Smilax pilosa ( Fabricius, 1787 )

Chatzimanolis, Stylianos, 2016, A revision of the myrmecophilous genus Smilax Laporte (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae), Zootaxa 4162 (2), pp. 283-303: 296-299

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4162.2.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1F76AD06-AA68-42C7-BBAF-DA6CF276E332

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C78788-A91A-2E70-FF46-0946DD46A3BB

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Smilax pilosa ( Fabricius, 1787 )
status

 

Smilax pilosa ( Fabricius, 1787) 

( Figs. 2View FIGURES 1 – 2, 8View FIGURES 5 – 8, 12View FIGURES 9 – 12, 14View FIGURES 13 – 16, 17–23View FIGURES 17 – 23, 31–32, 34)

Staphylinus pilosus Fabricius, 1787: 220  .

Smilax americana Laporte, 1835: 117 

Cordylaspis tuberculatus Nordmann 1837: 17  .

Cordylaspis pilosa (Fabricius)  ; Erichson 1839: 342.

Cordylaspis americana (Laporte)  ; Erichson 1839: 342 [synonym of pilosa  ]. Cordylaspis tuberculatus Nordmann  ; Erichson 1839: 342 [synonym of pilosa  ]. Smilax cyanea Wasmann, 1902: 267  , [described as variety of pilosa  ], new synonymy. Cordylaspis cyanea (Wasmann)  ; Scheerpeltz 1936: 492 [as valid species]. Smilax pilosa (Fabricius)  ; Blackwelder, 1952: 107.

Type material. Lectotype for Staphylinus pilosus  , here designated: male, with labels as follows: “ pilosus  ” / “TYPE” / “Lectotype Staphylinus pilosus Fabricius  des. Chatzimanolis 2016 ” / “ Smilax pilosa ( Fabricius, 1787)  det. Chatzimanolis 2016 ”. Fabricius stated in the original description that the specimen was from “Cajennae”, which is the modern day French Guiana. In the collection of ZMUC as of 2016 but the Fabricius collection will be relocated in Kiel, Germany in the near future.

The specimen designated by Laporte as the type of S. americana  is considered lost (for details on Laporte’s collection see Evenhuis 2012).

Holotype of Cordylaspis tuberculatus  : female with labels as follows: “5872” / “Surinam, xxxx [illegible word] S.” / “Typus tuberculata Nordmann  ” / “ pilosus  F.” / “Orig. F. Er. 47,342” / “ Cordylaspis Nordmann  Staphylinus  F.” / “ Cordylaspis pilosa Fabr.  ” / “ Smilax pilosa  det. Chatzimanolis 2010”. In the collection of ZHMB. The type locality was listed as “Sumatra” in both Nordmann (1837) and Herman (2001) and of course considered erroneous as early as 1839 ( Erichson 1839). However, the second label associated with the specimen reads “Surinam”. While I do not know if this is an original label, it is possible that Nordmann did not read the word correctly, or simply that “Sumatra” was a lapsus calami.

Lectotype of Smilax cyanea  , here designated: female with labels as follows: “b. Atta sexdens, A. Goeldi, 1900  ” / “Colonia alpina (Rio d. Janeiro)” / “ Smilax pilosus  F. var. cyanea  , Typus” / “Lectotype Smilax cyanea Wasmann  des. Chatzimanolis 2016 ” / “ Smilax pilosa ( Fabricius, 1787)  det. Chatzimanolis 2016 ”. In the collection of NHME.

Additional Material. BOLIVIA: Beni: Prov. Vaca Diez, 2.5km NW of Tumichucua , 11.viii.1990, FIT, P. Parrillo & P. Bettella (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Santa Cruz: Sara, J. Steinbach (1 ♂, 1 ♀ ZMHB)  ; BRAZIL: Alagoas: Sao Miguel dos Campos, iv.1984, F. Oliveira (1 ♀ CMNHAbout CMNH)  ; Amapá: Portoplanton , ix.1975, K. Lenko (1 ♀ CNCAbout CNC)  ; Amazonas: Tapajos (1 ♀ BMNH)  ; Uypizanga [Uypiranga] Rio Negro, 14km from Manaus , 100m, xii.1941, A. Rabaut (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; Bahia: Chapada (1 ♂, 3 ♀ CMNHAbout CMNH; 1 ♂ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; same locality, UTCI 000008934 (1 ♂ UTCI); Encruzilhada  , 960m, xi.1972, M. Alvarenga (1 ♀ AMNH); same locality and collector, 980m, xi.1973 (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; unknown locality (1 ♂ BMNH; 1 ♂ NMW); Espírito Santo: Santa Teresa (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Villa de Alegre, A. Heyne (1 ♀ ZMHB); unknown locality, Schubert (1 ♀ ZMHB); unknown locality, J. Zikan (1 ♀ FMNH); unknown locality, 2.vi. [19]20 (1 ♀ FMNH); unknown locality (1 ♂; 2 ♀ BMNH); Goiás: Jataí , xi.1972 F. Oliveira (1 ♂, 1♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; Mato Grosso: Sinop , ii.1976, O. Roppa (1 ♂ CNCAbout CNC)  ; same locality, x.1976, M. Alvarenga (2 ♂ CNCAbout CNC)  ; same locality and collector, x.1975 (1 ♀ CNCAbout CNC)  ; same locality and collector, x.1974 (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; Três Lagoas , i.1968, F. Lane (1 ♂ CNCAbout CNC); Mato Grosso do Sul  : Miranda, 36km NE Refugio Eco. Caiman, Pousada Baiazinha , 19°57’24’’S 56°14’6’’W, 19.iv.1999, D. Brzoska, SM0187778 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)GoogleMaps  ; Minas Gerais: Pouso Alegre, 1905, Fleming (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Santa Vitória , ii.1970, F. M. Oliveira (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; unknown locality (1 ♂ CNC; 1 ♀ BMNH); Pará: Belém, Utinga Park , 27–28.iii.1970, J. & B. Campbell (1 ♂ CNCAbout CNC)  ; Jacareacanga , xii.1968, M. Alvarenga (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; Óbidos , 1904–1905, Goeldi (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Santarém , vii.1919, S. M. Klages (1 ♂ CMNHAbout CMNH)  ; same locality and collector, UTCI 000011533 (1 ♀ UTCI)  ; unknown locality (1 ♂ BMNH); Paraná: Virmond (1 ♀ ZMHB)  ; Rio de Janeiro: Corcovado , 600m, 19.xii.1926, F. Ohs (1 ♀ ZMHB)  ; Nova Friburgo, W. Schaufaß (1 ♂, 1♀ ZMHB); Rio de Janeiro, i.1977, M. Alvarenga (1 ♂ CNCAbout CNC)  ; same locality (1 ♂ BMNH)  ; São Paulo: Americana  , ii.1924 (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Santos , 29.x. [18]93 (1 ♀ MNW)  ; São Paulo, in Atta  (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH; 1 ♂, 2♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; same locality (2 ♀ NMWAbout NMW; 1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Teodoro Sampaio , xi.1985, malaise trap, F. Oliveira (1 ♀ CMNHAbout CMNH)  ; same locality, xi.1977, M. Alvarenga (1 ♂, 2 ♀ CNCAbout CNC)  ; Tibirisa on Rio Paraná, 20–24.x.1926, F. Ohs (2 ♀ ZMHB)  ; unknown locality (1 ♂ AMNH; 1 ♀ BMNH); COLOMBIA: Antioquia: Rionegro , 500m, Fassl, SM 0045560 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; Caquetá: San Vicente del Caguán Santa Rosa , 600m, 1°37’N 75°37’W, Malaise trap, 22.vii–4.viii.2000, F. Ruales, SM0548988 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)GoogleMaps  ; Cesar: Peeblo Bello , Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 1100m, 11–17.vi.1968, sweeping, B. Malin (1 ♂ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Magdalena: unknown locality, 1500m, Fassl (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Meta: Sierra de La Macarena Cabaña Cerrillo National Park, 3°21’N 73°56’W, Malaise trap, 4– 17.i.2003, A. herrera & W. Villalba, SM0628677 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)GoogleMaps  ; Nariño: Barbacoas , 40m, 3.x.1990, M. Cooper (1 ♂ BMNH)0 unknown locality  , 400m, Fassl (1 ♀ FMNH); Putumayo: Villa Garzon , 400m, 30.viii.1984, M. Cooper (1 ♂ BMNH)  ; COSTA RICA: Alajuela: A.C.A.San Ramón, Reserva Biol  . Alberto Brenes, Rio San Lorencito , 850m, 19–26.iii.1999, R. Zúñiga, INBAbout INB 0003025775View Materials (1 ♂ ZMUCAbout ZMUC)  ; same locality, 19–27.iii.1999, W. Arana, INBAbout INB 0003034885View Materials (1 ♀ ZMUCAbout ZMUC)  ; same locality, 20.vi–5.vii.1999, J. Rodriguez, INBAbout INB 0003057414View Materials (1 ♂ ZMUCAbout ZMUC)  ; Ciruelas , 28.vii. [19] 40m Marin (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; Cartago: Turrialba , 30.v.1962, H. Ruckes (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; Guanacaste  : Guanacaste National Park, Maritza Biological Station , 10.viii.1992, D. Brzoska, SM0045563 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; Santa Rosa National Park , 12.xii.1978  - 10.i.1979, D. Janzen, INBIOCRI002613119 (1 ♀ ZMUC); Heredia: Est. El Celbo Brauilo Carrillo N. P., 400–600m, x.1989, R. Aguilar & M. Zumbado, INBIOCRI000056504 (1 ♂ ZMUCAbout ZMUC)  ; La Selva , 3.2km SE Puerto Viejo, 100m, 1.ii.1992, FIT, W. Bell, SM0045561 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; same locality, 18.ii.1980, H. A. Howden (1 ♀ CNCAbout CNC)  ; same locality, 18.v.1993, J. & A. Ashe, in Atta  column, SM0045564 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; same locality, 11.vii. 1993, H. Hespenheide, SM0156255 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; same locality, 2–15.vi.1996, FIT, R. Hanley, SM0091523 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; same locality and collector, 4–15.vi.1996, FIT, SM0088321 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; same locality, 4-15.vi.1996, S. Haase-Statz & R. Hanley, FIT (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; same locality, 8–11.vi.2001, FIT, S. Chatzimanolis, SM0265472 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)  ; same locality and collector, 11– 14.vi.2001, FIT, SM0265604 (1 ♂ UTCI)  ; same locality, collector and date, Chatzimanolis DNAAbout DNA voucher, SC-222, extraction date 24.xi.2010, UTCI 000005942 (1 ♂ UTCI)  ; same locality and collector, 11.vii.2001, Chatzimanolis DNAAbout DNA voucher, SC-12, extraction date 12.vi.2008, UTCI 000000853 (1 ♀ UTCI)  ; Puntarenas: Corcovado National Park, Osa Peninsula , 10–100m, 23–27.iii.1982, D. Janzen & W. Hallwachs, INBIOCRI001688304 (1 ♀ ZMUCAbout ZMUC); Lepanto R.  , 300-400m, 3.x.2003, in Atta  midden,W. Porras, INB0003767955, INB0003767956 (1 ♂, 1 ♀ ZMUC); San José: Puriscal, ix.[19]39, Marin (1 ♂ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; unknown province: unknown locality, Hoffmann (1 ♀ ZMHB); unknown locality, V. Patten (1 ♀ BMNH); unknown locality (2 ♂, 3 ♀ BMNH); ECUADOR: Carchi: Hojal , 8km NW Chical, 1100m, 25.vii.1983, J. Rawlins & S. Thompson (1 ♀ CMNHAbout CMNH)  ; Pichincha: 47km Santo Domingo, Rio Palenque Station , 250m, 17–25.ii.1979, Malaise trap, L. Ling (1 ♀ CNCAbout CNC)  ; same locality, collector and date, blacklight (1 ♀ CNCAbout CNC); FRENCH GUIANA: 18.4km SSE Roura   , 240m, 4°36’38’’N 52°13’25’’W, 29.v– 10.vii.1997, FIT, J. Ashe & R. Brooks, SM0100669, SM0100672 (2 ♀ SEMC); Réserve Trésor, 225m, 4°36’37.6’’N 52°16’44.5’’W, window trap, xi.2009, Stéphane Brule (1 ♀ BMNH); unknown locality (1 ♂ BMNH); GUYANA: Region 4: Mallali, Schubert (1 ♂, 1 ♀ ZMHB)  ; Region 6: Oronoque & New River Heads, 1938, H. Beddington (1 ♀ BMNH)  ; Region 7: Bartica, Schubert (1 ♀ ZMHB); same locality, iv.1957, E. A. J. Duffy (1 ♀ BMNH)  ; same locality, F. C. Bewditch collection (1 ♂ MCZAbout MCZ); Ikuribisi, x.1948  – iii.1949, D. Atkinson (1 ♂ BMNH); NICARAGUA: Chontales: unknown locality, T. Belt (2 ♂, 1 ♀ BMNH)  ; unknown locality, Jansen (2 ♂, 2 ♀ BMNH; 1 ♀ FMNH); unknown locality (1 ♂ BMNH); unknown department: unknown locality (2 ♀ BMNH); PANAMA  : Bocas del Toro: Rio Changena , 465m, 27.ix.1961, G. Fairchild (1 ♀ MCZAbout MCZ)  ; Chiriqui  : David, Champion (1 ♂ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; same locality, vii.[19]30 (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)  ; V. de Chiriqui, 2[000]– 3000ft., Champion (1 ♀ BMNH)  ; Coclé: 7.2km NE El Copé , 730m, 8°42’N 80°35’W, 20.vi.1995, J. Ashe & R. Brooks, SM0006388 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)GoogleMaps  ; Guna Yala: San Blas Nusagandi Reserve , 9°21’N 78° 59’W, 350m, 16–17.v.1995, FIT, J. Ashe, SM0006097 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC)GoogleMaps  ; Panamá: El Llano-Carti Rd. , 400m, vii.1982, B. Gill (1 ♀ CNCAbout CNC)  ; PARAGUAY: Amambay:  Cerro Cora National Park , 5–9.xii.1991, U. Dreschel, SM0045562 (1 ♀ SEMCAbout SEMC); Asunción: Jardin Botanico , 250m, 9.i.1990, M. Cooper (1 ♂ BMNH)  ; SURINAME: Saramacca: Reynolds Camp, Tibiti River , 20– 22.i.1972, F. Scott (1 ♂ CNCAbout CNC)  ; TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad:  Arima Valley, 24.vi.1981, in Atta cephalotes  midden pile, R. Mendez (1 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH); Arima-Blanchiseusse Rd. milestone 7.5 (1 ♂, 1 ♀ BMNH)  ; Guanapo Valley , 15.vii.1990, in Atta  sp. midden, R. Mendez (4 ♂, 3 ♀ AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; 6.5mi Post, Maracas Bay, 27.viii.1969, H. A. Howden (2 ♀ CNCAbout CNC); St. George Co., Simla Research Station   , 267m, Arima Valley, N. range, 10°41’34’’N 61°17’22’’W, FIT, premontane tropical rainforest, A. Ramsdale (1 ♀ FMNHAbout FMNH)GoogleMaps  ; VENEZUELA: Carabobo: Valencia, F. Kummerow S.V. (1 ♂ ZMHB)  ; unknown state: unknown locality (1 ♂ BMNH).

Diagnosis. Among species of Smilax  with metallic dark blue-brown pronotum, S. pilosa  is more similar to S. lynchi  than to S. deneinephyto  , however, due to the similar coloration of the head and pronotum, S. pilosa  may be mistaken for S. deneinephyto  . Smilax lynchi  and S. pilosa  have a more rounded head than S. deneinephyto  (posterior angles sharper in S. deneinephyto  ) and the disc of their pronotum is more concave than the disc of the pronotum of S. deneinephyto  , which is more explanate. Smilax pilosa  can be distinguished from S. lynchi  based on the coloration of the head ( Figs. 7–8View FIGURES 5 – 8; reddish-brown in S. lynchi  , metallic dark blue in S. pilosa  ), the coloration of the pronotum ( Figs. 11–12View FIGURES 9 – 12; lateral sides of pronotum reddish-brown in S. lynchi  , metallic dark blue in S. pilosa  ), and the shape of aedeagus (paramere appears more concave in lateral view in S. lynchi  than in S. pilosa  , although this character may not be immediately obvious with just a handful of specimens).

Description. Body length 11.1–17.9 mm. Coloration of head and pronotum metallic dark blue-brown. Mouthparts (except mandibles dark brown) and antennae reddish-brown. Ventral surface of head and pronotum dark brown. Elytra dark brown. Legs and abdomen brown except segments VII–VIII orange.

Head ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5 – 8) transverse, with rounded angles, width: length ratio = 1.57, widest near middle. Head with medium-sized punctures distributed evenly on lateral sides, distance between punctures approximately equal to width of punctures; punctures somewhat sparser medially. Neck with few small punctures and micropunctures. Pronotum: head width ratio = 1.31. Pronotum ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 9 – 12) transverse, width: length ratio = 1.26. Pronotum disc concave, appearing like dome. Pronotum on lateral sides with small, shallow dense punctures; distance between punctures equal to width of puncture. Punctures becoming larger, deeper and scarcer near midline; midline with no punctures but with shallow depression visible as thin line. Pronotum on lateral sides with additional two rows of deep umbilicate punctures giving rise to long macrosetae. Elytra with numerous small shallow uniform punctures; with additional rows (approximately 5 per elytron) of large slightly raised umbilicate punctures giving rise to long macrosetae.

Secondary sexual structures. Males ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 13 – 16) with broad shallow U-shaped emargination on posterior border of sternite VII; posterior border of sternite VIII with shallow V-shaped emargination. Females with no apparent secondary sexual structures.

Aedeagus as in Figs. 31–32; in dorsal view paramere converging to rounded tip; paramere shorter and narrower than median lobe; in lateral view paramere straight to slightly concave; without sensory spinules; paramere with rounded ventral projection. Median lobe in dorsal view wide, parallel-sided, converging to broad straight apex; in lateral view becoming narrower and elongate near apex.

Distribution. Widely distributed from Nicaragua to Paraguay in nests/refuse piles of Atta cephalotes  and A. sexdens  .

DNA data. Sequence data are available at GenBank for several genes, including COI (KF178726), wingless (KF178742), topoisomerase I (KF178756), 28S rDNA (KF1787771), arginine kinase (KF178801) and CAD (KF178833). All of these sequences were used in Chatzimanolis (2014).

Remarks. 1. Several specimens were observed having mites on them. 2. Due to the large sample size of specimens for S. pilosa  , it was easy to observe measurable differences in the size of the head with males having a typically larger head than females. 3. Bierig apparently recognized in his collection (now in FMNHAbout FMNH) several subspecies of S. pilosa  but he never published any of these.

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

CMNH

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

INB

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Staphylinidae

Genus

Smilax

Loc

Smilax pilosa ( Fabricius, 1787 )

Chatzimanolis, Stylianos 2016

2016
Loc

Cordylaspis pilosa

Erichson 1839: 342

1839
Loc

Cordylaspis americana

Blackwelder 1952: 107
Scheerpeltz 1936: 492Wasmann 1902: 267
Erichson 1839: 342
Erichson 1839: 342

1839
Loc

Smilax americana

Laporte 1835: 117

1835
Loc

Staphylinus pilosus

Fabricius 1787: 220

Loc

Cordylaspis tuberculatus

Nordmann 1837: 17