Aotus miconax, Thomas, 1927

Russell A. Mittermeier, Anthony B. Rylands & Don E. Wilson, 2013, Aotidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 3 Primates, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 414-431 : 429

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.5726960


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scientific name

Aotus miconax


8 View On . Andean Night Monkey Aotus miconax View in CoL

French: Douroucouli des Andes / German: Anden-Nachtaffe / Spanish: Mico nocturno andino Other common names: Andean Owl Monkey, Peruvian Night Monkey, Peruvian Owl Monkey

Taxonomy. Aotus miconax Thomas, 1927 View in CoL ,

Peru, Amazonas, San Nicolas, 1372 m above sea level .

This species is monotypic.

Distribution. A Peruvian endemic, confined to a small area S of the Rio Maranon and W of the Rio Huallaga to about 10° S. View Figure

Descriptive notes. Head-body 39-4 cm, tail 22 cm (measurements from the type specimen). The Andean Night Monkeyis a red-necked species. Its upper sides are light gray with a brownish tint, often quite infused with red-brown. Its underside is pale orange, extending forward as far as the chin and on the inner sides of the limbs, but not extending above the ventral one-half of the side of neck or to the ankle. Outer surface of body is dominantly brownish to buffy agouti. The tail is bushy; its upper side is blackish, and the lower side reddish orange. Facial pattern is inconspicuous. An interscapular whorlis absent.

Habitat. Primary and secondary humid lower montane cloud forest at elevations of 800-2788 m. Temperature range in these habitats is 15°C-19°C, and annual rainfall is ¢.1500-3000 mm.

Food and Feeding. Diet of the Andean Night Monkey includes fruits, young leaves and leaf buds, flowers ( Melastomataceae ), and insects. Studies in La Esperanza in the Bongara Province, Amazonas, Peru, have recorded them eating fruits of at least twelve species, including Ficus (Moraceae) , two species of Inga (Fabaceae) , Solanum (Solanaceae) , Neosprucea montana (Flacourticeae), Styloceras laurifolium ( Buxaceae ), two species of Cecropia (Urticaceae) , and Bunchosia armeniaca ( Malpighiaceae ). The Andean Night Monkeys there evidently eat more buds and young leaves (30% of their diet) than has been found for Azara’s Night Monkey (A. azarae )—not typical of other species of night monkeys that tend to be more insectivorous.

Breeding. There is a record of a birth in April, but otherwise there is no information available for this species.

Activity patterns. The Andean Night Monkey is nocturnal and arboreal. An activity budget recorded at La Esperanza, involving more than ten hours of observation, was 48-8% traveling, 37-8% feeding, and 13-4% resting.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. Groups of 2-6 individuals have been observed in the Cordillera de Colan and in the private reserves of Abra Patricia-Alto Nieva and Huiquilla in the northern part ofits distribution. Sleeping sites have been recorded at heights of 6-9 m in dense vegetation of branches, epiphytes, and lianas. Calls (recorded) of the black-banded owl (Strix huhula) elicit warning vocalizations and mobbing behavior by the Andean Night Monkey. Groups are able to live in small forest patches near and among houses and occasionally go to the ground to reach other forest patches or isolated trees in fruit, risking attack by dogs.

Status and Conservation. CITES Appendix II. Classified as Vulnerable on The IUCN Red Lust. It is listed as Endangered on the Peruvian threatened species list published by decree in 2004. The Andean Night Monkey is threatened because of the widespread destruction of its forests for farmland and pasture since the early 1970s throughout its limited distribution. For many years, the Peruvian departments of San Martin and Amazonas have had the highest rates of deforestation and immigration in the country. The Andean Night Monkey is not hunted for food and can be locally quite common. Individuals are sometimes caught when their sleeping trees are cut down, and they are occasionally kept as pets. Andean Night Monkeys are known to occur in Rio Abiseo National Park, Alto Mayo Protected Forest, and possibly Tingo Maria National Park and Cordillera de Colan Reserved Zone.

Bibliography. Aquino & Encarnacién (1994a), Butchart et al. (1995), Cornejo, Aquino & Jiménez (2008), Fernandez-Duque (2007, 2011a, 2012), Ford (1994a, 1994b), Hershkovitz (1977, 1983), Heymann (2004), Marchena et al. (2011), Shanee & Shanee (2008, 2011c), Wright (1981, 1989, 1994), Young & Leon (1999).














Aotus miconax

Russell A. Mittermeier, Anthony B. Rylands & Don E. Wilson 2013

Aotus miconax

Thomas 1927
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