Ptychopterinae, Schiner, 1864

Fasbender, Andrew & Courtney, Gregory W., 2017, A revision of Bittacomorphinae with a review of the monophyly of extant subfamilies of Ptychopteridae (Diptera), Zootaxa 4309 (1), pp. 1-69 : 25-26

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4309.1.1

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Subfamily Ptychopterinae View in CoL View at ENA Osten Sacken, 1862

Ptychopterinae View in CoL Osten Sacken, 1862: 12 (description)

Ptychopterinae Schiner, 1864: 495 View in CoL (description)

Ptychopterinae Schiner, 1864 View in CoL , Alexander 1927: 4 (catalog)

Liriopeinae Brues & Melander, Peus 1958: 11 (first usage of coordinate name, supressed)

Diagnosis. Larva. Head capsule broadly trapezoidal, with genae expanded posteriorly; three antennal segments; postmentum not fused with postgena, anterior margin serrate. Larval integument without tubercles or cuticular extensions. Prolegs not more than small bumps on posteroventral margin of anterior abdominal segments. Abdomen with prominent annular creeping welts. Pupa. All leg sheaths straight, directed posteriorly. Adult. 7– 15mm long, robust fly, variable in color, legs without white bands. Antennae with 13–14 flagellomeres. Scutum with complete transverse suture. Wing with M forking to M1 and M2. Tibial spur of foreleg a simple spine. Male genitalia with aedeagus rotated dorsally. Female genitalia with tergite VII concealing bilobate epigynium; heavily sclerotized beak-like cerci.

Description. Larva. Head capsule not deflexed, broadly triangular with straight posterior margin. Dorsal surface of cranium flattened; posterolateral corners of genae expanded, forming rounded subacute angle; postgena separate from postmentum, simple. Antennae with two articles. Postmentum detached from postgena, forming “bridge” beneath maxillae, anterior margin serrated. Thoracic and abdominal cuticle translucent to transparent, glabrous, with isolated sensilla and other setiforms. Prolegs weakly low bumps on ventral surface of abdominal segments I–III with scythe-like claw. Abdominal segments I–V with prominent annular creeping welts on posterior margin. Adult. Head not appressed to thorax. Frons wider than long, slightly convex or concave, median suture present, sparsely provided with setae. Genae with or without setae. Scape subcylindrical, pedicel sub-spherical, 13– 14 flagellomeres, proximal flagellomeres elongate, distal flagellomere subequal in size to penultimate flagellomere; verticillate trichoid sensilla present on all flagellomeres. Face rectangular, in some species distinct from clypeus, which incises it. Clypeus broadly triangular, labrum variable, maxillary palpus ultimate segment often elongate. Labium not extending beyond apex of clypeus, teardrop shaped labella free medially. Cervical area visible in undissected individuals. Antepronotum strap-like behind head, with transverse fold, teardrop-shaped above forecoxa. Prescutum anterior margin convex. Pre-scutual suture distinct, forming triangular point at posterior apex of prescutum; sagittal suture distinct, ending at terminus of prescutum. Prescutum terminating approximately 7/8ths length of scutum complex. Scutellum ovoid, with postalar ridge triangular anteriorly. Postalar wall straight. Mediotergite sagittal suture present or absent. Paratergite well developed, oval shaped. Episternum sometimes with scattered setae, prominent ridge extending from the anterior basalare transversely; anepisternal suture absent externally. Epimeron with ventrally bulging posterior margin. Laterotergite ovoid, without prominence over halter. Metapleuron trapezoidal, subequal in proportion, tapering ventrally; metapleural suture absent. Posterior pleural sclerites sparse setae or pollinose. Posthalter absent. Wing length subequal to body length. Infuscated or hyaline, abundant microtrichia and macrotrichia on wing membrane. All veins with macrotrichia. C fully circling wing, weak on posterior margin. R3+R4+5 fork variably associated with rm. M1-M2 fork present, CuA2 with simple angle to weakly sigmoidal. Anal lobe well developed. Legs light in color, sometimes with dark bands. Arrangement of coxal setae variable. Femur weakly narrowing towards trochanter, first tarsomere cylindrical; foreleg with single peg-like tibial spur. Abdomen narrow in males, broad in females. Males with telescoping of posterior sclerites. Male. Epandrium bilobate, strongly emarginate; epiproct distinct between epandrial lobes, hypoproct tongue-like; epandrial claspers variably developed. Gonocoxite often with secondary lobes. Gonostylus variable, with basal lobe on medial margin. Parameres separate or fused to bridge, point of articulation shifted posteriorly along gonocoxite. Hypandrium with terminal division rotated into vertical plane, joint between basal and terminal divisions with varying degrees of articulation. Basal division band-like to obtusely hemispherical.

Sperm sac variable, membranous windows absent, ejaculatory apodeme variable; lateral ejaculatory processes directed laterally or anteriorly, ventral lobe weakly developed; aedeagus less than twice as long as broad; apex of aedeagus simple or with weakly developed ventral apical apodeme; subaedeagal sclerite variable. Female. Tergite VII covers epigynium. Epigynium bilobate, epiproct reduced, hypoproct absent. Cerci beak-like, curved ventrally, largely glabrous, heavily sclerotized. Hypogynium shape variable, hypogynial valves indistinguishable. Spermathecae present or absent.













Fasbender, Andrew & Courtney, Gregory W. 2017


Alexander 1927: 4


Schiner 1864: 495


Osten 1862: 12
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