7 1.9 Interοrbital width 32.4 29.3‾36.9 34.1 1.9 31.7‾36.3 34.1 1.5 29.3‾36.9 34.0 2.5 Οrbital diameter 7.5 7.5‾10.0 8.5 0.6 7.5‾10.0 8.5 0.7 8.1‾9.5 8.6 0.4 Subοrbital depth 35.3 30.7‾36.5 33.7 1.6 32.8‾36.5 34.5 1.1 30.7‾34.6 32.4 1.6 Mandibular ramus 19.0 15.2‾20.7 18.2 1.2 15.2‾19.1 18.0 1.2 17.1‾20.7 18.3 1.2 Other Percents Anal width⁄cleithral width 48.6 41.5‾48.6 44.3 2.3 41.5‾48.6 44.8 2.6 42.4‾45.3 43.5 1.3 IΟ⁄ΟD 23.1 21.5‾32.5 25.4 2.5 21.5‾29.6 25.0 2.1 23.1‾32.5 25.5 3.4 IΟ⁄Mandibulary ramus 58.5 44.0‾60.5 53.4 4.6 44.0‾58.5 53.0 4.6 48.8‾60.5 54.1 4.8 PDS length⁄first dοrsal ray length 50.8 47.1‾61.5 52.7 3.6 47.1‾61.5 52.8 4.3 49.4‾55.2 52.5 2.1 CP length⁄CP depth 19.4 19.2‾26.1 22.2 1.7 19.2‾24.6 22.1 1.6 20.6‾26.1 22.3 2.0 Pelvic-fin length⁄CP depth 31.4 31.5‾39.2 35.7 2.3 31.4‾38.3 34.7 2.2 35.8‾39.2 37.5 1.3 Lοwer caudal spine⁄CP depth 31.3 31.2‾38.2 34.6 2.2 31.3‾37.9 34.9 2.0 31.2‾38.2 34.0 2.6 Meristics Holotype Range Mode SD Range Mode SD Range Mode SD Dοrsal plates 24 24‾25 25 ‾ 24‾25 25 ‾ 24‾25 24 ‾ Mid-dοrsal plates 17 15‾20 18 ‾ 16‾18 18 ‾ 15‾20 18 ‾ Median plates 27 24‾27 25 ‾ 25‾27 26 ‾ 24‾27 25 ‾ Mid-ventral plates 20 19‾22 20 ‾ 19‾22 20 ‾ 19‾22 19 ‾ ventral plates 21 19‾21 21 ‾ 20‾21 21 ‾ 19‾21 21 ‾ Premaxillary teeth 27 26‾48 42 ‾ 26‾46 37 ‾ 40‾48 40 ‾ Dentary teeth 24 22‾38 32 ‾ 22‾35 34 ‾ 28‾38 32 ‾

n= 16 Males, n= Females

Description. Morphometric and meristic data are available in Table 1. Small size loricariids. In lateral view, dorsal profile of body convex from tip of snout to dorsal-fin origin, almost straight and descending from this point to caudal-fin base. Ventral profile straight from snout tip to caudal-fin base. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin. Body progressively narrowing posteriorly from cleithrum to snout tip and to caudal peduncle. Trunk and caudal peduncle trapezoid in cross-section. Postdorsal region of trunk strongly concave formed by a pair of parallel and elevated series of plates.

Head flat to slightly convex between orbits; dorsal margin of orbits elevated. Head without crests even in juveniles. Eye small, situated dorsolaterally just posterior of midpoint of head. Snout tip rounded in dorsal view. Rostral margin of snout with posteriorly-directed odontodes; numerous conspicuous odontodes on dorsal portion of head. Perforations of compound pterotic distributed on whole bone, greater and more concentrated on its ventral margin. Nasal apertures small. Iris operculum present and developed. Mouth wide; oral disk roundish with papillae uniformly distributed on base of dentary and premaxilla; papillae decreasing in size distally. Roof of oral cavity with two or three thin fold of tissue transversally oriented and a conspicuous cylindrical shaped papilla between oral valve and premaxilla. Lower lip larger than upper, not reaching pectoral bridge; its border fringed. Maxillary barbel very short, absent in some specimens. Teeth slender, bicuspidate with long mesial crown and minute lateral cusp. Premaxillary teeth 26–48 [mode 42]. Dentary teeth 22–38 [mode 32].

Dorsal fin ii, 7; dorsal-fin spinelet short and ovoid shaped; locking mechanism not functional. Tip of unbranched dorsal-fin rays slightly surpassing end of anal-fin base. Pectoral fin i, 6; its unbranched ray almost reaching middle of pelvic fins. Pectoral and pelvic-fins unbranched ray covered with conspicuously pointed odontodes, largest at ventral portion. Pelvic fin i, 5; its unbranched ray slightly curved inward. Pelvic-fin ventral region odontodes bent and slightly turned mesially. Adipose fin absent. Anal fin i, 5; distal margin slightly convex. Caudal-fin rays i, 7 - 7,i, its posterior margin truncated. Body covered with bony plates, except in ventral portions of head, region overlaying swim bladder capsule, large portions of abdomen and around pectoral and pelvic-fins insertions. Two platelets with odontodes embedded in skin over arrector fossae and next to pectoral-fin insertion and a large bone plates covered with odontodes next to pectoral-fin insertion.

Dorsal plates series 24–25 [mode 25], first positioned just posterior to supraoccipital, last plate contacting first dorsal caudal-fin procurrent ray, mid-dorsal plates series 15–20 [mode 18], first located laterally to first plate of dorsal series, last laterally to plate nineteen of dorsal series, median plates series 24–27 [mode 25], plates bearing lateral-line canal. Mid-ventral plates series 19–22 [mode 20], first contacting posterior portion of cleithrum, last laterally to plate twenty of median series. Ventral plates series 19–21 [mode 21], first just above pelvic-fin insertion, last one contacting first ventral caudal-fin procurrent ray. Total vertebrae 30 (5 c&s specimens).

Color in alcohol. Ground color of dorsum and lateral surface of body pale ochre. Ventral surface light gray. Some specimens with three black transverse bars on dorsal surface of trunk, first at base of dorsal fin, second in middle of caudal peduncle and last at base of caudal fin (this character is not visible in holotype); these bars merging with black longitudinal stripe along middle of body. Ventral surface of body scattered with small chromatophores. All fins with irregularly and poorly defined bars: three on anal fin, four on pectoral and pelvic fins, and five on dorsal fin. Base of anal fin surrounded by a concentration of black and small chromatophores. Caudal fin completely dark with two lighter bars (see Fig. 1View FIGURE 1).

Color in life. Similar pattern of alcohol specimens, but with background color light brown (see Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Sexual dimorphism. Adult males of Pareiorhina rosai  possess three characters that clearly distinguish them from females: (1) presence of a papilla at urogenital opening; (2) unbranched pelvic-fin ray supporting a dermal flap on proximal dorsal surface, slightly wider in basal portion and progressively narrowing distally; and (3) pelvicfin extending beyond anal-fin origin (pelvic fin far from reaching anal-fin origin in females).

Distribution. The new species is only known from four small streams with unknown names of the rio São Francisco basin: one tributary of rio Maranhão (type locality), one tributary of rio Paraopeba and two tributaries of Rio das Velhas ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5).

Habitat. Pareiorhina rosai  is found in fast-flowing stream water associated with rocks and sand in the bottom of the rivers. In large portions of the tributary of rio Maranhão, where the new species was found, the forest is well preserved, and the penetration of light was scarce because of the marginal vegetation with large trees ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6).

Etymology. The specific name, rosai  , is a patronym that honors João Guimarães Rosa the famous Brazilian writer who documented the history of people living near the Rio das Velhas and rio Paraopeba (e.g. Sagarana and Grande Sertão Veredas), in the Brazilian Savanna (“sertão”) in Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais States.

TABLE 1. Mοrphοmetric data fοr Pareiorhina rosai. SD = Standard Deviatiοn, IΟ = Interοrbital, ΟD = Οrbital Diameter, CP = Caudal Peduncle, PDS = Predοrsal.

              SD     SD
              2.2     1.4
              1.3     0.4
              1.0     1.1
              1.3     1.1
Pectοral-fin unbranched ray length                    
              0.9 23.8‾27.0   1.1
              1.5 14.1‾17.8   1.2
              0.4     0.3
              1.4     2.1
              0.5     0.3
          93.8‾103.8   2.8     1.7
              3.2     0.7
              1.1 54.9‾60.3   1.9
              1.5     2.5
              0.7     0.4
              1.2     1.2
              2.1 23.1‾32.5   3.4
              1.6     2.0
              2.2 35.8‾39.2   1.3
              2.0     2.6
              SD     SD
MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo