Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) bahianus Harold, 1868

François Génier & Patrick Arnaud, 2016, Dendropaemon Perty, 1830: taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny of the morphologically most derived phanaeine genus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini), Zootaxa 4099 (1), pp. -1--1: 49-52

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http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4099.1.1

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C68782-F052-FFC4-FF42-FB41FCB7FCAF

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Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) bahianus Harold, 1868
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24. Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) bahianus Harold, 1868 

( Figs. 24View FIGURES 19 – 24, 80– 81, 120, 145, 158)

Dendropemon bahianus Harold 1868  , Col. Hefte 3: 83 (original description)

Dendropemon bahianus: Harold 1869  , Cat. Col. IV: 1020 (catalogue)

Dendropemon lobatus Waterhouse 1891  , Ann. Mag. Nat  . Hist. 6 8: 58 (original description) new synonymy Dendropemon tenuitarsis Felsche 1909  , Deut. Ent. Zeit. 1909: 758 (original description) new synonymy Dendropemon bahianus: Gillet 1911  , Col. Cat. 38: 88 (catalogue)

Dendropemon lobatus: Gillet 1911  , Col. Cat. 38: 88 (catalogue)

Dendropemon tenuitarsis: Gillet 1911  , Col. Cat. 38: 88 (catalogue)

Dendropaemon bahianus: Olsoufieff 1924  , Insecta 13: 131 (monograph)

Dendropaemon lobatus: Olsoufieff 1924  , Insecta 13: 161 (synonymy)

Dendropaemon lobatus: Blut 1939  , Arch. Naturg. (N.F.) 8: 278 (monograph)

Dendropaemon batrachites Blut 1939  , Arch. Naturg. (N.F.) 8: 280 (original description) new synonymy Dendropaemon tenuitarsis: Blut 1939  , Arch. Naturg. (N.F.) 8: 285 (monograph)

Dendropaemon bahianus: Blut 1939  , Arch. Naturg. (N.F.) 8: 295 (monograph)

Dendropemon bahianum: Blackwelder 1944  , U.S. Nat  . Mus. Bull. 185: 210 (checklist) Dendropemon batrachites: Blackwelder 1944  , U.S. Nat  . Mus. Bull. 185: 210 (checklist) Dendropemon lobatum: Blackwelder 1944  , U.S. Nat  . Mus. Bull. 185: 211 (checklist) Dendropemon tenuitarse: Blackwelder 1944  , U.S. Nat  . Mus. Bull. 185: 211 (checklist) Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) bahianus: Edmonds 1972  , Univ. Kansas Sc. Bull. 49: 850 (comment taxonomy) Dendropaemon (D.) lobatum: Edmonds 1972  , Univ. Kansas Sc. Bull. 49: 850 (comment taxonomy) Dendropaemon batrachites: Edmonds 1972  , Univ. Kansas Sc. Bull. 49: 851 (comment taxonomy) Dendropaemon tenuitarsis: Edmonds 1972  , Univ. Kansas Sc. Bull. 49: 851 (comment taxonomy) Dendropaemon bahianus: Arnaud 1982  , Rev. Fr. Ent. (N.S.) 4: 115 (type data)

Dendropaemon bahianum  : Vaz-de-Mello 2000, Hac. Proy. CYTED: 192 (faunistic)

Dendropaemon lobatum  : Vaz-de-Mello 2000, Hac. Proy. CYTED: 192 (faunistic)

Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) bahianus: Arnaud 2002  , Col. Monde 28: 15 (mention) Dendropaemon (D.) batrachites: Arnaud 2002  , Col. Monde 28: 15 (mention)

Dendropaemon (D.) lobatus: Arnaud 2002  , Col. Monde 28: 15 (mention)

Dendropaemon (D.) tenuitarsis: Arnaud 2002  , Col. Monde 28: 15 (mention)

Dendropaemon bahianum: Monaghan et al. 2007  , Mol. Phyl. Ev. 45: 682 (phylogeny)

Type locality. Bahia.

Diagnosis. The configuration of the pronotal margin lateral to the eyes will separate this species from all others in the genus. In D. bahianus  the margin is convex and similar in width to remaining anterior portion of margin and the posterior surface along the margin is deeply furrowed, making the internal marginal edge sharp.

Description. Male lectotype ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 19 – 24). Body. Body small, length 10.0 mm, maximum width 5.0 mm; body subrectangular in dorsal view; dorsum narrowly flat. Color. Dorsal surface dark brown to black, glossy, with blue and green metallic sheen; head black along anterior margin, with blue and green metallic sheen on remaining surface; pronotum with blue metallic sheen except on small areas along anteromedian carina and adjacent to lateral fossae; elytra with uniform blue metallic sheen; ventrum dark brown to black; pygidium with greenish metallic sheen; legs dark reddish brown to black. Head. Clypeus semicircular, anterior portion slightly upturned; clypeal teeth ogival; clypeal median emargination broadly u-shaped, clypeal edge emarginate on external side of each clypeal tooth, clypeal teeth ventral surface with a fine v-shaped carina, clypeal margin ill-defined, lacking sharp carina posteriorly, clypeal surface with transverse blunt rugulae; clypeogenal suture ill-defined, bluntly carinate internally; genal surface irregularly punctate, transversally and shallowly sulcate on posterior half; clypeofrontal carina rather low, approximately 3 times wider than high, straight in dorsal view, simply carinate, clypeofrontal carina apical edge straight in frontal view; eyes small in dorsal view, interocular ratio 5.0. Pronotum. Pronotum transverse in dorsal view, pronotal width/length ratio 1.4; disc of pronotum minutely punctate basally, puncture becoming coarse and distinctly rugose anteriorly, with a fine longitudinal sulcus on posterior half; pronotal anterior margin unmodified, convex lateral to eyes; anterior portion with a tri-sinuous carina; anterior angles surface with rough punctures, deeply sulcate along posterior edge of anterior margin; lateral fossae simply rounded, concave; lateral portions unmodified; pronotal basal fossae very small and more or less rounded; posterior margin illdefined, lacking setae. Elytra. Elytra approximately as long as wide in dorsal view, elytral combined width/length ratio 1.0; elytral base lacking distinct margin, simply convex; elytral striae 1–4 very wide basally and tapering toward apex, distinctly more impressed basally, elytral striae 5 similar to 4 on disc, strial punctures ill-defined throughout, stria 1 well-defined apically, connecting to marginal stria; interstriae slightly convex, minutely punctate throughout, surface glossy. Thoracic sterna. Proepisternal carina complete, extending laterally; metasternal median lobe angularly produced anteromedially, ventral ridge absent. Legs. Profemur posterior surface convex, glabrous and punctate internally, posterointernal margin rather thin, evenly developed, internal edge rather narrow, with a contiguous row of setae along anterointernal edge, remaining surface smooth along setae. Protibia with four teeth on lateral edge; internal basal angle bluntly lobate; anterior surface with long aligned row of setae internally, surface glossy or feebly microsculptured between punctures; posterior surface with some ill-defined irregular punctures externally to median carina, surface glossy between punctures, with a single interrupted setal row along lateral teeth. Mesofemur angularly produced on anterointernal edge apically. Mesotibia rather short, gradually widening toward apex in anterior view; anteroapical edge slightly sinuate in anterior view, anteroapical row of setae incomplete, irregular; apicoanterior edge circularly indented internally; external edge more or less rounded, with several large elongate setiferous punctures. Mesotarsus similar in shape to metatarsus, 3 -segmented, first segment moderately elongate, approximately two times as long as wide at apex. Metafemur internal edge nearly straight and lateral edge arcuate, lacking distinct depressed area anterointernally before apex, apicoposterior edge unmodified, anterior surface with a well-defined sulcus on more than half the length. Metatibia moderately slender, slightly widening toward apex in anterior view, anterior surface with distinct row of setae, surface glossy externally with distinct transverse microsculpture internally, metatibial posterior surface flat between longitudinal row of setae and lateral edge, with ill-defined microsculpture. Metatarsus 3 -segmented ( Fig. 120View FIGURES 118 – 125), first segment moderately elongate, approximately two times as long as wide at apex, with anterointernal carina well defined and almost reaching apical edge. Abdominal sternites. Sternites 3–6 longitudinally flat; sternites 4–6 with 1–3 unaligned rows of setae laterally, glabrous medially; sternite 7 approximately longitudinally flat medially, subequal in length to segment 6 along midline; pygidium finely punctate on disc. Male genitalia (Figs. 80–81). Parameres simply rounded apically in dorsal view; with minute raspy tubercles apically.

Measurements (27 males, 25 females). Length: male 7.5 –12.0 (10.1 ± 1.1), female 9.0– 12.5 (10.4 ±1.0) mm.

Primary type data.

Dendrop[a]emon bahianus  Harold ( Fig. 145View FIGURES 134 – 154). Lectotype male ( MNHN): [Bahia/ Lacerda] handwritten; [EX.Musaeo/ E.Harold]; [Bahia/ D./ bahianus  / t. Harold] handwritten, red border; [Museum Paris/ ex Coll./ R. Oberthur] green card; [ Dendropaemon  / bahianus Har.  / Lectotype / P.ARNAUD DET 1982] partly handwritten, red border; [ WORLD / SCARAB./ DATABASE/ WSD0002072].

Dendrop[a]emon lobatus  Waterhouse. Lectotype male ( BMNH) present designation: [Type] disc, red border; [67 45]; [226.] blue card; [ lobatus  ,/ Reiche./ Brazil.] handwritten; [ TYPE] red card; [ Dendropemon  / lobatus  ,/ (Type) Waterh.] handwritten; [ WORLS / SCARAB./ DATABASE/ WSD00002074]; [LECTOTYPE / Dendrop[a]emon / lobatus  / Waterhouse, 1891 / dés. Génier & Arnaud, 2014] red card; [ Dendropaemon  ♂/ bahianus  / Harold, 1868 / dét. Génier & Arnaud, 2009].

Dendropaemon tenuitarsis Felsche.  Lectotype female ( MTD) present designation: [ Paraguay] handwritten; [♀]; [Typus] red card; [ Dendropaemon  / batrachites Blut  / Paraguay. ♀] handwritten, black border; [ WORLD / SCARAB./ DATABASE/ WSD00016972]; [LECTOTYPE / Dendropaemon  / tenuitarsis  / Felsche, 1909 / dés.: Génier & Arnaud, 2014] red card; [HOLOTYPE / Dendropaemon  / batrachites  / Blut, 1939] red card; [ Dendropaemon  ♀/ bahianus  / Harold, 1868 / dét. Génier & Arnaud, 2009].

Dendropaemon batrachites Blut.  Holotype female ( MTD): Same data as D. tenuitarsis Felsche. 

Material examined. PARAGUAY: [unspecified locality], [no date], coll. [anonymous]— 1 female (holotype) ( MTD); BRAZIL: same locality, [no date], coll. [anonymous]— 1 male (lectotype) ( BMNH); Lacerda, [no date], coll. [anonymous]— 1 female ( CNC); [unspecified locality], [no date], coll. [anonymous]— 1 female ( IRSNB); BAHIA, Santo Antônio da Barra [= Condeúba], (14 ° 54 'S, 41 ° 58 'W), xi –xii. 1888, coll. Gounelle— 1 male ( ZMHB); São Gonçalo dos Campos, (12 ° 25 'S, 38 ° 58 'W), 26.vi. 1946, coll. [anonymous]— 1 male ( CMNC); [unspecified locality], (12 ° 18 'S, 41 ° 29 'W), [no date], coll. [anonymous]— 8 females, 3 males (incl. lectotype) ( BMNH, CPFA, MNHN, MTD); DISTRITO FEDERAL, Brasilia, (15 ° 47 'S, 47 ° 55 'W), xii. 1993, coll. [anonymous]— 1 female ( CEMT); same locality, 6.xii. 1988, coll. [anonymous]— 1 female ( CEMT); Brasilia ( SHIS QI 13 /BsB), (15 ° 50 ' 24 ''S, 47 ° 52 ' 31 ''W), 3.x. 1998, coll. F.F. Borges— 1 male ( CEMT); Planaltina, Brasília  , (15 ° 37 'S, 47 ° 40 'W), 19.xi. 2012, coll. C.M. Oliveira— 2 males ( CEMT); Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, (15 ° 56 ' 41 ''S, 47 ° 53 ' 7 ''W), iii. 1997, coll. I. Diniz— 1 male ( CEMT); GOIÁS, 20 km N São João d’Aliança, (14 ° 31 ' 41 ''S, 47 ° 30 ' 22 ''W), 14.iv. 1956, coll. F.S. Truxal— 1 female ( WDEC); Jataí, (17 ° 53 'S, 51 ° 43 'W), 1895 - 96, coll. Ch. Pujol— 1 male ( MNHN); MATO GROSSO, Vale da Solidão, Municipio Diamantino, (14 ° 21 ' 34 ''S, 56 ° 8 ' 9 ''W), 31.i. 2009, coll. D.C.T. Oliveira— 1 male ( CEMT); same locality, 28.ii. 2009, coll. D.C.T. Oliveira— 1 female ( CEMT); MATO GROSSO DO SUL, UNESP Farm [=Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Estadual Paulista, câmpus de Ilha Solteira], Selvíria, (20 ° 20 ' 8 ''S, 51 ° 24 ' 44 ''W), 5.ii. 2010, coll. H. Wilson— 1 male (MEFEIS); same locality, 19.ii. 2010, coll. H. Wilson— 1 male (MEFEIS); same locality, 6.iii. 2010, coll. H. Wilson— 1 female (MEFEIS); MINAS GERAIS, Campus UFVJM [=Universidad Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucurí], Diamantina, (18 ° 12 ' 3 ''S, 43 ° 34 ' 31 ''W), i. 2005, coll. S.L. Assis Jr.— 1 male ( CEMT); Caratinga, (19 ° 47 'S, 42 ° 8 'W), vi. 1993, coll. Andreza— 1 female ( CEMT); Fazenda do Riacho Fundo, Campos de Diamantina, xii. 1902, coll. E. Gounelle— 1 male ( MNHN); Fazenda Pontinha, Cordisburgo, elev. 700 m (19 ° 8 ' 53 ''S, 44 ° 12 ' 1 ''W), i. 1999, coll. Falqueto & Vaz de Mello— 1 male ( CEMT); Montes Claros, (16 ° 44 ' 13 ''S, 43 ° 51 ' 53 ''W), xii. 1999, coll. J.N.C. Louzada— 4 females, 8 males ( CEMT); [unspecified locality], [no date], coll. [anonymous]— 1 female ( IRSNB); PARAÍBA, Cajàzeiras, (6 ° 53 ' 24 ''S, 38 ° 33 ' 43 ''W), viii. 1966, coll. Martínez— 1 female ( CMNC); RIO DE JANEIRO, Rio de Janeiro, (22 ° 57 'S, 43 ° 13 'W), [no date], coll. [anonymous]— 1 male ( CPFA); [NO DATA]: -., coll. [anonymous]— 3 females, 2 males ( CPFA, MNHN).

Natural history. Three specimens were collected using a window trap set in a cerradão fragment.

Remarks. Females can be separated from males by the simply tuberculate pronotal anteromedian carina, in small females the carina is simple, lacking the median tubercle.

Variation, aside for size, is restricted to the extent of metallic markings on the head and pronotum. The color is relatively uniform in the sample studied, varying from dark purple blue to green. The record from Paraguay needs to be confirmed, it might be based on a mislabeled specimen.

Nomenclature and taxonomy. 1) D. lobatus Waterhouse, 1891  = D. bahianus Harold, 1868  , new synonymy. The lectotype of D. lobatus  (present designation), is designated in order to choose a male specimen as primary type. Waterhouse states in the original description that he has seen another female specimen from the Nevinson collection, inferring that more than one specimen were studied. The lectotype of D. lobatus  was compared to the lectotype of D. bahianus  and no differences were found except being larger and showing more developed secondary sexual characters.

2) D. tenuitarsis Felsche, 1909  = D. bahianus Harold, 1868  , new synonymy.

The specimen(s) studied by Felsche should be deposited in the Staaliches Museum für Tierkunde (Dresden), however no specimen was or were labeled as such and bear the typical green “Coll. C. Felsche” labels. However, the holotype of D. batrachites Blut  , a female specimen that is labeled “ Paraguay ” and matches Felsche’s very short description is most likely a syntype. Felsche states that the new species is similar in size shape and coloration to D. viridis  and describes the shape of the meso- and metatarsi and the description is detailed enough to match the tarsal shape of species of the quadratus  complex. In order to stabilize nomenclature, we consider this specimen matching Felsche’s original description and type locality, as a syntype and designate it as the lectotype of D. tenuitarsis  . The lectotype, aside being a female and showing a green metallic sheen instead of the blue metallic sheen, is identical to primary type of D. bahianus  .

3) D. batrachites Blut, 1939  = D. bahianus Harold, 1868  , new synonymy.

The holotype female of D. batrachites  , which is also the lectotype of D. tenuitarsis  , and therefore an objective primary synonym of D. tenuitarsis  which is a subjective synonym of D. bahianus  (see discussion in previous paragraph). Blut states that the type specimen is from Felsche’s collection and add the following information which might have been referred from the code number attached to the specimen: “ Paraguay, coll. Felsche (probably from the vicinity of San Salvador, Dr. Bohls, S)”. Interestingly, Blut discuss the fact that the type of this species cannot be found in the Staaliches Museum für Tierkunde and does not notice the fact that the specimen that he described as D. batrachites  matches Felsche’s description of D. tenuitarsis  .

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MTD

Museum of Zoology Senckenberg Dresden

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

IRSNB

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Dendropaemon

Loc

Dendropaemon (Glaphyropaemon) bahianus Harold, 1868

François Génier & Patrick Arnaud 2016
2016
Loc

Dendropaemon bahianum:

Monaghan et al. 2007
2007
Loc

Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) bahianus:

Arnaud 2002
2002
Loc

Dendropaemon (D.) batrachites:

Arnaud 2002
2002
Loc

Dendropaemon (D.) lobatus:

Arnaud 2002
2002
Loc

Dendropaemon (D.) tenuitarsis:

Arnaud 2002
2002
Loc

Dendropaemon bahianus:

Arnaud 1982
1982
Loc

Dendropaemon (Coprophanaeoides) bahianus:

Edmonds 1972
1972
Loc

Dendropaemon (D.) lobatum:

Edmonds 1972
1972
Loc

Dendropaemon batrachites:

Edmonds 1972
1972
Loc

Dendropaemon tenuitarsis:

Edmonds 1972
1972
Loc

Dendropemon bahianum:

Blackwelder 1944
1944
Loc

Dendropemon batrachites:

Blackwelder 1944
1944
Loc

Dendropemon lobatum:

Blackwelder 1944
1944
Loc

Dendropemon tenuitarse:

Blackwelder 1944
1944
Loc

Dendropaemon lobatus:

Blut 1939
1939
Loc

Dendropaemon batrachites

Blut 1939
1939
Loc

Dendropaemon tenuitarsis:

Blut 1939
1939
Loc

Dendropaemon bahianus:

Blut 1939
1939
Loc

Dendropaemon bahianus:

Olsoufieff 1924
1924
Loc

Dendropaemon lobatus:

Olsoufieff 1924
1924
Loc

Dendropemon bahianus:

Gillet 1911
1911
Loc

Dendropemon lobatus:

Gillet 1911
1911
Loc

Dendropemon tenuitarsis:

Gillet 1911
1911
Loc

Dendropemon tenuitarsis

Felsche 1909
1909
Loc

Dendropemon lobatus

Waterhouse 1891
1891