Perixerus squamipennis Gerstaecker, 1873,

Fontana, Paolo, Mariño-Pérez, Ricardo, Sanabria-Urbán, Salomón & Woller, Derek A., 2017, Studies in Mexican Grasshoppers: Three new species of Dactylotini (Acrididae: Melanoplinae) from Mexico and a review of existing conspecifics with comments on their geographical distributions, Zootaxa 4337 (3), pp. 301-343: 327-330

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Perixerus squamipennis Gerstaecker, 1873


Perixerus squamipennis Gerstaecker, 1873 

( Figs. 1BView FIGURE 1 & 19–24View FIGURE 19View FIGURE 20View FIGURE 21View FIGURE 22View FIGURE 23View FIGURE 24)

urn:lsid: Orthoptera

Perixerus squamipennis GERSTAECKER  . 1873. STETT. ENTOMOL. Z. 34:192.

Perixerus squamipennis  BRUNER, L. 1908. BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA 2:333.

Perixerus squamipennis  HEBARD. 1932. TRANS. AMER. ENTOMOL. SOC. 58(3):293.

Perixerus squamipennis  DESCAMPS. 1975. FOLIA ENT. MEX. 31–32:71.


Perixerus squamipennis  WOLLER, FONTANA, MARIÑO-PÉREZ & H. SONG. 2014. ZOOTAXA 3793(4):493.

Coloration. Antennae brownish to blackish, often lightly colored towards the base. Pronotum and tegmina light brown to orange. Head and fore and middle legs brownish to bluish; eyes pale-gray; tegmina uniformly colored light brown; hind femur with upper and lower margins yellow and median area blue to purple on external surface; hind tibia dark blue with basal portion yellow to orange. Abdomen primarily, and ventral portion of the body, yellowish-green. Female with light-colored ovipositor ( Figs. 1BView FIGURE 1, 19View FIGURE 19, 20View FIGURE 20, 23View FIGURE 23).

Pronotum and Tegmina. In most examined specimens, pronotum is almost straight in lateral view, more decidedly rugose in metazona, median carina well-marked in metazona; metazona ~ 3/7 of the length of pronotum; pronotum from above with almost parallel sides in male, more diverging in female; posterior pronotal margin emarginated, widely rounded in female, sometimes angulated in male; tegmina reaching more or less the end of 1 st abdominal  tergite, meeting on dorsum ( Figs. 19View FIGURE 19, 20View FIGURE 20, 23View FIGURE 23).

Terminalia: Male, external. In most cases, furculae vestigial with short gap between. Supra-anal plate subtriangular with broadly rounded apex and longer than in P. obscurus  sp. nov.; lateral sides sinuous and with shallow, median groove that extends apically for approximately 1/3rd the total length. Cerci relatively short and similar to P. obscurus  : wider at base and narrowing in middle with rounded apices; gently curving inwards beginning around midway point. Subgenital plate short with rounded apex ( Fig. 21A,BView FIGURE 21). Internal phallic complex: overall, typical for a melanopline, with the following unique characters: Epiphallus: ancorae relatively short, subtriangular and skinnier than conspecifics, and curve slightly inwards; lophi prominent, but weakest of conspecifics, subrectangular, and typically bent slightly anteriorly; post-epiphallic lobe moderately wrinkled, similar to conspecifics, and covered in raised microstructures ( Figs. 21C,DView FIGURE 21 & 22A –BView FIGURE 22). Ectophallus: rami prominent and resembling a stretched-out “N” shape, extending well below valves of aedeagus. Sheath of aedeagus comprised of two halves, each with two lobes of similar size that are attached to apical 1/3rd of rami with each side extending upwards to the lower edges of the dorsobasal region of the dorsal valves of aedeagus, typically only meeting along ventral margins; covered in raised microstructures resembling those on the post-epiphallic lobe ( Figs. 21C,DView FIGURE 21 & 22A, C –DView FIGURE 22). Endophallus: arch of aedeagus well-developed. Dorsal valves of aedeagus do not meet flexures, appear to be fused for entire length with an occasional faint median suture; shorter than ventral valves, often almost extending to apices of upper projections of ventral valves; apex ending in two rounded prongs giving the entire component an appearance of a stout “Y” with broadly rounded arms. Ventral valves of aedeagus meet flexures and are notably longer than dorsal valves; apical portion divided in two with upper section terminating in thin pointed projections that curve gently upwards; lower section (apical 1/3rd) curved ventrally inwards in a corkscrew-like shape that is surrounded by lobe-like membrane (punctuated with scattered, darkly sclerotized, drop-like microstructures) that also extends for a short distance beyond the upper projections ( Figs. 21C,DView FIGURE 21 & 22A,C –DView FIGURE 22). Female, external: as in P. obscurus  sp. nov. and P. triqui  sp. nov.: supra-anal plate subtriangular and cerci relatively small and subconical; dorsal valves of ovipositor with small teeth along dorsobasal margin; ventral valves of ovipositor with a prominent tooth at basal 1/3rd of lower margin ( Fig. 24View FIGURE 24).

Male measurements (in mm) (n=5) ( Table 1): Body length 18.05–20.26 (18.98 ± 0.81); pronotum length 4.36–5.23 (4.65 ± 0.38); prozona length 2.47–2.76 (2.61 ± 0.11); metazona length 1.78–2.58 (2.04 ± 0.32); hind femur length 9.50–11.00 (10.21 ± 0.65); and tegmina length 3.31–4.16 (3.72 ± 0.34). Female measurements (in mm) (n=8) ( Table 1): Body length 20.53–23.34 (22.42 ± 1.04); pronotum length 5.51–6.72 (6.16 ± 0.41); prozona length 3.09–3.74 (3.43 ± 0.23); metazona length 2.42–3.08 (2.74 ± 0.21); hind femur length 11.34–13.06 (12.36 ± 0.67); and tegmina length 3.77–5.40 (4.83 ± 0.54).

Material examined. Two females (syntypes) at MfN ( Fig. 19A –CView FIGURE 19) Mexico  . Synonym Hermistria pulchripes  female (holotype), deposited at NHRS (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm , Sweden) (also examined and photographed: Fig. 19D –FView FIGURE 19) Mexico  . CPF: Mexico, Oaxaca, Monte Alban Archaeological Site. 17°03’03’’ N; 96°45’50’’ W. 1848 m a.s.l., 1 female (14-I-1940) Legit C. BolivarGoogleMaps  ; 8 males and 7 females (25-X-2007); 2 females (20-XI-2008) Legit Paolo Fontana, Filippo Maria Buzzetti and Ricardo Mariño-Pérez. Mexico, Oaxaca, Km 117 Highway #175 Oaxaca-Puerto Angel. 1 male (20-XI-1985) Legit E. Mariño. All identified by PF  . ANSP: Mexico, Oaxaca, Cerro San Felipe 2300 m a.s.l., 1 male (21-X-1948) Legit HO Wagner  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Ejutla 1800 m a.s.l., 1 female (17-X-1948) Legit HO Wagner  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Miahuatlan , 1 female (13-X-1948) Legit HO Wagner. These three identified by T.H. Hubell 1951  . Mexico, Chiapas, Finca Guatimoc, Volcan Tacana , 1 male and 1 female (1-X-1956) Legit V. Aguilar. CNIN-UNAM  : Mexico, Oaxaca, San Andrés Xochixtlan , 1 female (19-X- 2015) S. Sanabria-Urbán  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Carr. 125 ca. 8 Km NE de Tlaxiaco, 1 female (19-X-2015) S. Sanabria- Urbán  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Carr 175 ca. Km 87, 1 female and 1 male (13-XII-2013) P. Fontana, R. Mariño-Pérez & S. Sanabria-Urbán  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Carr 175 ca. Km 103, 1 female and 1 male (12-XII-2013) P. Fontana, R. Mariño- Pérez & S. Sanabria-Urbán  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Carr 175 ca. Km 158, 1 female (12-XII-2013) P. Fontana, R. Mariño- Pérez & S. Sanabria-Urbán  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Carr 175 ca. Km 184, 1 female (12-XII-2013) P. Fontana, R. Mariño- Pérez & S. Sanabria-Urbán  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Portillo San Dionisio , 1 male (21-XI-2015) S. Sanabria-Urbán  . Mexico, Oaxaca, Miahuatlan , 1 male (X-2012) S. Sanabria-Urbán. 

Geographic distribution. This species has the widest range among its congeners, occurs in elevations ranging from approximately 1,450 to 2,383 m a.s.l, and is apparently restricted to the inner highlands of the southern Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico ( Fig. 36View FIGURE 36). During this study, we examined a pair of P. squamipennis  specimens supposedly from Volcan Tacaná in Chiapas, México. However, we have never observed this species beyond the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in our several expeditions to Southern Mexico, which seems to be the biogeographic limit of the tribe Dactylotini  . Therefore, we think that these specimens are probably mislabeled and have been excluded from Figure 36View FIGURE 36.


Museum f�r Naturkunde


Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections


KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia