Traumatomutilla americana ( Linnaeus, 1758 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Lopez, Vinicius M. & Oliveira, Marcio L., 2019, Revision of the Traumatomutilla americana species group (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), Zootaxa 4608 (1), pp. 1-34: 6-13

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4608.1.1

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C88554-FF86-FFAA-FF53-FD526AB60499

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scientific name

Traumatomutilla americana ( Linnaeus, 1758 )
status

 

Traumatomutilla americana ( Linnaeus, 1758) 

( Figures 1–24View FIGURES 1–10View FIGURES 11–20View FIGURES 21–24)

Mutilla americana Linnaeus, 1758: 582  , holotype: ♀, America australis [sic] (NHRS), examined NHRS-HEVA000008089.

Sphex americana: De Geer, 1773: 591  , tab. 30, figs 10–12 (new combination).

Mutilla obsoleta Klug, 1821: 319  , Lectotype (designated here), ♀, Brazil, Pará (ZMB), examined, syn. nov.

Mutilla dubia Fabricius, 1804: 430  , Holotype gynandromorph, America australi [sic], examined, syn. nov.

Mutilla simulans Smith, 1855: 57  , Holotype: ♀, Venezuela (NHM), examined, syn. nov.

Mutilla spilota Gerstaecker, 1874: 78  , holotype ♀, Surinam (ZMB). Synonyumized under Traumatomutilla americana  by Mickel (1964).

Mutilla albata Smith, 1879: 214  , holotype ♀, [ Brazil], [Amazonas], Ega [Tefé] (NHM, type examined), syn. nov.

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) obsoleta: André, 1902: 55  (new combination).

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) simulans: André, 1902: 56  (new combination).

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) spilota: André, 1902: 56  (new combination).

Mutilla albata: André, 1902: 72  (incertae sedis).

Mutilla dubia: André, 1902: 72  (incertae sedis)

Traumatomutilla obsoleta: André, 1904: 40  (new combination).

Traumatomutilla simulans: André, 1904: 40  (new combination).

Traumatomutilla spilota: André, 1904: 40  (new combination).

Traumatomutilla dubia: Bischoff, 1931: 55  (new combination)

Traumatomutilla albata: Mickel, 1952: 134  (new combination)

Traumatomutilla americana: Mickel, 1964: 169  (new combination)

Traumatotilla [sic!] americana  dubia: Day, 1979: 49  (synonymy)

Traumatomutilla dubia dubia: Nonveiller, 1990: 77  (revised status)

Traumatomutilla dubia albata: Nonveiller, 1990: 77  (revised status)

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Mesosoma robust, constricted anterior to propodeal spiracles, dorsal mesosomal sculpture fine and dense with intervals predominantly obliterated. MALE. Metasoma completely clothed with dense copperygolden setae, completely covering integument.

Description. FEMALE. Body length 10 mm. Head. Posterior margin virtually straight. Vertex width 0.8 × pronotal width. Eye length in frontal view 0.9 × distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Head, except ventral surface, irregularly finely and densely foveolate-punctate to foveolate-punctulate, less densily so on gena and malar space. Mandible with small subapical tooth. Dorsal scrobal carina present defined, separated from antennal tubercles and from vestigial lateral scrobal carina; lateral scrobal carina reduced to longitudinal impunctate area. Antennal tubercle shallowly and irregularly puncate. Flagellomere 1 2.6 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.8 × pedicel length. Genal carina present, short, broadly separated from gular carina and hypostomal carina. Occipital carina terminating on posterolateral elongated subrectangular tubercles. Mesosoma. Mesosoma 0.8 × as long as wide. Mesosomal dorsum densely and coarsely areolate-punctate, areolations denser and smaller mediad. Anterior face of propodeum well-defined, conspicuously and finely striated longitudinally. Humeral carina present, broadly separated from low rounded epaulet, antero-lateral corners of pronotum rounded in dorsal view. Pronotal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of pronotum. Sculpture of lateral face of pronotum and mesosomal pleurae ob- scured by dense setae, except dorsal fourth of metapleuron asetose impunctate. Lateral face of propodeum virtually impucntate, with sparse small shallow punctures. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 45:53:53:43:38. Lateral margin of mesosoma not emarginated anterior to propodeal spiracle, smoothly diverging anterad and converging slightly posterior to pronotal spiracles. Propodeal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of mesosoma; post-spiracular absent. Scutellar scale present, well-developed, wider than and separated from narrowly and coarsely connected anterolateral carinae. Propodeal sculpture obscured by dense setation posterior to scutelar area, scabrous intervals present. Posterior face of propodeum longer than dorsal face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 30:65:64. T2 virtually as wide as long, with maximum width at midlength. Disc of T2 dense and coarse foveolate-punctate to punctate posteromediad; foveolations sparser and larger laterad; sculpture of integumental spots sparse shallow foveolate-punctate. Sculpture T3–6, except pygidial plate, obscured by dense setation. S1 with conspicuous longitudinal carina, equally high throughout. S2 sparse foveolate-punctate; subapical transverse slope virtually absent, vestigial laterally; antero-medial virtually absent. S3–6 dense coarse foveolatepunctate. Pygidial plate subovate, defined by lateral carinae, basal third ecarinate; surface with longitudinal interrupted subparallel costations; interstice apparently impunctate, smooth.

MALE. Body length 7–10 mm. Head. Rounded subquadrate, posterolateral angles rounded. Vertex width 0.8 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 4 × DLO, IOD virtually equal to DLO. Occipital carina distinct. Vertex and gena densely and finely foveolate-punctate, frons sculpture mostly concealed by dense setation. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe concave to eye margin, with prominent transverse dorsal scrobal carina starting at eye margin and ending before torulus. Clypeus convex medially, concave laterally immediatelly below antennal insertion; coarsely and densely punctate; with a pair of short, closely spaced, blunt tubercles on apical margin. Scape bicarinate. Flagellomere 1 1.2 × pedicel length; flagellomere 1.6 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth slightly larger than middle tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma. Epaulets well defined, low, rounded, broadly disconnected from humeral carina. Anterior face of propodeum smooth, impunctate medially, with a conspicuous longitdunial concave medial area; finely sparse punctate laterally. Tegula convex, mostly glabrous and impunctate except for dense punctures along anterior and inner margins. Mesoscutum densely foveolate-punctate and with a median longitudinal carina on posterior half; notaulus present, reduced to posterior third; parapsis present, reduced to posterior half. Scutellum convex, densely and coarsely areolate-punctate. Axilla produced posterolaterally as truncate projection, with conspicuous flat posterior face, coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate dorsally, except posterior third impunctate. Metanotum virtually equally wide throughout, its surface obscured by dense setation. Propodeum convex, densely areolate dorsally, more densely and coarsely so laterad; lateral face mostly impunctate; posterolateral margins smoothly rounded; dorsal face rounded into posterior face, posterior margin not angulate. Lateral face of pronotum and mesopleura sculptured obscured by dense setation; mesopleura roundly swollen, without any conspicuous projections on dorsal half. Metapleuron virtually smooth, shinning and impunctate throughout. Wings. Forewing with moderate elongate sclerotized pterostigma; marginal cell elongated, truncate apically; three submarginal cells. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0.5 × as wide as T2. T2 length 0.7 × its width. Dorsal metasomal sculpture completely concealed by dense setation. T7 with pygidial area irregularly rugose and weakly defined by parallel carinae apicolaterally; intervals apparently granulose. S1 longitudinally elevated medially, not forming pronounced carina. S2 foveolate-punctate, foveolations larger posterad, with distinct anteromedal micropunctate area covered with denser setae. S3–6 densely foveolate-punctate to punctate. S7 foveolate-punctate, longer than broad, with a pair of closely spaced tooth-like projections on apical margin. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe slightly pronounced posteriorly. Free paramere length 1.2 × free cuspis length and 4.5 × free digitus length, virtually straight throughout in dorsal view, slightly curved outward posteriorly; upcurved posteriorly in lateral view; with sparse setae medioventrally in addition to scattered, inconspicuous, short and thin setae throughout. Cuspis 3.5 × digitus length, slightly sinuous in dorsal and lateral view; abruptly tapering in posterior third in lateral views; posterior third with conspicuous sparse strong setae, denser at tapering point and apex. Paracuspis short, node-like, rounded posteriorly, densely setose. Digitus short, weakly curved inward in dorsal view and slightly upcurved in lateral view; sparsely setose posterodorsally. Penis valve strongly concave on inner surface, with pair of teeth on posteroventrally; posteriormost tooth narrow, acute; anterior tooth rounded, without evident lateral pocket on external surface; distance between apex of teeth 0.1 × length of valve; few strong short setae along posterior margin and at base of teeth on outer surface.

Coloration and variations. FEMALES. Body and appendages vary from reddish-brown to brownish-black, except scape, pedicel and most flagellomeres brownish-black to black dorsally; frons, vertex, mesosoma and dorsum of metasoma are usually conspicuously darker; apical half of mandibles black, and the tibial spurs yellowish-white The most common color forms of T. americana  have the vertex completely covered with silvery-white setae, a pair of longitudinally oblique lateral spots on the mesonotum varying in size, a pair of longitudinal silvery-white stripes on propodeum, T2 with four distinct integumental spots varying in size and the fringe of T2–5 with silvery-white setal patches medially and laterally. The silvery-white setae on the vertex can be interrupted medially by black setae or be completely absent. Some specimens have the mesonotum completely black or the lateral spots of the mesonotum and propodeum united forming a continuous lateral lines reaching the pronotal spiracles. The spots on T2 vary in color from yellow to reddish and in shape from subquadrate to rounded. The anterior spots vary from being slightly smaller than the posterior spots to being virtually absent and/or obscured by dense anterolateral silvery-white setae patches. The fringes of T2– 3 may have the medial patches of silvery-white setae absent or greatly reduced. MALES. No significant variations in color and setae were observed for the males. Body and appendages vary from reddishblack to brownish-black to completely black, except antennae mostly black dorsally, tibial spurs white and wings brownish-hyaline, slightly darker apicad, veins brown; legs and metasoma integument slightly lighter than rest of body. Body setae almost completely yellowish-white varying in density, except for dense black setae on mesonotum and dorsum of metasoma clothed with dense coppery-orange throughout, except for pygidial plate.

Distribution. Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, and Peru.

Material examined. (277♀ 78♁) Type material. Lectotype (designated here): Mutilla obsoleta  , ♀, BRA- ZIL, Pará [sic!], Sieber ( ZMB); Holotype: Mutilla simulans  , ♀, VENEZUELA ( NHM)  ; Holotype: Mutilla dubia  , gynandromorph, [Guiana], Essequibo ( ZMUCAbout ZMUC)  ; Holotype: Mutilla albata  , ♀, BRAZIL, [Amazonas], Ega [Tefé] ( NHM)  . Additional material. COLOMBIA: [Antioquia], Angostura , 1♀, Sr. Sachs ( ZMB)  ; Arauca, Tame , 1♀, 01– 07.VII.1976, M. Cooper ( BMNH)  ; Guaviare, RN [Reserva Nacional] Nukak Maku, 02°10’40’’N 71°11’25’’W, Cñ [sic] Cr [sic] Moyano , 1♀, II.1996, F. Fernandez ( EMUS)GoogleMaps  ; Meta: Carimagua , 1♀, I.1972, M. Corn ( USNMAbout USNM)  ; PNN (Parque Nacional Natural) Sierra de La Macarena, Caño Curía , Parcela , 03°21’N 73°56’W, 460m [meters above sea level], 1♀, 29.XII–01.I.2002, D. Campos ( EMUS)GoogleMaps  ; Res. [Reserva] Nat. [Natural] El Caduceo,HC [sic], Savanna , 03°40’N 73°39’W, 1400’[sic], 3♀ 03–08.I.2012 ( EMUS)GoogleMaps  ; Puerto Lleras, Loma Linda , 1♀, I.1989, V. Roth & B.T. Carroll ( CASC)  ; PNN [ Parque Nacional Natural ] Tinigua, Vda. [vereda] Bajo Raudal  , 02°16’N 73°48’W, 460m [meters above sea leve], 1♁, 21.XII.2001, D. Campos (IAvH); Pto. [Puerto] Gaitan, Carimagua, 04°18’N 72°05’W, 200m [meters above sea level], 1♁, 02.II.1992, C. Medina (IAvH); San Juan de Arama, Rio Samsa GoogleMaps  , 03°20’N 73°53’W, 580m [meters above sea level], 1♁, 18.X.1991, W. Cubillos (IAvH); Cord. [Cordillera] Ma- carena, 1♀, 15–28.II.1976, M. Cooper ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Tolima: Mariquita, Bosque , 05°12’N 74°54’W, 554m [meters above sea level], 2♁, 04.IX.1992, Y. Fonseca (IAvH)GoogleMaps  ; Vichada: Gaviotas Saban, Mpio. [Municipio] del Viento , 170m [meters above sea level], 1♁, II.1995, Cortez & Mora (IAvH); PNN [Parque Nacional] El Tuparro  , 05°21’N 67°51’W, 100m [meters above sea level], 1♁, 14.I.2001, W. Villalba (IAvH); VENEZUELAGoogleMaps  : Bolivar: Akurima , 1♀, Andruze ( MCZ)  ; Canaima , 1♀, 29.IX.1974, M. Murtaugh ( UMSPAbout UMSP)  ; Paraitepuy [Parai-Tepui], 1♀, XII.1940 ( USNMAbout USNM)  ; Aragua: 2km N Ocumare de la Costa [2 kilometers north of Ocumare de la Costa ], 1♀, 21–22.VI.1976, A.S. Menke ( USNMAbout USNM)  ; Puerto de Cata , 1♀, 10–11.VI.1976, A.S. Menke ( USNMAbout USNM)  ; Guarico: Hato Masaguaral , 1♀, 03–29.V.1985, J.M. Carpenter ( USNMAbout USNM)  ; Cazorla , 1♀, XII.1925, M. Crisol ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  ; La Cruz-Riviera , 1♀, VI.1925, M. Crisol ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  Sucre, Cariaco , 1♀, 30.I.1896, Santechi ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  ; Barinas, Santa Barbara, La Palestina, 4♀, 12.VII.1981, J. Mateu ( MNCNAbout MNCN)  ; Tachira, Santa Barbara , 4♀, VII.1981, Williner ( EMUS)  . GUYANA: [Upper Demerara-Berbice]: Dubulay Ranch , 05°40’95’’N 57°51’52’’W, Malaise trap nr. [near] cattle pens, 1♀, 22–23.I.1999, M. Sharkey & B. Brown ( EMUS)  ; Co. n. [community near?] Kairuni Creek, Gtown-Linden Hwy [Georgetown- Linden highway], ca. [circa] km76 [kilometer 76], ca. [circa] 50m [meters above sea level] 1♀, 08.VIII.1988, C.H. Dietrich ( INHS)  ; [Upper Takutu-Essequibo], Essequibo River, Source , 1♀, J. Ogilvio ( MCZ)  ; SURINAME: Paramaribo, Paramaribo, 1♁, 09.III.1909, C. Heller S.V. ( ZMB)  ; [Sipaliwini], Kayser Airstrop , 2♀, 24.XI.1962, R. Freud ( PMNHAbout PMNH)  ; CSNR [Central Suriname Nature Reserve] Raleighvallen, Voltzberg trail from camp Boinski , 04°72’N 57°86’W, 50m [meters above sea level], 2♀, 16–23.VIII.2007, G. Kung & A. Kreutzer ( EMUS)  ; Para, Zanderij, Savanne , 1♁, 04–07.IX.1964, D.C. Geijsjes ( FSCAAbout FSCA)  ; FRENCH GUYANA: Rochelone , 1♀, 02.VI.1929, T.D.A. Cockerell ( AMNHAbout AMNH)  ; Cayenne, Kourou , 1♀, VII.1914, R. Benoist ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  ; BRAZIL: Amazonas, Manacapuru , 1♀, III.1926, S.M. Klages ( CMNHAbout CMNH)  ; Manaós [Manaus]:, 1♀, VII.1935, G.V. Vredenburg ( BMNH)  ; Uypi- ranga, Rio Negro, 14km [kilometers] from Manaus , 81m [meters], 2♀, X.1941 ( EMUS); BR174 [BR174 highway]  , 02°35’S 60°02’W, 1♀, 24.VII.2005, Oliveira, Storti & Storti-Filho ( INPAAbout INPA)GoogleMaps  ; Reserva [Florestal Adolfo] Ducke , 1♀, 28.X.2015, T. Mahlmann ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; Puraquequara, Sítio Vidal , 4♀, 29.VIII.1993, Izabel Vidal ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; Campus Universitário , 10♁, 1976, J.A. Rafael ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; Barcelos , 1♀, 18–22.II.1963, J. Bechyné ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  ; Humaitá, Ipixuna , 07°31’18’’S 63°20’48.8’’W, 2♀, 02.X.2014, J.A. Rafael, F.F. Xavier-Filho, R.M. Vieira, R.H. Aquino ( INPAAbout INPA)GoogleMaps  ; Ilha de Monte Cristo, Lago Manacapuru , 1♀, 12.XI.1967, Britski ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  ; Iranduba, Comunidade Portelinha, Fazenda Santa Marta / Bom Lugar , Clareira arenosa em mata de Igapó , 6♀, 21–22.XI.2015, P. Bartholomay ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; Itacoati- ara, AM010 [AM010 highway], Km 215 [kilometer 215], 03°02’S 58°50’W, Faz. [Fazenda] Aruanã , 1♀, F.J. Peralta ( INPAAbout INPA)GoogleMaps  ; Novo Airão, Igarapé Mato Grosso, 02°49’00’’S 60°55’15’’W, 1♀, 27.VIII.2013, D. Storck-Tonon ( INPAAbout INPA)GoogleMaps  ; Presidente Figueiredo, Estrada de Balbina , km12 [kilometer 12], 13.I.2015 ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; próx.[próximo] a Tapuruquara, São João , 1♀, 26.X.1972, E.P. A. ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  ; Pará: Santarém , 1♀ ( DEIAbout DEI)  ; Óbidos : 1♀, I.1958, Exp. Perm. Amaz. [Ex- pedição Permanente à Amazônia] ( MZSPAbout MZSP)  ; Colônia São Tomé , 01°50’46’’S 55°02’23’’W, 1♀, 01–11.IX.2001, J.A. Rafael & J. Vidal ( INPAAbout INPA)GoogleMaps  ; Alto Parú D’Oeste, Aldeia Tiriós , 2♀, I–II.1968, Machado & Pereira ( MNCNAbout MNCN)  ; Faro , 1♀, 29.VIII.1907, Ducke ( MPEGAbout MPEG)  ; Oriximiná: Rio Trombetas , 3♀, Exp. Perm.Amaz. [Expedição Permanente à Amazô- nia] ( MPEGAbout MPEG)  ; Porto Trombetas, Cachoeira da Porteira , 1♀, 29.XI.1907 ( MPEGAbout MPEG)  ; Bragança : Fazenda das Salinas, 1♀, 07.XI.2002, S. Soares ( EMUS)  ; Santo Antonio do Soares , 06.X.2003, R. Boudeira ( EMUS)  ; Tumukumake [Parque Nacional das Montanhas do Tumucumaque], Aldeia Araibá , 1♀, 05.II.1981, E. Oliveira ( MPEGAbout MPEG)  ; Ulianópo- lis, Fazenda São Lucas , 1♀, 18.VI.2002, Jauffrett ( MPEGAbout MPEG)  ; Gorotire, Rio Fresco , 1♀, W.L. Overal ( MPEGAbout MPEG)  ; Monte Alegre , 1♀, 13.XII.1908, Ducke ( MPEGAbout MPEG)  ; Roraima: ESEC [Estação Ecológica] Maracá, Trilha Principal , 4♀ 4♁, 11–13.XII.2015, Rafael et al. ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; PARNA [Parque Nacional] Viruá, Estrada desativada, 3♀ 1♁, 16.XII.2015, Rafael et al. ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; Serra Grande , 1♀, 21–30.X.1992, D.W. Davis ( EMUS)  ; Serra do Tepequém, Estrada do Iga- rapé do Barata , 2♀ 2♁, 14.XII.2015, Rafael et al. ( INPAAbout INPA)  ; PERU: 5♀ ( MNCNAbout MNCN)  ; An additional 15♀ from Venezula ( MNHNAbout MNHN, CASC, FSCAAbout FSCA)  , 6♀ and 2♁ from Guyana ( MNRJAbout MNRJ, EMUS, LACMAbout LACM, ZMUCAbout ZMUC)  ; 175♀ and 29♁ from BRAZIL ( MNHNAbout MNHN, MNRJAbout MNRJ, MNCNAbout MNCN, MZSP, BMNH, INPA, DZUP, MCZ, AMNH, DEI, EMUS, FSCAAbout FSCA, LACMAbout LACM, USNMAbout USNM), 1♀ and 22♁ from Colombia ( EMUS, IAvH), were also examined  .

Remarks. The lectotype of Mutilla obsoleta  is herein being officially designated because although the specimen was labelled as a lectotype by Mickel ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1–10), the taxonomic act was never published. Traumatomutilla americana  is the only species within the group that seems to be restricted to the Amazon Region ( Figs. 25View FIGURES 25, 79View FIGURE 79). The similarities and suspected conspecificity between T. americana  , T. dubia dubia  , T. dubia albata  and T. simulans  were already mentioned by Mickel (1952, 1964). Males of T. dubia dubia  have been repeatedly collected in the same areas of T. dubia albata  females throughout the Amazon.Also, at the base of T2, the type of T. dubia albata  has a clear patch of the typical coppery setae that covers the metasoma of T. dubia dubia  males due to some sort of malformation which is not uncommon in other Dasymutillini  (KAW pers. obs.). Examination of the types of T. obsoleta  and T. simulans  revealed that, with the exception of minor color variations, they are identical to the types of T. dubia albata  and specimens of T. americana  identified by different specialists throughout the years. Mickel (1964) suggested that the type of T. americana  was likely lost because it wasn’t in the Linnaean Society of London collection. Day (1979) stated that it is probable that the DeGeer type of Sphex americana  in the Swedish Museum of Natural History is also the Linnaean type of Mutilla americana  . We agree with this since in DeGeer’s paper the author seems to be “redescribing” the same specimen examined by Linnaeus.Additionally, the specimen fits perfectly with the description of both Linnaeus and DeGeer and specimens identified as T. americana  by different specialists except for the vertex being covered with silvery-white setae which weren’t mentioned by either author. Mickel (1952) mentioned T. dubia albata (Cresson)  in the identification key for the female Traumatomutilla of British Guiana (page 127), but that is clearly a typo since in the taxonomic history of T. dubia dubia  (page 134) the author mentioned that the author of T. dubia albata  was in fact Smith. Mickel (1952) treated T. simulans  and T. dubia albata  (then T. albata  ) as part of a group of subspecies likely to be conspecific with T. dubia  . The only species the author specifically cited as a “new subspecies”, however, is T. dubia spilota  . No changes were made to either species before the neotropical catalogue of Nonveiller (1990) which placed T. simulans  as a distinct species and T. albata  as a subspecies of T. dubia  . Since no comments regarding that decision were offered, we hypothesize that Nonveiller disagreed or simply ignored Mickel’s suggestion of T. simulans  as a subspecies of T. dubia  . Similarly there appears to be a contradiction between the names treated by Day (1979) and Nonveiller (1990), since Day stated that T. dubia dubia  should be known as T. americana dubia ( Day, 1979)  but didn’t provide any comments whether or not T. dubia albata  , and every other subspecies “suggested” by Mickel (1952), should be therefore considered synonyms of T. americana dubia  . Nonveiller (1990) considered T. americana  as a distinct species and T. dubia dubia  and T. dubia albata  as subspecies, again without providing any comments regarding the decision. Day (1979) is not mentioned nor is it in the reference index for Nonveiller (1990), we therefore hypothesize that Nonveiller was likely unaware of the taxonomic changes suggested by Day (1979).

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

NHM

University of Nottingham

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

UMSP

University of Minnesota Insect Collection

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MNCN

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

PMNH

Peabody Museum of Natural History

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

CMNH

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

DEI

Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

LACM

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Mutillidae

Genus

Traumatomutilla

Loc

Traumatomutilla americana ( Linnaeus, 1758 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Lopez, Vinicius M. & Oliveira, Marcio L. 2019

2019
Loc

Mutilla americana

Linnaeus, C. 1758: 582

Loc

Mutilla obsoleta

Klug, J. C. F. 1821: 319

Loc

Mutilla dubia

Fabricius, J. C. 1804: 430

Loc

Mutilla simulans

Smith, F. 1855: 57

Loc

Mutilla spilota

Gerstaecker, A. 1874: 78

Loc

Mutilla albata

Smith, F. 1879: 214

Loc

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) obsoleta: André, 1902 : 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Loc

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) simulans: André, 1902 : 56

Andre, E. 1902: 56

Loc

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) spilota: André, 1902 : 56

Andre, E. 1902: 56

Loc

Mutilla albata: André, 1902 : 72

Andre, E. 1902: 72

Loc

Mutilla dubia: André, 1902 : 72

Andre, E. 1902: 72

Loc

Traumatomutilla obsoleta: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Loc

Traumatomutilla simulans: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Loc

Traumatomutilla spilota: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Loc

Traumatomutilla dubia:

Bischoff, H. 1931: 55

Loc

Traumatomutilla albata:

Mickel, C. E. 1952: 134

Loc

Traumatomutilla americana: Mickel, 1964 : 169

Mickel, C. E. 1964: 169

Loc

[sic!] americana

Day, M. C. 1979: 49

Loc

Traumatomutilla dubia dubia: Nonveiller, 1990 : 77

Nonveiller, G. 1990: 77

Loc

Traumatomutilla dubia albata:

Nonveiller, G. 1990: 77