Psalmopoeus reduncus ( Karsch, 1880 )

Cifuentes, Yeimy & Bertani, Rogerio, 2022, Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the tarantula genera Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1985, and Amazonius n. gen. (Theraphosidae, Psalmopoeinae), Zootaxa 5101 (1), pp. 1-123 : 70-73

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5101.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0FD7126B-77A7-4B99-A0E7-04298368C3C4

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6316503

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BF87CE-A373-FFAC-FF5E-FAFEFABEFCE7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Psalmopoeus reduncus ( Karsch, 1880 )
status

 

Psalmopoeus reduncus ( Karsch, 1880)

( Figs 19 View FIGURE 19 , 145 View FIGURE 145 , 183–216 View FIGURES 183–191 View FIGURES 192–195 View FIGURES 196–204 View FIGURES 205–213 View FIGURES 214–215 View FIGURE 216 )

Tapinauchenius reduncus Karsch, 1880: 387 .

Psalmopoeus reduncus: Simon, 1903: 960 , fig. 1109; Petrunkevitch 1911: 86; 1939: 290; Roewer 1942: 256; Bonnet 1958: 3798; Valerio, 1979: 302, figs 1–5; Schmidt, Bullmer & Thierer-Lutz, 2006: 8, fig. 12; Gabriel, 2008: 8; Mendoza, 2014: 734, figs 14–15, 21–23, 28; World Spider Catalog 2021.

Diagnosis. Females of P. reduncus resemble those of P. victori by spermathecae lacking lobes ( Fig. 191 View FIGURES 183–191 ). They can be distinguished by the short spermathecae, distal area medially sclerotized and brownish setae over the hind legs ( Fig. 216 View FIGURE 216 ). Males resemble those of P. victori by the embolus less than 2.5 times tegulum length ( Fig. 183 View FIGURES 183–191 ). They can be distinguished from P. victori by lacking a constriction in proximal part of embolus (Mendonza 2014, figs 18–20).

Type material. Lectotype male and paralectotype female of Tapinauchenius reduncus Karsch, 1880 , from Costa Rica, deposited at Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, not examined . Holotype female of Psalmopoeus intermedius Chamberlin, 1940 , from Panama, C. A. Lawrence col., 19 July 1937, deposited at San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego ( SDMC 65 ), not examined .

Other material examined. CENTRAL AMERICA: San Miguel, Casto [not readable] leg., 1 male, 1932 ( SMF 63323 View Materials ); NICARAGUA: Musawas, Waspuc river [14°40’N, 84°19’W], 1 male, B. Malkin col., 31 October 1955 (AMNH-5) GoogleMaps ; COSTA RICA: Heredia, Finca La Selva, 4 Km SE Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui (10°27’14.67”N, 84°01’9.74”W), 100 m. a.s.l, nest on tree trunks, 1 male, 1 female and 1 immature, October 1981 (CASENT-9071244); GoogleMaps 1 male and 1 female, same locality and data, E. Griswold col. (CASENT- 9071243); Monte Verde, Puntarenas [10°16’N, 84°49’W], GoogleMaps 1 male, C. W. Palmer col., 22 December 1960 (AMNH-44) GoogleMaps ; PANAMA: Barro Colorado island [9°09’N, 79°50’W], Canal zone, 1 female, Lundy col., 1 September 1955 (AMNH-26) GoogleMaps .

Redescription. Male (CASENT 9071244). Total length, not including chelicerae or spinnerets 25.69. Carapace 13.44 long, 11.17 wide, 6.75 high. Chelicera: 6.94 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 15.58, 7.38, 13.04, 10.94, 6.36, 53.30; II: 13.55, 6.90, 11.13, 10.15, 5.85, 47.58; III: 11.49, 5.87, 9.42, 10.56, 5.48, 42.82; IV: 14.11, 6.16, 12.48, 13.73, 5.20, 52.04; Palp: 9.13, 4.95, 7.77, -, 2.84, 24.69. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.58, 1.92, 1.74, 2.03, palp= 1.99; patellae I–IV= 2.50, 2.26, 2.16, 2.21; palp= 1.73; tibiae I–IV= 1.90, 1.81, 1.64, 1.69, palp= 1.74; metatarsi I–IV= 1.46, 1.37, 1.20, 1.08; tarsi I–IV= 1.48, 1.35, 1.27, 1.09, palp= 1.80. Abdomen: 11.69 long, 7.81 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.41 long, 0.60 wide, 0.58 apart; PLS, 2.63 basal, 1.35 middle, 2.55 distal; midwidths 1.04, 0.84, 0.71, respectively. Carapace: 1.20 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae conspicuous. Fovea: deep, straight, 1.68 wide. Eyes: eye tubercle 1.14 high, 1.85 long, 3.00 wide. Clypeus: absent. Anterior eye row straight, posterior slightly recurved. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.68, ALE 0.67, PME 0.47, PLE 0.69, AME–AME 0.43, AME–ALE 0.23, AME–PME 0.23, ALE–ALE 2.07, ALE–PME 0.45, PME–PME 1.60, PME–PLE 0.20, PLE–PLE 2.08, ALE–PLE 0.28. Maxilla: length to width 1.69. Cuspules: ca. 154 spread over inner heel. Labium: 2.19 long, 1.89 wide, with ca. 124 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Chelicera: basal segment with 11 teeth in row. Short and ordered coverage setae densely grouped on the retrolateral side of the chelicera. Strikers: lines of 6–7 spaced filiform setae, disposed on a ventral-basal portion of chelicerae before the teeth row ( Fig. 193 View FIGURES 192–195 ). Sternum: 6.80 long, 5.42 wide.

Legs: Formula: I = IV II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 0.98. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate; IV with a few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 2/3 distal; IV 1/3 distal. IV divided by setae. Spination: Palp and legs (ventral apical: tibia/metatarsi): Palp 0; I: 1 behind retrolateral process; II: 2/0; III 0/2; IV 1/2. Maxilla stridulatory organ: composed of 10–12 thick setae forming a straight crescent line, setae increase in size from the internal to external side of maxillae; longest ones flattened laterally, tips of setae with rugous texture, 7 slender setae after thickest ones ( Fig. 192 View FIGURES 192–195 ). Short and ordered coverage setae densely grouped on the retrolateral side of the maxillae/coxae, trochanter, proximal part of palp femur and prolateral side of the same articles of leg I. Tibial apophysis ( Figs 187–189 View FIGURES 183–191 ): two processes, retrolateral longer than prolateral, one spine at side of prolateral, one at apical part of retrolateral process. A small rounded protuberance behind retrolateral process. Metatarsus I folds on retrolateral side of tibial apophysis.

Palp ( Figs 183–186 View FIGURES 183–191 ): tegulum length 1.50, width 1.99, embolus proximal width 0.71, embolus length 3.40. Embolus proximal portion straight. Embolus distal third curves gently to retrolateral side. Embolus tapers to its tip ending in a curved tip. Embolus length to tegulum width: 2.27.

Color pattern (preserved in alcohol): Carapace, legs, palpal femora, and tibiae light brown, abdomen brown.

Redescription. Female (CASENT 971243). Total length, not including chelicerae or spinnerets 37.26. Carapace 17.21 long, 15.19 wide, 9.71 high. Chelicera: 8.51 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 12.91, 8.57, 10.53, 9.73, 5.93, 47.67; II: 11.73, 7.98, 9.92, 9.53, 5.57, 44.73; III: 10.34, 6.64, 8.41, 9.10, 5.19, 39.68; IV: 13.17, 7.48, 11.36, 11.86, 5.23, 49.1; Palp: 9.19, 5.79, 6.78, -, 7.60, 29.36. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 3.42, 3.18, 3.26, 2.70, palp= 2.63; patellae I–IV= 3.58, 3.12, 3.17, 2.94, palp= 2.63; tibiae I–IV= 3.10, 2.75, 2.63, 2.58, palp= 2.65; metatarsi I–IV= 2.63, 2.29, 1.77, 1.84; tarsi I–IV= 2.15, 2.05, 1.97, 1.96, palp= 2.40. Abdomen: 19.18 long, 11.61 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.99 long, 0.80 wide, 1.11 apart; PLS, 2.67 basal, 1.92 middle, 3.37 distal; midwidths 1.41, 1.43, 1.02, respectively. Carapace: 1.13 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae conspicuous. Fovea: deep, straight, 2.97 wide. Eyes: eye tubercle 0.81 high, 2.44 long, 3.74 wide. Clypeus: absent. Anterior eye row straight, posterior slightly recurved. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.85, ALE 0.94, PME 0.64, PLE 0.65, AME–AME 0.60, AME–ALE 0.30, AME–PME 0.19, ALE–ALE 2.57, ALE–PME 0.52, PME–PME 2.11, PME–PLE 0.24, PLE–PLE 2.90, ALE–PLE 0.36. Maxilla: length to width 1.45. Cuspules: ca. 159 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 2.39 long, 3.11 wide, with ca. 137 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Chelicera: basal segment with 8 teeth in row. Short and ordered coverage setae densely grouped on retrolateral side of chelicera. Strikers: line of 5–6 spaced long filiform setae, disposed on a ventral-basal portion of chelicera before the teeth row ( Fig. 195 View FIGURES 192–195 ). Sternum: 8.80 long, 7.52 wide.

Legs: Formula: I = IV II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.03. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate; IV with a few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 1/2 distal; IV 1/3 distal. IV divided by rows of setae. Spination: Palps and legs (ventral apical: tibia/metatarsi): Palp 0; I: 0/0; II 0/0; III 1/2; IV 0/1. Maxilla stridulatory organ: composed of 15 thick setae forming a straight crescent line, setae increase in size from the internal to external side of maxillae; longest ones flattened laterally, tips of setae with rugous texture, 13 slender setae after thickest ones ( Fig. 194 View FIGURES 192–195 ). Short and ordered coverage setae densely grouped on the retrolateral side of the maxillae/coxae, trochanter, proximal part of palp femur and prolateral side of the same articles of leg I.

Spermathecae: Two spermathecae completely separated, roughly straight, ending in a single terminal lobe ( Fig. 191 View FIGURES 183–191 ).

Color pattern (preserved in alcohol): Carapace and abdomen light brown with some golden setae, leg and palpal femora and tibiae brown.

Distribution. Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama ( Fig. 145 View FIGURE 145 ).

Remarks. Psalmopoeus intermedius Chamberlin, 1940 was described from an uncertain locality in Panama. The type specimen was not available to this study as it is on loan since 2011, and there is no prevision of return. However, Gabriel and Sherwood (2020) published a photo of the holotype spermathecae, short with a slight constriction on its distal portion. They considered the species valid, but did not compare it with P. reduncus , the most common Psalmopoeus species in Central America, especially in Costa Rica, the neighboring country. They stated P. reduncus needs redescription and that P. intermedius can be tentatively distinguished from other species by biogeography. Among the studied material, we examined a female from Panama, Barro Colorado Island (AMH- 26) having similar spermathecae, short and with a slight constriction near its tip ( Fig. 215 View FIGURES 214–215 ). Valerio (1979) showed considerable variation in P. reduncus spermathecae shape in Costa Rica, and the spermathecae of the P. intermedius holotype is among the variation found in the species. Thus, we consider P. intermedius a junior synonym of P. reduncus .

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Psalmopoeus

Loc

Psalmopoeus reduncus ( Karsch, 1880 )

Cifuentes, Yeimy & Bertani, Rogerio 2022
2022
Loc

Psalmopoeus reduncus: Simon, 1903: 960

Mendoza M. & J. I 2014: 734
Gabriel, R. 2008: 8
Schmidt, G. & Bullmer, M. & Thierer-Lutz, M. 2006: 8
Valerio, C. E. 1979: 302
Bonnet, P. 1958: 3798
Roewer, C. F. 1942: 256
Petrunkevitch, A. 1939: 290
Petrunkevitch, A. 1911: 86
Simon, E. 1903: 960
1903
Loc

Tapinauchenius reduncus

Karsch, F. 1880: 387
1880