Acanthaleyrodes elevatus , Dubey, Anil Kumar, Singh, Sudhir & Martin, Jon H., 2014

Dubey, Anil Kumar, Singh, Sudhir & Martin, Jon H., 2014, Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from India, with key to species and discussion of tuberculate setae, Zootaxa 3881 (1), pp. 33-48: 36-41

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Acanthaleyrodes elevatus

sp. nov.

Acanthaleyrodes elevatus  sp. nov.

( Figs 1–26View FIGURES 1 – 6View FIGURES 7 – 14View FIGURES 15 – 19View FIGURES 20 – 26)

Puparium. Puparium oval, 571–586 microns long, 363–410 microns wide, brown, exuviae appears white after adult emergence, without wax secretion, found on lower surface of leaves, 10–22 puparia per leaf. Body margin slightly constricted in the region of contact with leaf trichomes.

Margin: Smoothly or irregularly crenulate, 15–17 crenulations in 0.1 mm. Thoracic tracheal pore area not forming a deep pore or comb, but slightly invaginated in some puparia. Caudal tracheal pore forming shallow comb at the puparial caudal end.

Dorsum: Submargin not separated from dorsal disc; submarginal area with many lines; subdorsum with many longitudinal wavy ridges. Longitudinal moulting suture reaching margin and transverse moulting suture reaching submedian area. Submedian area corrugated, forming polygonal cells ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 7 – 14). Abdominal segment sutures reaching outer submedian area. Median length of abdominal segment VII shorter than VI. Geminate pores present, more clearly visible on submedian area of abdominal segments. The length of caudal furrow from the base of eighth abdominal segment suture to the puparial caudal margin measured 124–167 microns long.

Venter: Caudal and thoracic tracheal folds indicated with stipples ( Figs 16, 17View FIGURES 15 – 19). Antennae outside of prolegs, reaching basal third of prothoracic legs, apex of antennae blunt, middle region with many minute sensilla, 41–46 microns long, keel present, 5 microns long. A pair of ventral abdominal setae present, 13–20 microns long, 21–23 microns apart. Microsetae at base of pro-, meso- and metathoracic legs present. Spiracles present.

Vasiform orifice: Located on the dorsally elevated tergite of abdominal segment VIII. The elevation (distance from eighth abdominal segment suture to the base of vasiform orifice) measured 103–133 microns high. Subcircular, 27–41 microns long, 39–43 microns wide, usually as long as wide; operculum subcordate, 23–32 microns long, 25–27 microns wide, inner surface with many microtrichea ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 7 – 14), covering nearly 75 % of the orifice; tip of lingula visible, setose, with a pair of setae apically.

Chaetotaxy: Eight pairs of subdorsal tuberculate setae, two pair on cephalic region, three pairs-one each on pro-, meso- and metathorax, two pairs on laterad of abdominal segments IV –VIII, and one pair posterior to vasiform orifice. The length of subdorsal tuberclulate setae vary within puparium 129–157 microns long (elevation 99–122 microns + 30–35 microns long). Cephalic setae 162–183 microns (elevation 126–147 microns + setae 36 microns) long, first abdominal setae 118–185 microns (elevation 105–151 microns + setae 13–34 microns) long. Eighth abdominal setae cephalolaterad of vasiform orifice placed on tubular median elevation of eighth abdominal tergite ( Figs 8, 11View FIGURES 7 – 14, 24View FIGURES 20 – 26), 77–94 microns (elevation 43–57 microns + setae 34–37 microns) long. Caudal setae positioned on margin lateral of caudal tracheal pore opening.

Third instar ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 15 – 19). Elongate, 465 microns long, 260 microns wide. Cephalic setae 62 microns (elevation 19 microns + setae 43 microns) long and eighth abdominal setae placed on elevated tubercles, 60 microns (elevation 42 microns + setae 18 microns) long. First abdominal setae not discernable. Caudal setae 48 microns long. Vasiform orifice circular, slightly elevated posteriorly, 34 microns long, 32 microns wide; operculum 23 microns long, 20 microns wide; lingula tip setose. Longitudinal moulting suture reaching margin and transverse moulting suture reaching submedian area, abdominal segments suture visible. Subdorsal wavy lines absent. Median length of abdominal segment VII almost equal to that of VI. Submarginal setae visible at least on posterior abdominal area.

Second instar. Similar to that of third instar except in the size, 337 microns long, 113 microns wide. Margin crenulate, 18 crenulations in 0.1 mm. Cephalic setae, 46 microns (elevation 34 microns + setae 12 microns) long, caudal setae 32 microns long. Vasiform orifice circular, 32 microns long, 30 microns wide; operculum, 23 microns long, 20 microns wide. Ventral setae 6 microns long, 13 microns apart.

Host plant. Bridelia retusa  (L.) Spreng. ( Euphorbiaceae  ).

Holotype. INDIA: Kerala, Adivaram, 1 puparium ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 20 – 26), selected second from the right of top first row amongst 9 puparia; 8.xi. 2013; A. K. Dubey, in NFIC-FRI ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 20 – 26).

Paratypes. Forty-one puparia on 13 slides, including 8 along with the holotype, data same as of the holotype ( NHM, USDA, NFIC-FRI & AKD). Other material: 5 third instars and 4 second instars on two slides, data same as holotype. Several puparia on dry leaves deposited in A.K. Dubey collection.

Etymology. The species name is derived from a Latin word “ elevatus  ” that means “raised or lift up” attributing to the elevation of eighth abdominal tergite on which the orifice is opening.

Remarks. Puparia of the new species resemble both A. callicarpae  and A. styraci Takahashi  in the presence of tuberculate setae on dorsum and subcircular vasiform orifice. It differs from both of these by the presence of 11 pairs of tuberculate setae, and absence of median tubercles on the cephalothorax and abdomen. It also differs from both in that the caudal margin is not produced posteriorly, whereas in both A. callicarpae  and A. styraci  the vasiform orifice has a posteriorly produced margin.

The puparia of this new species were found on the lower surfaces of leaves, intermingled with puparia of Aleurotrachelus tuberculatus Singh. They  could be distinguished from A. tuberculatus  by their white or dark brown appearance whereas those of A. tuberculatus  are black. The immatures (second and third instars) of A. tuberculatus  are white but distinguishable by the presence of long submedian setae on cephalothorax and by the wax glands at the base of the marginal teeth.


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