Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander 1947

Fasbender, Andrew & Courtney, Gregory W., 2017, A revision of Bittacomorphinae with a review of the monophyly of extant subfamilies of Ptychopteridae (Diptera), Zootaxa 4309 (1), pp. 1-69 : 47-50

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Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander 1947


Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander 1947

Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander, 1947: 22 –24

Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander, Peus 1958: 11 (catalog) Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander, Alexander 1965: 98 (catalog) Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander, Alexander 1967: 171 (illustration)

Diagnosis. Larva ( Figs. 5 View FIGURE 5 c, 6e–f). Head capsule trapezoidal, posterolateral corners with small hook. Thoracic and abdominal segments with tubercles arranged in annular rings, along lateral margins with fingerlike extensions, typically with hardened clumps of detritus attached. Adult ( Figs. 7 View FIGURE 7 g, 15). Legs with white confined to distal tip of 1st, 2nd & 3rd tarsomeres. Gonostyli with basal lobe.

Description. Larva. Head capsule deflexed ventrally, cranium well separated from prothoracic segment, trapezoidal in shape dorsally; dorsal surface flat, black. Frontoclypeal apotome broad, 2.5x as long as wide, expanding to apex, anterior margin blunt; occipital margin narrowing considerably posteriorly, forming narrow point reaching nearly to posterior margin of cranium, posterior portion of cranium directed ventrally, forming dorsoposterior surface; ecdysial stem line short, obscured by prothorax. Genae triangular in dorsal view, anterior point blunt, lateral margin narrowing anterior, lateroposterior apex forming blunt hook-like spine directed anterior, medioventrally nearly convergent, anterior margin square, no collar on posterior margin, ventroposterior margin broadly obtuse angle; postgena fused with hypopharynx, triangular, narrowing posteriorly, anterior margin with rectangular lobe medially. Thoracic segments not increasing in size posteriorly, largely indistinguishable from abdominal segments, elongate cuticular extensions present, typically covered in hardened substrate from habitat, apically with elongate branching sensilla. Abdominal segments cylindrical, homogenous in width, delineations between segments extremely weak; tubercles arranged in annular rows, lateral tubercles with fingerlike extensions. Prolegs well developed, apical claw with basal angle, sythe-like apex. Anal division cylindrical, with lightly sclerotized exertable tube containing siphon; annulations weakly developed if present. Adult. Measurements (n=5). Overall length: 11.92mm (11.36–12.6mm); head width (n=3) 0.90mm (0.88–0.92mm), height, 0.81mm (0.75–0.89mm), length 0.51mm (0.49–0.54mm); antenna flagellum length 7.84mm, flagellomere proportions 1.00, 0.56, 0.64, 0.73, 0.8, 0.83, 0.83, 0.76, 0.67, 0.64, 0.67, 0.59, 0.55, 0.53, 0.49, 0.46, 0.43, 0.43, 0.02; maxillary palpus length 1.43mm; segment proportions 0.56, 1, 1.56, 1.08, 2; thorax length 1.61mm (1.55–1.71mm), height 1.47mm (1.43–1.57mm); wing length 7.6mm (6.70–8.20mm), width: 1.56mm (1.50–1.69mm), R3+4+5 stem 0.68mm, R4+5 stem 1.9mm, R4 after fork 1.57mm, R5 after fork 1.56mm, R3+4+5:R4+5-stem:R4 1.00, 2.79, 2.3; r-m 0.32mm, M distal to r-m 3.36mm, Mdistal:R3+4+5 4.94, 1.00; R4:Mdistal, 0.46, 1.00, CuA2 1.63mm; leg proportions, femur 1.0, 0.99, 1.04; tibia 1.02, 0.99, 1.15; tarsomeres, foreleg 0.64, 0.27, 0.17, 0.05, 0.04; midleg 0.60, 0.26, 0.18, 0.04, 0.04; hindleg 0.63, 0.26, 0.18, 0.04, 0.03; abdomen length 9.8mm (9.32–10.35mm), male tergite proportions 1.00, 2.9, 1.88, 1.94, 1.62, 0.53, 0.1; male genitalia width 0.69mm, height 0.9mm. Frons medial suture strong, extending between antennal bases to dorsal margin of face. Antennal scape with five trichoid sensilla subdorsally along anterior margin; 19–20 Flagellomeres. Face incised by clypeus nearly to dorsal margin. Clypeus lateral margins somewhat pinched at junction with face, 2x longer than wide, weakly inflated. Hypopharynx subconical triangular, directed anterior-ventrally. Labium largely hidden by clypeo-labrum. Labella free medially, not forming pad. Antepronotum subhexagonal with two small fleshy semicircular lobes on dorsal margin. Scutum glabrous, shining, ruddy-brown with broad muddy yellow highlighting of transverse suture. Transverse fold at rear of scutum, no postscutum present. Scutellum muddy yellow, subcircular. Mediotergite ruddy-brown. Paratergite broad, blunt crescent shape. Anepisternal cleft elliptical with tapered apices, well sclerotized; anepisternal suture well developed. Metapleuron with incomplete suture, setose prominence below halter. All pleurites muddy yellow, fading to ruddy brown at ventral margin. Wing membrane with scattered macrotrichia on distal 1/10, in cells R1+2, R3, R4, R5; veins C to wing apex, Sc, R1, R3, and R4 & R5 after forking with macrotrichia; alula present. Posthalter well developed, nearly twice as long as wide, free of webbing to halter. Coxae yellow, overall leg coloration brown, with an especially dark band at the apex of the femur in some individuals. White banding confined to distal tip of 1st, 2nd & 3rd tarsomeres. Empodium notched proximally. Abdomen dark brown. Male. Epandrium broadly hexagonal in shape, bilobate, emarginate on posterior margin; anterior margin forming broad W-shape; lateral margin with obtuse lateral angle to to base of epandrial clasper approximately 2/3rds of length, posteriorly arcing medially to posteriomedial stylus; posteriomedial stylus elongate spine; posterior margin with semicircular emargination medially; epiproct not readily apparent, hypoproct ovoid. Epandrial claspers articulate at lateral apices, directed medioposteriorly, tapering to acute point, curved semi-circularly dorsally. Parameres glabrous, with acute spine directed dorsomedially arising near midpoint; distal portion of paramere curving at right angle to nearly straight vertical spine tapering to an acute point. Gonocoxite conical, expanding to gonostylus, subequal to gonostylus. Gonostylus expanding along length to round apex; basal lobe present at dorsal juncture of gonostylus and gonocoxite, rounded, less than 1/8 length of gonostylus; inner apex sensilla dorsal row with 5 sensilla extending from apex anteriorly along distal 3rd, ventral row with 9–10 extending from apex along distal half, both rows located along medial surface at apex, shifting to dorsal surface anteriorly. Gonopods closely associated with hypandrium. Basal division of hypandrium subhemspherical triangular, with minimal taper to straight posterior margin at joint with terminal division, anterior margin emarginate in obtuse arc, trough for gonocoxite present laterally, medial suture absent; terminal division well-articulated, foliform, lateral margins cupped dorsally, posterior margin obtuse arc, with round medial protrusion in some specimens; lateral lobes present subapically, flat, apex obtuse. Superaedeagal membrane not inflated. Sperm sac with membranous windows, ejaculatory apodeme dorsal margin strongly arced, apex obtuse point. Lateral ejaculatory process winglike, laterally compressed along entire length, expanding to broad rounded apex, dorsal margin heavily sclerotized, broad sinuous W-shape in dorsal view, ventral margin broadly connected with ventral portion; ventral lobe subquadrate, anteroventral apex extended anteriorly, extending into sperm sac. Lateral sclerites of aedeagus short, broad, compact; expanded at both anterior and posterior extremity. Aedeagal sclerites not tapering, apical apodemes of aedeagus without dorsal lobe, ventral lobe well developed, narrow, apex acute. Subaedeagal sclerite with internal dorsal section forming sclerotized plate closely associated with ventral margin of apical apodeme, posterior margin acutely divided medially nearly to apex, following dorsal curve of apical apodeme nearly to dorsal apex, forming two posteriorly directed blade-like ridges where it emerges from the superaedeagal membrane forming external section, dorsomedially with distinct suture opening posteriorly to a triangular emargination of posterior margin; ventral arm emerging internal dorsal section as arced rod. Female. Epigynium rounded dorsally, lateral margins forming broad curving arc, posterior margin with strong triangular emargination between base of cerci, medial suture present as gap in clothing setae. Cerci with well-articulated, dorsal margin rounded, apex circular, ventral margin evenly rounded; apex with button nodule with one stout trichoid sensilla; cercus to epigynium ratio 0.66, 1. Hypoproct broad triangular, fused to ventral surface of epigynium, anterior hook low and broad. Genital fork medial apex rounded point, lateral apices quadrate. Hypogynium quadrate, constricted near anterior margin, posterolateral apices with triangular posteriorly directed lobe, hypogynial valves indistinct, rounded, medial notch sub-V-shaped: 1/2 deep as broad.

Type material examined. Holotype. UNITED STATES. OREGON . Yamhill Co. Peavine Ridge nr. McMinnville, 15.v.1946, coll. K.M. Fender [pinned 1 ♂, genitalia mounted on slide; USNM]. Paratypes. CANADA. BRITISH COLUMBIA . Stanley Park, Vancouver, 3.ix.1930, coll. H.B. Leach [pinned 1 ♀; USNM]. UNITED STATES. OREGON . Yamhill Co. Peavine Ridge nr. McMinnville,, coll. K. M. Fender [slide 1 ♂; 26.v.1946 1 ♂; slide 22.viii.1946 1 ♂; USNM]. WASHINGTON . Kitsap Co. Keyport, vii.1905, coll. R.W. Doane [slide 1 ♂; USNM]; Pierce Co. Ashford, 18.viii.1940, H. Townes, M. Townes [slide 1 ♂; USNM].

Other material examined. UNITED STATES. CALIFORNIA . Humboldt Co. 6 km. NE. Arcata ,, coll. R.W. Brooks [pinned 1 ♂, 1 ♀; KU]. OREGON . Benton Co. Muddy swamp near Oak Creek Lab,, coll. J.K. Furnish [alcohol 1 larva; ISIC] ; 5 mi. NW Corvallis , McDonald For. Oak Creek Gate, 25.iv.1962, coll. D.L. Mays [pinned 2 ♂; 10.iv.1963 13 ♂; iv.1965 2 ♂, 2♀; ORSU] ; Hood River Co. Mt. Hood NF near Horsethief Mdw , 45.3366°N, 121.573°W, 9.vii.2008, coll. J.D. Petersen [alcohol 1 ♂; ISIC] GoogleMaps ; Lane Co. Salt Creek ,, coll. G.W. Byers [pinned 1 ♂, 2 ♀; KU] ; Yamhill Co. Peavine Ridge,, coll. K.M. Fender; also, 7.vii.1953 [pinned 2 ♂, 1 ♀; UMMZ] ; Peavine Road, upper Deer Creek , 45.2396°N, 123.38583°W, 13.vii.2011 coll. G.W. Courtney, from roadside seepage [alcohol 2 ♀; ISIC] GoogleMaps . WASHINGTON. Jefferson Co. Olympic National Park, Queets River Valley mile 2.0, 47.551°N, 124.196°W 45m, 28 May 2011 coll. G.W. Courtney, from roadside seepage (alcohol: 1 ♂, 1♀; 28.v.2012 23 larvae; ISIC]; Olympic Nat. Park, Olympic Hot Spgs., July 20 1953, K.M. Fender (Pinned: 1 ♂) ( UMMZ) GoogleMaps . King Co. Issaqua: near Lake Sammamish , 26.iv– 17.v.1998, B.K. Urbain, Malaise Trap [pinned 1 ♂; ORSU] . Pierce Co. Longmire’s Springs, Mt. Rainer, 2.viii.1905, no collector [pinned 1 ♂; USNM] .

Taxonomic notes. Bittacomorphella fenderiana can be easily separated from the other Nearctic Bittacomorphella by the combination of legs with a single white band at tarsomeres 1, 2, and 3 with the margins of the scutum outlined in yellow, the yellow forming a distinct patch posteromedially. Additionally, Bl. fenderiana is the only species of Bittacomorphinae in the Nearctic with a strongly bilobate epandrium and a basal lobe on the gonostylus.

Distribution. Fig. 19 View FIGURE 19 c.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology














Bittacomorphella fenderiana Alexander 1947

Fasbender, Andrew & Courtney, Gregory W. 2017

Bittacomorphella fenderiana

Alexander 1967: 171
Alexander 1965: 98
Alexander 1958: 11

Bittacomorphella fenderiana

Alexander 1947: 22