Eumenes fraternus Say, 1824
Grandinete, Yuri Campanholo, Noll, Fernando Barbosa & Carpenter, James, 2018, Taxonomic Review of Eumenes Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) from the New World, Zootaxa 4459 (1), pp. 1-52: 23-25
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|Eumenes fraternus Say, 1824|
Eumenes fraterna Say, 1824 , 2: 344.
Type data: Type destroyed.
Type locality: “ United States... Pennsylvania ... North-west Territory and Missouri ”.
Harris, 1848, 10: 225.
de Saussure, 1852, 1: 40.
Cresson, 1872, 4: 232.
Walsh & Riley, 1869, 1: 138.
Riley, 1870: 103.
Couper, 1871, 3: 62.
de Saussure, 1875, 254: 95.
Riley, 1880, 3: 180.
Saunders, 1882: 281.
Provancher, 1882, 13: 144.
Riley, 1883: 117.
Cresson 1887: 287 (cat.).
Southwick, 1892: 107.
Dalla Torre, 1894, 9: 24 (cat.).
Dalla Torre, 1904, 19: 22 (cat.).
Tucker, 1909, 22: 286.
Viereck, 1916, 22: 635.
Bequaert, 1928, 101: 1004.
Bequaert, 1938, 33: 61 (key), 69.
Bequaert and Taylor, 1942, 42: 67.
Bequaert, 1944, 71: 78 (key), 85.
Bohart, 1951: 884 (cat.).
Krombein, 1979: 1507 (cat).
MacLachlan, 1980, 53: 618, 620 (key).
Ahlstrom, 1995, 1: 102 (list).
Buck et al., 2008, 5: 44 (key), 154.
Eumenes fervens de Saussure, 1852 , 1: 40.
Type data: Lectotype, by present designation, female at MHNG (n° 8849).
Type locality: “ La Caroline ” ( USA).
de Saussure, 1855, 3: 130.
Cresson, 1887: 287.
Bequaert, 1938, 33: 69 (note on type).
Eumenes fraterna var. fervens ; Dalla Torre, 1894, 9: 25 (cat.).
Dalla Torre, 1904, 19: 22 (cat.).
Ethology: Isely, 1914 (1913), 8 (7): 301 (nest).
Distribution: Canada (Northwest Territory*, Ontario); USA (AL*, AR*, CT*, DC*, FA*, GA*, IA*, IL*, IN*, LA*, KS, MA*, MD*, MI*, MN, MO*, MS*, NB, NC*, NH*, NJ*, NY*, OH*, OK, PA*, SC*, TN*, TX, VA*, WI*, WV*).
* Records from the literature.
Comments and diagnosis. Eumenes fraternus Say, 1824 , is a species with a wide distribution in the eastern half of the USA and is historically recognized mostly by its yellow-creamy marks on the body. The species is often confused with E. crucifera var. nearcticus or E. verticalis var. neoboreus due their similar yellow-creamy marks and geographical overlap, but can be separated from those species by the features discussed below.
Males of E. verticalis var. neoboreus and E. fraternus can be clearly separated having F11 narrow with microscopic erect bristles on the ventral surface in the former species and F11 broad and lacking microscopic bristles in the latter. Females of E. fraternus have the integument shinier, usually with sparser punctation especially on the dorsal surface of T2; pubescence on the scape short; and T1 long and slender, weakly swollen in dorsal view. On the other hand, females of E. verticalis have the integument less shiny with denser punctation on the dorsal surface of T2, pubescence on the scape longer, and T1 strongly swollen in dorsal view. Eumenes crucifera var. nearcticus has the clypeus with weaker punctures that do not reach the apical region; T1 shorter, strongly swollen in dorsal view; and T2 usually wider than long with the lateral margins strongly concave. Males usually have longer golden pubescence on the head (including scape) and mesosoma, also the basal half of the femur has a band of short pubescence. Eumenes fraternus has the clypeus with evenly distributed coarse punctation, T1 longer and weakly swollen in dorsal view; and T2 longer than wide with the lateral margins weakly concave. Males have shorter pale-yellow pubescence, and the basal half of the femur with a band of longer pubescence.
Color, head: Black, except for yellow-creamy as follows: bands on each side of the basal half of clypeus; longitudinal band on inter-antennal region; narrow and short band on upper half of gena, adjacent to the compound eye. Mesosoma: Black, with yellow-creamy marks as follows: broad band on anterior portion of the dorsal surface of pronotum; almost entire metanotum; rounded marks on each side on the upper half of the posterior face of propodeum. External margin of tegula. Marks on tibiae. Brownish marks on coxae, distal region of femora and tarsi. Metasoma: Black, with yellow-creamy marks as follows: transverse narrow band on apex of T1; marks on each side laterally onT2 and a broad transverse band on apex; short band on apex of T3, not reaching the lateral margins. Narrow band on apex of S2. Apex of T4–T6 and S3–S6 with transverse brownish bands. Wings: Hyaline, with costal, medial and submedial cells darkened. Pterostigma and veins darkened.
Pubescence, head: Covered with pale-yellow pubescence. Long pubescence on frons, vertex and occipital region. Clypeus, gena and scape with short pubescence. Mesosoma: Covered with pale-yellow and long (as long as on frons) pubescence. Anterior surface of fore coxae with long (but shorter than on thorax) pubescence. Trochanter and basal half fore femur with erect bristles ( Fig. 63 View Figure ). Metasoma: Basal half of T1 with long (as long as on mesosoma) pubescence, becoming shorter towards apex. T2 with short (as on basal half of T1) pubescence. T3–T6 and S2–S6 with shorter pubescence, at least with longer and erect bristles on apex.
Surface of integument, head: Clypeus with coarse punctation homogeneously distributed. Frons and vertex with coarse and moderately dense punctures, becoming slightly sparser behind ocelli. Weak and sparser punctures on gena. Mesosoma: covered with coarse and moderately dense punctation (as on frons), except on posterior face of propodeum on which punctures becomes denser, forming carinae between them. Metasoma: Coarse and sparse punctures on T1, becoming slightly denser towards apex. Dorsal surface of T2 with coarse and moderately dense punctures, becoming sparser towards lateral margins. Punctures on S2 coarse and sparsely distributed. Weak punctation mostly on apex of T3–T5 and S3–S5, while T6 and S6 there is no evident punctures.
Structure, head: Apex of labrum rounded; clypeus slightly wider than long, convex, with the apex concave, forming two rounded projections ( Fig. 71 View Figure ). Inter-antennal region longitudinally cariniform, as wide as the antennal socket. Lateral ocelli closer to the compound eyes than to each other. Occipital carina angled on middle region of gena and close to the compound eye next to the mandibles. Mesosoma: pronotal carina developed dorsally and laterally; pronotal fovea present; mesepimeron slightly elevated regarding to the mesepisternum; posterior projection of the tegula weakly developed, rounded; parategula lamelliform; posterior face of propodeum strongly concave on basal half. Upper half of the external surface of fore coxae with a short carina. Metasoma: T1 long, more than three times longer than wide, weakly swollen in dorsal view, with the apical margins subparallels ( Fig. 35 View Figure ). T2 longer than wide, with the lateral margins weakly concave ( Fig. 51 View Figure ); basal angle of T2 rising up abruptly; lamella on apex of T2 becoming reduced towards lateral margins.
Males: Clypeus narrower than females ( Fig. 72 View Figure ). F11 long, broad basally with the apex pointed and surpassing the apical edge of F8 ( Fig. 85 View Figure ). Dorsal surface of F11 with a longitudinal carina. Microscopic erect bristles on ventral surface absent. S7 flattened apically with moderately long bristles on apex.
Male genitalia: Aedeagus as in figure 101a, b. Paramere (fig. 101c) with long bristles on middle region of gonostyle; digitus long (fig. 118), reaching the middle region of gonostyle, with moderately dense short bristles; cuspis with dense erect bristles, longer than on digitus; volsella with long bristles on ventral edge and overspread and shorter bristles; distal lobe truncate without bristles.
Variation: The following yellow-creamy marks may vary in size and some specimens present mostly just yellow marks: mark on upper half of mesepisternum, adjacent to the mesepimeron; small marks on each side of T1; the dorsal band on the apex of T1; and apex of T3 with a small mark on the center region. Some specimens present violaceous marks mostly on the metasoma (also observed in specimens of E. verticalis var. neoboreus ). The punctation on the dorsal surface of T 2 may vary from coarse to weaker punctures, sometimes sparser. Some specimens might have the posterior face of the propodeum less concave and the apical half of T1 varying from less to more swollen.
Some specimens from central-south USA have ferrugineous marks contiguous with the yellow-creamy marks on the legs and metasoma.
Type material: The lectotype (designated herein) female of Eumenes fervens ( MHNGAbout MHNG) is lacking the left mid leg, left antenna and right flagellum (both attached on labels): ‘Caroline’ ‘[Red Label] Syn- \ TYPE \ ♀ fervens Sss. ’. Two paralectotype females ( MNHNAbout MNHN): one is missing the right antenna and right fore leg, and the other is missing the fore and mid left legs, left antenna and right flagellum: ‘ MUSEUM PARIS \ CAROLINE \ COLL. BOSCAbout BOSC 1828’ ‘[undetermined information]’ ‘ Eumenes \ fervens \ type. Sss.’ ‘ Eumenes \ fraternus \ Say \ H. DE SAUSSURE DET. 1884’ ‘[Red Label] SYNTYPE’; ‘ MUSEUM PARIS \ CAROLINE \ COLL. BOSCAbout BOSC 1828’ ‘[undetermined information]’ ‘ Eumenes \ fervens \ type. Sss.’ ‘[Red Label] SYNTYPE’.
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