Sympycnus pulicarius (Fallén)

Pollet, Marc, Persson, Magnus, Bøggild, Esben & Crossley, Roy, 2015, A long-lasting taxonomic problem in European Sympycnus resolved, with the description of a new species and data on habitat preferences, Zootaxa 4032 (1), pp. 81-102: 84-93

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4032.1.4

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DCA3623B-11F6-48AF-8A44-3D385C5E7C55

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C91B1B-FF91-FFFD-FF03-BAB157E5F83E

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scientific name

Sympycnus pulicarius (Fallén)
status

 

Sympycnus pulicarius (Fallén) 

( Figs 2 –3View FIGURES 2 – 5, 6View FIGURES 6 – 7, 8View FIGURES 8 – 9, 10View FIGURE 10)

Dolichopus pulicarius Fallén, 1823: 20  . Type locality: not given ( Sweden?) [ NRM].

Porphyrops annulipes Meigen, 1824: 56  . Type locality: Hamburg and Stolberg ( Germany) [ MNHM] rev. status. Medeterus pygmaeus Macquart, 1827: 50  . Type locality: not given (northern France) [unknown]. Chrysotus cinerellus Zetterstedt, 1838: 706  . Type locality: Stöttings fj. ( Sweden) [ MZLU]. Sympycnus desoutteri Parent, 1925: 549  . Type locality: Fermanville, Cotentin ( France) [ MNHM]. Sympycnus annulipes var. brunnitibialis Santos Abreu, 1929: 449  . Type locality: La Palma ( Spain) [possibly lost: Marcos Báez,

pers. comm.].

Diagnosis (male). Slender species ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 2 – 5). Face narrow, at narrowest width about 0.4 x as wide as postpedicel (length). Antenna ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 2 – 5) dark, with postpedicel variable, triangular to elongate triangular with acute apex, 1.1–1.5 x as long as deep, and 1.1–1.7 x as long as scape and pedicel combined. Stylus rather basodorsal, inserted at about basal 2 / 5 of upper rim. Coxa I dark brown with metallic reflection, with apical 1 / 3 – 3 / 5 pale yellow. Femur I pale yellow, with basal 1 / 3 dark brown. Femur I and II with one rather thin preapical pv bristle, about as long as femur is deep. Tibia I without ventral serration. Tibia II with one small pv bristle at apical 1 / 3. Tarsus I without ventral serration. Tarsus III ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 6 – 7) with taIII 3-4 nearly entirely laterally flattened; taIII 3 0.7 x as long as taIII 2, with 2 posterior bristles at basis, straight with only extreme apex slightly curved, 0.8 x as long as taIII 3; with 3–5 strong pd bristles also in central part of taIII 3, and with several smaller erect pd and pv bristles on apical 1 / 2 – 2 / 3 of taIII 3 and basal 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 of taIII 4 ( MSSC).

Description. Male. Head. Face silvery white, greyish below antennae, with shallow central furrow; narrowing below antenna, and nearly parallel-sided towards clypeus, at narrowest width about 0.4 x as wide as postpedicel (length), bare. Frons bronze, strongly dusted brownish. Occiput bronze, slightly dusted, rather convex. Palpus small, 1 / 4 of eye (mostly less than half of palpus exposed), half-moon shaped (mostly exposed part triangular), with basal 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 brown, and apical 1 / 2 pale reddish yellow (mostly only apical 1 / 2 exposed), with white pollinosity, pale pubescence and without apical bristles. Proboscis brown. Eyes red, pubescent. About 7 uppermost po bristles strong and black, and lower (about 10) bristles rather short and thin, yellowish white, uniserial; with a few long yellowish white bristles posterior of po bristles on lower occiput. One pair of black postocellar bristles. Antenna ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 2 – 5) blackish brown, with scape bare dorsally and pedicel with apical circlet of bristles; postpedicel slightly paler, variable, triangular to elongate triangular with acute apex, 1.1–1.5 x as long as deep, and 1.1–1.7 x as long as scape and pedicel combined, with distinct pubescence, especially on apical 1 / 2; stylus rather basodorsal, inserted at about basal 2 / 5, with apical segment about 9 x as long as basal segment; stylus 2.2 –3.0 x as long as first three antennal segments combined, with microscopic pubescence. Thorax. Mesonotum including pleura, postpronotum, scutellum and metapleura dark metallic green, with pleura slightly dusted greyish. Scutellum with 2 very strong median bristles, 2 minute lateral ones and a sparse fringe of white setae. Thoracic bristles black; 6 rather equal-sized dc; 7–8 ac, biserial, nearly reaching 5 th dc, strong, bristles about 3 x as long as distance between rows; 2 strong and 1 minute ant pprn, 1 bas pprn, 1 psut ial, 1 sut ial, as long as psut ial and anterior spal, 2 npl, 2 spal, and 1 pal bristles; upper proepisternum with a group of about 5 small white setae in front of anterior spiracle, lower proepisternum with 2–5 (mostly 4) white, equal-sized (prothoracic) setae; proepimeron bare, and antepronotum with fringe of erect white and black setae. Abdomen. Six abdominal segments pubescent, T 6 triangular in lateral view, slightly longer than T 5. Tergites and sternites entirely dark metallic green, with T 1-6 with short black inclined setae on disc, with white inclined setae on sides; T 1 with strong bristles on posterior margin (black on disc, and paler on sides); T 1-2 with erect white setae laterally. Sternites with white pubescence, with S 1 with only erect setae on posterior margin, S 2-5 with short pubescence, and S 4-5 with longer setae on posterior margin.

Hypopygium ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 8 – 9) with epandrium dark brown, with slight bronze reflection; hypandrium straight, dark brown, with jagged basodorsal margin; phallus narrow, slightly curved at apex; apicoventral epandrial lobe distinctly tapering, with one seta at base and one at extreme apex; surstylus apparently lacking; cercus rather short, rounded triangular, tapering towards apex, white, with greyish base and black apex; postgonites ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10) large, whitish, outreaching hypandrium, with bifurcate ventral structure arising at base, and forming two long and thin blackish appendages, running alongside the phallus. Wing. Slightly smoky, without anal lobe, and with anal vein only weakly indicated. Vein R 4 + 5 slightly curved, M 1 + 2 with smooth bend, both parallel near wing apex. Proximal section of M 1 + 2 0.7 x as long as apical section. Proximal section of CuA 1 1.2 x as long as apical section. CuA x ratio: 3.7. Halter yellow, squamal fringe dark brown. Legs. Overall largely pale yellow, with coxae I –III mainly dark, femur I and III strongly infuscated and tarsi I –III dark; with black bristles. Coxa I ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 2 – 5) dark brown with metallic reflection and apical 1 / 3 – 3 / 5 pale yellow, especially on anterior face; with very dense pubescence of long white bristles and equal-sized white apical bristles. Coxa II dark brown, yellowish at apex, especially on anterior face; with pubescence of inclined white setae on anterior face, and one strong white bristle and a few setae on outer margin of anterior face. Coxa III dark brown, with one straight, white external bristle, as long as coxa III, inserted at about basal 2 / 5, with a few minute setae at its basis and at coxal apex. Trochanters yellow in leg I, brown in legs II –III. Femur I pale yellow, with about basal 1 / 2 dark brown (especially on posterior face), slightly curved; with one row of small black inclined av bristles along entire length, longest in basal 1 / 2, there about 1 / 3 x as long as femur is deep; with 1 preapical pv bristle on about apical 1 / 6, rather thin, about as long as femur is deep. Femur II entirely pale yellow, with 1 strong ad and 1 very small av preapical bristles, and 1 pv preapical bristle on about apical 1 / 7, rather thin, about as long as femur is deep. Femur III pale yellow, with apical 1 / 3 to 2 / 3 brown to dark brown, especially on dorsal face; with 1 strong ad, 1 small av and 1 small pv preapical bristles; with one av, one vt and one pv row of short inclined black bristles along entire length, producing av and pv preapical bristles. Tibia I pale yellow, with ad serration of 5–7 robust black bristles on apical 1 / 2, about 2 x as long as tibia is deep; with one thin pd seta at about basal 1 / 4, at most as long as tibia is deep. Tibia II pale yellow, with 3 strong, inclined ad bristles, 3– 4 x as long as tibia is deep, inserted at about basal 1 /5, 1/ 3 and 2 / 3; with 2 slightly weaker pd bristles, at most 2.5 x as long as tibia is deep, inserted at basal 1 / 5 and 3 / 5; with 4 strong ap bristles; with 1 pv bristle at apical 1 / 3, slightly longer than tibia is deep. Tibia III pale yellow, becoming gradually darker towards apex, with apical 1 / 3 – 1 / 4 dark brown; with 2 strong ad bristles, about 2 x as long as tibia is deep, and with 3–5 distinctly stronger and many smaller dorsal bristles, strongest ones about 1.5 x as long as tibia is deep, and with 5 ap bristles; with indistinct pd pubescence along entire length, including some longer thin bristles, about as long as tibia is deep. Tarsus I pale yellow, dark brown from apical 1 / 4 – 1 / 5 of taI 1 onwards; taI 1 without or with only weak ventral serration; taI 2-5 very short, combined about 1.3 x as long as taI 1. Tarsus II yellow at base, dark brown from apical 1 / 5 of taII 1 onwards; taII 2-5 combined 1.1 x as long as taII 1. Tarsus III ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 6 – 7) black, brownish at most at extreme base, and with taIII 3-4 shiny on inner (posterior) face; taIII 2 with one black posterior bristle at apex, 0.2 x as long as taIII 2 is long; taIII 3-4 nearly entirely laterally flattened; taIII 3 0.7 x as long as taIII 2, with 2 brown posterior bristles, inserted at extreme basis, straight with only extreme apex slightly curved, 0.8 x as long as taIII 3; with 3–5 slightly curved, dark pd bristles also in central part of taIII 3, about 0.5 x as long as taIII 3; with several shorter erect pd and pv dark bristles on apical 1 / 2 – 2 / 3 of taIII 3 and basal 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 of taIII 4, less than 0.5 x as long as tarsomeres. Length ratios of femur/tibia/tarsomeres 1–5 in leg I: 8.5 / 9 / 3.4 / 1.3 / 1.1 / 1 / 1.1, in leg II: 8.3 / 9.5 / 4.6 / 2.1 / 1.7 / 1 / 1, and in leg III: 7.5 / 9.6 / 3 / 2.1 / 1.6 / 1.1 / 1. Body length: 2.3–2.8 mm (n = 5); wing length: 2.3–2.6 mm, 0.3 x as wide as long (n = 5). Female. Similar to male, except for following features: more robust stature. Face slightly narrowing towards clypeus, with distinct central furrows and thinner diverging furrows in some specimens, wide, at upper edge of clypeus 1.8 x as wide as postpedicel (length). Palpus large, nearly 2 / 5 of eye, elongate triangular, with basal 3 / 5 brown and apical 2 / 5 pale reddish yellow, with brown pubescence and 2 strong brown preapical bristles. Proboscis brown, robust, about 0.7 x as long as eye. Antenna with postpedicel rounded triangular, mostly with acute apex, 0.9 x as long as deep, and as long as scape and pedicel combined, with short pubescence; stylus rather basodorsal, inserted at about middle of upper rim; apical segment about 10 x as long as basal segment, 2.9 x as long as first three antennal segments combined. Ac irregularly uniserial to biserial, reaching between 4 th and 5 th dc. Abdomen with 5 pubescent segments, with T 6 usually enclosed by T 5; S 1-6 with short, white pubescence. Coxa I dark brown with metallic reflection, with apical 1 / 4 – 1 / 2 pale yellow. Coxa III with black external bristle. Femur I pale yellow, with about basal 1 / 2–3 / 5 brown (especially on posterior face), with one row of indistinct equal-sized short inclined av bristles along entire length; with 1 minute and one large pv preapical bristles, latter at apical 1 / 8 and 1–1.5 x as long as femur is deep. Femur II with 1 minute and 1 large preapical pv bristles, latter at apical 1 / 10, slightly longer than femur is deep. Femur III pale yellow, with apical 1 / 3 brown to dark brown, often apical 1 / 2 darkened dorsally; without ventral bristles. Tibia I pale yellow, with ad serration of 7–9 robust black bristles on apical 1 / 2, about as long as tibia is deep; with 1 minute ventral seta at about apical 1 / 4, sometimes with a few other similar setae towards middle. Tibia II with 3 ad bristles, 2.5– 3 x as long as tibia is deep, and 2 pd bristles, 1– 2 x as long as tibia is deep; with one pv bristle at apical 1 / 3, about 1.5 x as long as tibia is deep. Tibia III mainly pale yellow, with apical 1 / 5 brown; with dorsal row of stronger and smaller dorsal bristles along entire length, at most 1.5 x as long as tibia is deep; with 3–5 thin inclined pv setae, about as long as tibia is deep. Tarsus I with taI 1 yellow at basis, gradually darkened towards apex; taI 2-5 dark brown. Tarsus III without MSSC, with taIII 3 0.7 x as long as taIII 2. Length ratios of femur/tibia/tarsomeres 1–5 in leg I: 8.6 / 8.9 / 4.1 / 1.7 / 1.4 / 1 /1,1, in leg II: 8.3 / 9.9 / 5 / 2.1 / 1.6 / 1.1 / 1, and in leg III: 9 / 10.7 / 3.2 / 2.6 / 1.8 / 1.1 / 1. Body length: 2.5–3.1 mm (n = 5); wing length (mm): 2.7 –3.0 mm, 0.3 x as wide as long (n = 5).

Type specimens examined: Sympycnus pulicarius  ( Dolichopus  ) ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1, 11– 12View FIGURES 11 – 12): LECTOTYPE (here designated in order to fix identity of the species), ♂, [ SWEDEN], labelled: “ D. pulica  ” / “ rius ♂”; “ Sympycnus  ♂” / “ pulicarius ( Fallen, 1823)  ” / “Det. I. Grichanov, 2002 ”; “ Lectotype ” / “des. M Pollet 2015 ” (specimen code: NHRS-BYWS000000655). PARALECTOTYPE: ♀, [ SWEDEN], labelled: “ D. pulica  ” / “ rius ♀”; “ Sympycnus  ♂ [error, should be ♀]” / “ pulicarius ( Fallen, 1823)  ” / “Det. I. Grichanov, 2002 ”; “ Paralectotype ” / “des. M Pollet 2015 ” (specimen code: NHRS-BYWS000000654) (both NRM). Notes on synonymy. Fallén mentions a male and female specimen in his 1823 description. The NRM collection holds 3 old specimens (2 males, 1 female) of S. pulicarius  , two of which carry ancient written labels and were considered the type specimens. A 4 th specimen previously identified as S. pulicarius  (det. Grichanov 2002) appears to be Sympycnus aeneicoxa ( Meigen, 1824)  . Grichanov (2006 a) previously reported all four specimens as possible syntypes. Both the lectotype and paralectotype are in bad condition and covered with sticky dust. The lectotype lacks the head, one wing, the distal 2 / 5 of the other wing, one fore leg, both mid legs, and one hind leg. The paralectotype is missing the tarsus of one mid leg, and one hind leg.

Sympycnus annulipes  ( Porphyrops  ) ( Figs 13–15View FIGURES 13 – 15): LECTOTYPE (here designated in order to fix identity of the species), ♂, [ GERMANY], labelled: [white, round] “Meigen” (upper side) / “ 1617 ” / “ 40 ” (bottom side); [brown, rectangular] “ annulipes  ” / “♂”; [red] “ lectotype des. Marc” / “Pollet, 2015 ”; [white] “ Porphyrops annulipes  ” / “ Meigen, 1824 ”. PARALECTOTYPE: ♀, [ GERMANY], labelled: [white, round] “Meigen” (upper side) / “ 1617 ” / “ 40 ” (bottom side); [brown, rectangular] “ annulipes  ” / “♀”; [red] “ paralectotype des. Marc” / “Pollet, 2015 ”; [white] “ Porphyrops annulipes  ” / “ Meigen, 1824 ” (both MNHN (coll. Meigen)). Notes on synonymy. Meigen (1824) reported specimens of both sexes. The lectotype is in bad condition: only the head, thorax, left wing and left fore and mid leg are present on the pin; the head is lacking both postpedicels, and the right hind leg is glued to the foam holding the specimen. The paralectotype only lacks the apical part of the left stylus and the left hind leg.

Sympycnus cinerellus  ( Chrysotus  ) ( Figs 16–19View FIGURES 16 – 19): LECTOTYPE (here designated in order to fix identity of the species), ♀, [ SWEDEN], labelled: [white] “Åresku-“ / “Tan” [in Jämtland]; [green] “ ZML. 2012 ” / “036”; [red] “ lectotype ♀” / “Des. I. Grichanov 2004 ”; [white] “ Chrysotus cinerellus  ”/ “ Zetterstedt, 1838 ”. PARALECTOTYPE: ♀, [ SWEDEN], labelled: [white] “ C. cinerellus  ” / “♀ Zett. Inf. L.” / “(Dol. Pulicar - “ / ” ius hodie” / “Stöttings fj.”; [red] “ paralectotype ♀”/ “Des. I. Grichanov 2004 ”; “[green] “ ZML. 2012 ” / “035”; [white] “ Chrysotus cinerellus  ”/ “ Zetterstedt, 1838 ” (both MZLU). Notes on synonymy. Zetterstedt (1838) did not mention the number or sex of the specimens examined. Although Grichanov (2006 a) reported on the presence of a lectotype and paralectotype of this species in the MZLU collections, he did not specify which female specimen was the lectotype and consequently this did not represent a valid lectotype designation. Both specimens are in a bad state. The lectotype lacks both postpedicels, is otherwise complete, but strongly mouldy. In the paralectotype, only the right wing and one fore femur are left on the pin.

Sympycnus desoutteri  ( Figs 20–22View FIGURES 20 – 22): LECTOTYPE (here designated in order to fix identity of the species), ♂, [ FRANCE], labelled: [white] “[Dept. Manche (Normandy)] F[erman]ville” / “ 8.[19] 33 ”; [white] “ Symp. Des -“ / “ Souteri Par.”; [red] “ lectotype des. Marc” / “Pollet, 2015 ”; [white] “ Sympycnus desoutteri  ” / “ Parent, 1925 ”. PARALECTOTYPE: ♀, [ FRANCE], labelled: [white] “[Dept. Manche (Normandy)] Cotentin [Peninsula]” / “[19] 28 ”; [red] “ paralectotype des. Marc” / “Pollet, 2015 ”; [white] “ Sympycnus desoutteri  ” / “ Parent, 1925 ” (both MNHN (coll. Parent)). Notes on synonymy. Without designating a holotype or allotype, Parent described S. desoutteri  in 1925 on the basis of a couple (male + female), collected in Fermanville (Normandy, France). In his collection, a large number of specimens from Fermanville were present, but only with 1929 and 1933 as label dates (together with a large number of specimens lacking any label). Moreover, none of the females of the Fermanville series were separately pinned. Type specimens could thus not be detected, and the lectotype and paralectotype were selected among the Parent specimens based on their conservation status and the fact that they were separately pinned. Both specimens are in a good state; in the paralectotype, only the apex of both wings is slightly damaged and tarsomeres III 3-5 of the left hind leg are missing.

Additional specimens examined during this study (only relevant specimens listed). ANDORRA: 1 ♂, Andorra 1050 m, 31.vii. 1932, leg. Enderlein ( ZMHB (Becker collection)). FRANCE: 1 ♀, Dept. Côte d'Or [(Bourgogne)], Flée, env. de Semur, 18.vi. 1943, leg. A. Bayard ( MNHN (coll. general)), label: Sympycnus  ♀ / pulicarius (Fallén)  / H. Ulrich det. 1982; 1 ♀, Dept. Côte d'Or [(Bourgogne)], Laroche - Varneau, 18.vi. 1941, leg. A. Bayard ( MNHN (coll. general)), label: Sympycnus  ♀ / pulicarius (Fallén)  / H. Ulrich det. 1982; 1 ♀, Dept. Loiret (Centre), Malesherbes, 31.v. 1925, leg. R. Benoist ( MNHN (coll. general)), label: Sympycnus  ♀ / pulicarius (Fallén)  / H. Ulrich det. 1982; 1 ♂, [Dept. Manche (Normandy)], [Anneville-en-]Saire, viii. 1933 ( MNHN (coll. Parent)); 4 ♂, 2 ♀, same data; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, same data, label: S. dessou  - / teri Par.; 11 ♂, [Dept. Manche (Normandy)], Cotentin [Peninsula], 1927 ( MNHN (coll. Parent)); 1 ♂, same data, label: Sympycn.; 1 ♂, same data, label: Sympycnus  ; 21 ♂, 4 ♀, [Dept. Manche (Normandy)], Cotentin [Peninsula], 1928 ( MNHN (coll. Parent)); 3 ♂, same data, label: Sympycnus  / Dessouteri Par.; 38 ♂, 1 ♀, [Dept. Manche (Normandy)], F[erman]ville, viii. 1929 ( MNHN (coll. Parent)); 37 ♂, same data, all with label: S. Dessouteri; 2 ♂, [Dept. Manche (Normandy)], F[erman]ville, viii. 1933 ( MNHN (coll. Parent)); 50 ♂, 21 ♀, [Dept. Manche (Normandy)], Vauville, viii. 1933 ( MNHN (coll. Parent)); 4 ♂, same data, label: S. Dessouteri Par.; 1 ♂, Dept. Seine et Oise [(now Essonne) ( Île-de-France)], Saclas, 13.ix. 1942, leg. A. Bayard ( MNHN (coll. general)), label: Sympycnus  ♂ / pulicarius (Fallén)  / H. Ulrich det. 1982; 1 ♀, [Hauts-de-Seine ( Île-de-France)], Meudon (étang des Écrevisses), 1.vii. 1956 ( MNHN (coll. general)), label: Sympycnus  [♀] / pulicarius (Fallén)  / H. Ulrich det. 1982; 1 ♂, [Hauts-de-Seine ( Île-de-France)], Meudon, 29.vi. 1919, leg. J. Surcouf ( MNHN (coll. general)), label: Sympycnus  / annulipes Meig.  / det. O. Parent; 30 ♂, 9 ♀, without any label, but possibly Dept. Manche (Normandy) ( MNHN (coll. Parent)); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Seine et Oise [(now Yvelines)( Île-de-France)], Rambouillet, 14.vi. 1918, leg. E. Seguy ( MNHN (coll. general)); 2 ♂, same data, label: Sympycnus  / annulipes  / Meig.; 1 ♀, same site, no date, leg. E. Seguy, label: Sympycnus  ♀ / pulicarius (Fallén)  / H. Ulrich det. 1982. GEORGIA (Caucasus): 2 ♀, Mamisson Pass, 6.ix. 1903, leg. T. Becker ( ZMHB (Becker collection)). IRAN: 2 ♂, West Azerbaijan, Khoy (montane grassland), 35 ° 33.067 ' N 44 ° 53.006 ' E, 1238 m, 19.vi. 2013, SW, leg. S. Khaghaninia (currently MAPC: W) ( Kazerani et al. 2014). ITALY: 1 ♂, Prov. Bozen, Caressa-Paß (= Karer-Pass near Welschnofen, South Tyrol), 18.vi. 1890, leg. T. Becker ( ZMHB (Becker collection)); 1 ♂, Liguria, Rappalo, 20.iv. 1897, leg. T. Becker ( ZMHB (Becker collection)). MACEDONIA: 1 ♂, S. de Monastir Holéven, vii. 1917, leg. Infirmier Bunico ( MNHN (coll. general)), label: Sympycnus  / annulipes Meig.  / det. O. Par. POLAND: 3 ♂, Silesia, woj. Slaskie, Rauden (now Rudy near Racibórz), 2.ix. 1932, leg. OS. I. Duda ( ZMHB (Duda collection)); 3 ♂, Silesia, woj. Dolnoslaskie, Wustung (= Forest house Wustung near Habelschwerdt, now Bystrzca Klodzka), 7.viii. 1932, leg. OS. I. Duda ( ZMHB (Duda collection)). PORTUGAL: 11 ♂, 4 ♀, Douro Litoral, Mindelo, Vila do Conde, 19.x. 2011, leg. R. Andrade ( MAPC: W). UNITED KINGDOM: 1 ♂, England, Calfhall Wood NZ 150 0 0 5, 7.vii. 2005; 2 ♂, England, Hagg Wood Dunnington SE 68.52, 13.vi. 2001; 1 ♂, England, Middleton Wood Ilkley VC 64 / SE14, 8.viii. 1987; 1 ♂, England, North Cave Wetlands SE883330View Materials, 16.vii. 2007; 1 ♂, England, North Dene Halifax VC 63 / SE02, 16.viii. 1986; 1 ♂, England, Thornton SE 751 454, 9.viii. 2011, all leg. R. Crossley (all MAPC); 3 ♂, 4 ♀, Wales, Plas Gwynant, along Afon Llynedno SH 6350, 16.vi. 1993, SW, leg. M. Pollet ( MAPC: W). USA, CALIFORNIA: 2 ♂, 2 ♀, Co. Cal[ifornia], v. 1911, coll. Oldenberg, Humboldt; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Co. Cal[ifornia], v. 1911, coll. Oldenberg, D.B. Y.F.W. Nunenmacher (all SDEI) [Note: All Californian specimens carried an identification label (either ‘ Sympycnus  ’ or ‘ S. annulipes  ’) by Parent. The three male specimens featured the specific chaetotaxy of the hind tarsus, as well as the other characters found in S. pulicarius  . Only one male specimen still retained one postpedicel, which was of the elongate triangular type. Characters of S. pulicarius  females, though not equally decisive, were present in all three females. The previous identification by Parent could therefore be confirmed.].

Remarks. Types of S. desoutteri  were not designated in the original description ( Parent, 1925), but the concept of this species sensu Parent could be easily established thanks to the large number of specimens in his collection from the Manche Department ( France), including the type locality (Fermanville). Specimens mounted on micropins were often put together on one piece of styrofoam and individual pieces contain up to 13 specimens. Surprisingly, Parent consistently misspelled the name of his new species as “ Dessouteri ” on the identification labels, while his fellow-collector in the Vallée des Moulins was Dr “Desoutter” ( Parent, 1925).

Due to its size, the historical Parent collection ( MNHN) of S. desoutteri  enabled us to gather quantifiable information on some morphological features. All specimens most probably originated from sites in the Manche Department (Normandy), although 38 of the 252 specimens did not carry any label. Only two out of 122 male specimens showed a slightly longer postpedicel (1.1 x as long as wide) whereas in the other specimens it was about as long as wide; in all those specimens the postpedicel had an acute apex. The lectotype specimen, indeed, features a slightly shorter postpedicel (0.9 x as long as wide) with a blunt apex, but no other differences with the other specimens were detected. The external bristle of the hind coxa is mostly white in the male of this and the other species, and black in the female (also reported by Lundbeck 1912), but exceptions were found in the Parent collection as well. Of 67 males, only one showed a black bristle instead of the normal white one, whereas among 28 females, 19 had a black bristle (at each side), 6 had two brown bristles, 2 had two white bristles and one specimen even showed one black coxal bristle at one side and a white coxal bristle at the other side. Neither the shape/length of the postpedicel nor the hind coxal bristle colour in the females seem reliable for identification.

Distribution. Specimens of S. pulicarius  from a number of countries were examined either by the senior author or colleagues, and the following distribution records can be considered valid: Andorra (first country record), Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina (presence confirmed), Bulgaria, Canary Islands ( Spain), Croatia (presence confirmed), Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia (first country record), Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, Macedonia (presence confirmed), the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal (first country record), Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Iran in the Palaearctic region.

Based on the literature, S. pulicarius  , S. annulipes  and/or S. desoutteri  have also been reported from Estonia, Corsica ( France), North Aegean Islands ( Greece), Hungary, Ireland, Kaliningrad Oblast ( Grichanov 2011), Latvia and Lithuania ( Grichanov 2006 b), Moldova ( Grichanov 2011), northern Russia (Murmansk, Grichanov 2004 b; Republic of Karelia, Grichanov & Polevoi 2004), northwestern Russia (Leningrad Region, Novgorod Region and Pskov Region, Grichanov 2006 b), central and southern European Russia, Ukraine (including Kherson and Crimea, Grichanov 2007), former Yugoslavia, North Caucasus and other Caucasian regions like Alania, Krasnodar Territory, Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachai-Cherkessia, and Stravropol Krai (Grichanov et al. 2006; Grichanov 2007), eastern Russia (Altai) ( Grichanov 2007), Turkey ( Grichanov 2007), Israel (Grichanov et al. 2006), Kazakhstan ( Grichanov 2011), and Afghanistan. Although specimens from all these countries should preferably be checked again to ascertain their identification, most of these records are likely to refer to S. pulicarius  .

The single Californian record ( Pollet et al. 2004) of S. pulicarius  proved correct and is based on six specimens. If the current seemingly disjunct distribution is reliable, then its occurrence in California might be explained by human introduction. However, the species has been reported from eastern Russia (Altai) and possibly occurs also in the Far East of Russia and Japan, but has not yet been collected there.

NRM

Swedish Museum of Natural History - Zoological Collections

MNHM

John May Museum of Natural History

MZLU

Lund University

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ZML

St Petersburg State University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Dolichopodidae

Genus

Sympycnus

Loc

Sympycnus pulicarius (Fallén)

Pollet, Marc, Persson, Magnus, Bøggild, Esben & Crossley, Roy 2015
2015
Loc

Dolichopus pulicarius Fallén, 1823 : 20

Fallen 1823: 20
Loc

Porphyrops annulipes

Santos 1929: 449
Parent 1925: 549
Zetterstedt 1838: 706
Macquart 1827: 50
Meigen 1824: 56