Simothraulopsis demerara ( Traver, 1947 )

Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa, 2017, Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae), Zootaxa 4285 (1), pp. 1-81: 9-14

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.828100

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5E5CC15A-009D-4E12-9342-315058D35E98

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA6B06-FF8D-6C03-FF0C-FF50EB86FA4E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Simothraulopsis demerara ( Traver, 1947 )
status

 

Simothraulopsis demerara ( Traver, 1947) 

( Figs 4–8View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8)

Thraulus demerara Traver, 1947: 150  ; 1960: 73.

Simothraulopsis surinamensis Demoulin, 1966: 18  (nymph); Hubbard 1982: 266.

Simothraulopsis demerara  ; Domínguez et al. 1997: 146 (as synonym of S. surinamensis  ); Kluge 2007; Salles et al. 2010; Lima et al. 2012; Lima et al. 2015; Takiya et al. 2016; Boldrini & Krolow 2017.

Diagnosis. Male imago: 1) general coloration: thorax orangish brown, abdomen grayish brown ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 A, B); 2) forewing with two costal cross veins basal to bulla ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A); 3) hind wing with costal projection well developed, forming an acute angle, located approximately 2/3 distance from base to apex of wing ( Figs 5View FIGURE 5 B, C); 4) abdominal segments II –V with translucent white basal bands ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 A, B); 5) penis projection spine-like, long (approximately as long as total length of penis lobes) and anteriorly directed ( Figs 5View FIGURE 5 D, E); 6) penis lobes fused on basal 1/3 ( Figs 5View FIGURE 5 D, E); 7) ventral region of penis lobes without a well-marked sclerotized region ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 D). Mature nymph: 1) inner margin of fore tibia with pectinate setae ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 A); 2) femur III relatively slender, about three times longer than wide ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 C); 3) posterolateral projections presents on abdominal segments VIII and IX ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D); 4) gills gray, lateral margins hyaline ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C).

Male imago. Length: body: 4.6–5.9 mm; forewing: 4.7–5.1 mm; hind wing: 0.6–0.63 mm.

Head. Dorsal region yellowish brown with gray marks; ventral region whitish. Upper portion of compound eyes orangish, lower portion dark gray; ocelli whitish gray, surrounded by dark gray ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 A –B). Scape of antenna light brown, pedicel and flagellum translucent white ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 B).

Thorax. Pronotum yellowish brown, margins black; with medial and submedial stripes black. Mesonotum orangish brown; medioparapsidal and lateroparapsidal sutures dark brown; scuto-scutellar impression light brown, scutellum blackish brown. Metanotum yellowish brown. Pleura brown; membranous area gray ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 A –B). Wings membrane hyaline ( Figs 5View FIGURE 5 A –C). Forewing with longitudinal veins yellowish and cross veins translucent; base of veins C, Sc and anal section varying from brown to dark gray; with two costal cross veins basal to bulla; fork of vein MP symmetric. Hind wing with costal projection well developed, forming an acute angle, located approximately 2/3 distance from base to apex of wing; longitudinal and cross veins light brown, except base of vein C to costal projection black; costal region and almost the entire lower portion of hind wing black, except pale triangular area below R. Legs ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 A –B). Coxae and trochanters yellowish with gray marks. Femora orangish; femur I with a whitish apical band; femora II and III with apical and basal whitish bands. Tibiae: tibia I black on basal half and white on apical half; tibiae II and III completely black, except a slender apical band lighter. Tarsi white.

Abdomen. Terga grayish brown, except basal region of terga II –V translucent white; tergum IX with light brown apical band; tergum X yellowish with a laterobasal brown mark. Sterna I –IV translucent, others brown, lateral margins with darker marks ( Fig 4View FIGURE 4 B). Genitalia ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 D; 5D, E). Styliger plate yellowish brown. Forceps segments dark gray, darker apically. Segment II 0.15 length of segment I, segments II and III subequal in length. Penis lobes brown, fused on basal 1/3, inner margins divergent; each lobe rounded apically, with a long (approximately as long as total length of penis lobes) and anteriorly directed spine-like projection; ventral region of penis lobes without a well-marked sclerotized region ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 D). Caudal filaments whitish, basal region black.

Female imago. Length: body: 5.3–5.7 mm; forewing: 5.4–5.5 mm; hind wing: 0.62–0.64 mm. General coloration dark brown, some region yellowish ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 C). Legs: coxae and trochanters yellowish brown. Femora orangish; femur I with a slender, whitish apical band; femora II and III with whitish bands on basal 1/3. Tibiae: tibia I brown on basal half and white on apical half; tibiae II and III black, except a slender apical band whitish. Tarsi white.

Mature nymph. Length: body, 5.5–6.3 mm; antenna, 2.8–3.3 mm; cerci, 6.2–6.4 mm; caudal filament, 6.5–6.9 mm. General coloration yellowish brown ( Figs 6View FIGURE 6 A, B).

Head. Brown, with gray and whitish marks near ocelli. Upper portion of male compound eyes reddish brown, lower portion black. Eyes of female black. Ocelli black ( Figs 6View FIGURE 6 A, B). Scape of antenna light brown, pedicel and flagellum whitish. Maximum width of labrum 1.15 times maximum width of clypeus. Labrum ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A) brown, medial region slightly lighter, with submedial gray marks; anteromedial emargination broad, with five denticles of equal size. Mandible ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 B) brown on basal 2/3 and translucent on apical 1/3 (except incisors and molar area yellowish); with a rounded, yellowish white mark medially located; outer margin slightly curved, with 4–6 filiform, long, thick setae medially located. Maxilla ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 C) yellowish translucent, outer margin brown, with dark gray marks. Segment II of maxillary palpi 1.2 length of segment I, 1.8 length of segment III. Hypopharynx as in figure 7D. Labium as in figure 7E.

Thorax. Terga brown with margins and marks black; medial suture yellowish; anterior margin of pronotum with 2–4 spines; pleura grayish brown; sterna whitish yellow. Legs. Coxae brown with gray marks. Trochanters whitish. Femora whitish with medial and subapical brown bands and whitish apical area (in femur III these bands are broader). Tibiae whitish, with basal and subapical dark brown bands. Tarsi white with basal brown band. Femur III relatively slender, about three times longer than wide ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 C). Leg I. ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 A). Coxa bare. Trochanter with thick, filiform setae. Femur: outer margin with apical half with long stout setae and basal half with short stout setae; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with few lanceolate and spatulate setae; with pectinate setae near inner margin. Tibia: inner margin and dorsal region near inner margin with pectinate setae; outer margin with filiform setae. Tarsus with few stout setae along inner margin and few filiform setae along outer margin. Leg II ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 B). Coxa bare. Trochanter with thick, filiform setae. Femur: outer margin with apical region with stout setae; with short stout setae along its entire length; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with lanceolate and spatulate setae. Tibia: inner margin with stout setae and outer margin with few filiform setae. Tarsus with few filiform setae near outer margin; inner margin bare. Leg III ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 C). Coxa bare. Trochanter with lanceolate setae. Femur: outer margin with stout setae along its entire length; apical half with long, stout setae; inner margin with apical half with short stout setae, basal half bare; dorsal surface with spatulate setae and lanceolate setae. Tibia: inner margin with stout setae; outer margin with filiform setae and short stout setae; dorsal surface with spatulate setae near inner margin. Tarsi: inner margin with few stout setae; outer margin with filiform setae.

Abdomen. Terga grayish brown, margins black; with medial orangish stripe; tergum IX yellowish brown, anterior margin white, without rounded anterolateral mark. Sterna yellowish brown. Gills gray, with lateral margins hyaline ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C). Posterolateral projections present on abdominal segments VIII and IX ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D). Caudal filaments whitish brown.

Life cycle association. Reared.

Comments. S. demerara  has the widest distribution among the species of the genus and the new records presented here expand the distributional range to several new regions of Brazil ( Fig. 49View FIGURE 49). Nymphs were abundant in all sampled sites, occurring in both small and large streams. Apparently, this is a generalist species, occupying almost all types of substrate although they have been more abundantly collected under submerged stones.

Some intraspecific variations were observed among different populations of S. demerara  , as previously commented by Dominguez et al. (1997). In male imago, these variations are related mainly to color pattern. The most notable variation refers to the abdominal sterna VI –IX, which may be completely pale or pigmented, a variation observed even in nearby populations. Another important difference is the hind wing pigmentation, in which pigmented areas between veins C and Sc can be broad in some specimens and reduced in others. Also, the pigmentation of the lower portion is variable - the unpigmented area below vein R may be more evident or not. Small structural differences also were observed, especially in the shape of forewing and penis lobes in some specimens. In the nymphs, variations were observed on pigmentation of the mandibles, some specimens having pronounced medial whitish spot and less pronounced in others. Additionally, the distribution and arrangement of setae on the legs was somewhat variable among populations.

Given the wide distribution of this species compared to others and with the observed intraspecific variations, the possibility of cryptic species within what is called here S. demerara  is not excluded.

Material examined: BRAZIL: Amazonas State: Manaus: Br 147, Km 18,5 stream (S 02°49'0,8"; W 60°02'05,6"; 87m) 22/i/2009, Salles FF colGoogleMaps  : 10 I ♂; 26/x/2009, Boldrini R & Cruz PV cols: 13 I ♂, 3 N; 21/xi/2012, Nascimento JMC & Salles, FF cols: 16 I ♂, 9 I ♀, 8 N. Pantera stream (S 02°00'52"; W 60°01'43"; 34m) 20/i/2009, Salles, FF col: 6 I ♂, 12 N. Novo Airão: Campineiro Grande stream (S 05°32'52,0"; W 60°13'07,9"; 50m) 08/ix/ 2004, Salles, FF col: 3 SI ♂GoogleMaps  . Barcelos : Rio Negro (S 00°28'58.5"; W 64°46'23.9"; 55m) 13/xii/2012, Nascimento, JMC colGoogleMaps  : 4 I ♂, 2 N; Jauaperi river (S 01°25'08.3"; W 061°35'07.5"; 25m) 15/xii/2012, Nascimento, JMC colGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂. Amapá State: Tartarugalzinho: Tartarugalzinho stream (N 01°45'55.7"; W 50°52'40.2"; 17m) 11/viii/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 5 I ♂. Amapá  : Amapá Grande river (N 02°09'43.1"; W 50°55'17.3"; 16m) 07/viii/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 21 I ♂, 3 ♀, 15 N; Davi Grande river (N 01°55'53.5"; W 50°51'38.0"; 12m) 07/viii/2011, Hamada N, Pes AMO, Cruz, PV & Fernandez, A colsGoogleMaps  : 2 I ♂, 2 I ♀, 8 N; Serra do Navio: Cachaço river (N 00°53'18.8"; W 52°01'22.9"; 61m) 02/viii/2011, Hamada N, Pes AMO, Cruz, PV & Fernandez, A cols: 8 SI ♂GoogleMaps  , 2 I ♀, 8 N; Pedra Grande do Amapari : (N 00°37'38.9"; W 51°38'15.2; 40m) 03/viii/2011, Hamada N, Pes AMO, Cruz, PV & Fernandez colsGoogleMaps  : 2I ♂; Oiapoque: Pantanahy river (N 03°47'54.3"; W 51°48'05.5"; 16m) 07/viii/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO cols: 8N; Aeroporto stream (N 03°52'13.6"; W 51°47'30.8"; 28m) 08/viii/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO cols: 5NGoogleMaps  ; Oiapoque river, Marripá waterfall (N 03°48'07.6"; W 51°52'31.8"; 2m) 09/viii/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO cols: 3 N; Calcoene: Ranof stream (N 02°40'47.4"; W 51°21'09.1"; 72m) 10/viii/ 2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO cols: 10 NGoogleMaps  ; Rio Cunani (N 02°41'32.7"; W 51°21'47.5"; 32m) 10/ viii/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 12 N. Bahia State: Côcos, Formoso  river (S 14°40'00.6"; W 45°49'32.3"; 785m) 11/viii/2010, Hamada N, Querino, R & Boldrini colsGoogleMaps  : 9 I ♂, 2 I ♀, 13 N. Ceará State: Padre Vieira: Piranji river, Pirapora waterfall (S 03°33'31.8"; W 041°21'56.9"; 180m) 30/vii/2010, Hamada N, Querino, R & Cruz PV colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂, 1 I ♀, 3 N. Espírito Santo State: São Mateus: Preto river (S18°44'08.0''; W39°47'47.0''; 5m) 30/i/2008, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva, P, Massariol F & Angeli K colsGoogleMaps  : 28 I ♂, 13 SI ♂, 8 I ♀, 9 N; 10/viii/2008, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC & Barcelos-Silva, P cols: 11 I ♂, 3 I ♀, 15 N; 10/vi/ 2007, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Rudio JA, Massariol F & Rizzi EA cols: 7 I ♂, 9 I ♀, 5 N; Conceição da Barra: Córrego  na Estrada (S 18°38'02.5''; W 39°48'50.4''; 23m) 15/iv/2008, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC & Barcelos-Silva colsGoogleMaps  : 5 I ♂, 13 N; Mato Grosso State: Nova Xavantina: Colher stream (S 14.1° 38'41.8"; W 52°26'38.5"; 414m) 13/i/2006, Salles FF & Shimano Y colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂, 8 N; Aripuanã: Balneário Oásis, Aripuanã  river (S 10°10'11.0"; W 59°27.2'34"; 300m) 22/vi/2006, Hamada N col: 4 I ♂, 8 SI ♂, 2 I ♀. Pará State: Santarém: Ramal para a Galiléia (S 03°28'55.5"; W 54°50'25.0"; 80m) 02/x/2012, Nascimento, JMC col: 1 SI ♂GoogleMaps  , 3 I ♂; Jaramaquá river (S 02°49'37.7"; W 55°01'42.5"; 34m) 05/xi/2012, Nascimento JMC colGoogleMaps  : 1 I ♂, 11 SI ♂; Novo Progresso: Curuá waterfall (S 08°44'08.9"; W 54°57'44.4"; 32m)GoogleMaps  , 04/xi/2012, Nascimento JMC & Fernandes, A cols: 58 SI ♂; Itaituba: Hotel Praia Doce, Tapajós  river (S 04°17'09.7"; W 56°01'44.6"; 23m) 30/ix/2013, Hamada N & Couceiro, SRM cols: 5 I ♂, 1 SI ♂, 1 I ♀; Rurópolis: Grim waterfall (S 04°05'36.1"; W 55°00'28.0"; 137m) 05/xi/2012, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Couceiro SEM colsGoogleMaps  : 7 I ♂, 15 SI ♂, 3 I ♀, 13 N; Alter do Chão: Tambor river (S 04°06'09.9"; W 54°58'23.3"; 2m) 8/x/2012, Nascimento JMC & Fernandes AS colsGoogleMaps  : 7 N. Pernambuco State: Amajari: Amajari river (S 08°21'48.9"; W 35°28'49"; 354m) 28/iv/2012GoogleMaps  , Lima LRC, col: 25 I ♂  , 3 I ♀, 13 N; 21/iv/ 2012, Lima LRC col: 3 I ♂  , 1 I ♀, 4 N; Satinho: Mamucaba river (S 08°43'21.6"; W 35°11'14"; 67m) 04/v/2012GoogleMaps  , Lima LRC col: 36 I ♂  . Piauí State: Barra: Longa  river (S 04°12'19.9"; W 42°14'10.6"; 80m) 28/v/2011, Hamada N, Querino, R & Cruz PV colsGoogleMaps  : 9 I ♂, 2 I ♀, 5 N; São João da Fronteira: Genipapo river (S 04°00'13.1"; W 041°26'54.1"; 213m) 31/v/2011, Hamada N, Querino, R & Cruz PV colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂; Santa Cruz dos Milagres: São Nicolau river (S 05°48'34.8"; W 041°53'19.8"; 393m) 29/v/2011, Hamada N, Querino, R & Cruz PV colsGoogleMaps  : 1 I ♂, 2 I ♀. Rondonia State: Candeias do Jamari: Candeias river (S 08°47'30.2"; W 63°42'20.3"; 107m) 26/viii/2012, Boldrini R & Fernandes, A colGoogleMaps  : 9 I ♂, 7 N; Colorado do Oeste: Hermes river (S 13°12'07.5"; W 60°23'25.1"; 411m) 26/viii/2012, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC, Boldrini R & Fernandes A colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂, 1 I ♀, 9 N; Nova Londrina, Urupá river (S 11°02'05.8"; W 62°08'34.1"; 182m) 02/ix/2012, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC, Boldrini R & Fernandes A colsGoogleMaps  : 7 I ♂, 5I ♀, 10 N. Roraima State: Bonfim: Arraia river (N 03°21'04.1"; W 59°54'13.8"; 427m) 21/iii/2013, Nascimento JMC, Cruz PV & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 35 I ♂, 12 I ♀, 23 N; Caroebe: Rio no Balneário Municipal (N 00°52'28.8"; W 59°39'47.5"; 380m) 15/iii/2013, Nascimento JMC, Cruz PV & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 18 I ♂, 15 I ♀, 19 N; Caracaraí: Bem-Querer river (N 01°56'01.3"; W 61°01'38.4"; 154m) 26/iii/2012, Hamada N, Cruz PV & Boldrini R colsGoogleMaps  : 21 I ♂, 19 N; Caroebe: Caroebe river (N 00°57'09.2"; W 59°37'00.5"; 134m) 19/iii/2013, Nascimento JMC, Cruz PV & Silva, JO col: 7 N; São João da Baliza: Igarapé do Ramal 28 (N 00°55'51.2"; W 59°52'21.3"; 136m) 18/iii/2013, Nascimento JMC, Cruz PV & Silva, JO cols: 3 N; Pacaraima: Ereu river (N 04°02'02.9"; W 61°23'09.5"; 460m) 23/iii/2012, Hamada N, Cruz PV & Boldrini R colsGoogleMaps  : 8N.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Ephemeroptera

Family

Leptophlebiidae

Genus

Simothraulopsis

Loc

Simothraulopsis demerara ( Traver, 1947 )

Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa 2017
2017
Loc

Simothraulopsis surinamensis

Hubbard 1982: 266
Demoulin 1966: 18
1982
Loc

Thraulus demerara

Traver 1947: 150