Simothraulopsis sabalo Kluge, 2007

Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa, 2017, Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae), Zootaxa 4285 (1), pp. 1-81: 23-30

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.828100

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5E5CC15A-009D-4E12-9342-315058D35E98

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA6B06-FF93-6C11-FF0C-FA60EBEDFD1E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Simothraulopsis sabalo Kluge, 2007
status

 

Simothraulopsis sabalo Kluge, 2007 

(Figs: 14–18)

Simothraulopsis sabalo Kluge 2007: 389  ; Mariano 2010: 134; Lima et al. 2012: 311; Lima et al. 2015.

Diagnosis. Male imago: 1) general coloration: thorax orangish yellow, abdomen orangish brown ( Figs 14View FIGURE 14 A, B); 2) forewing with two costal cross veins basal to bulla; 3) hind wing with costal projection forming an acute angle, located approximately 2/3 distance from base to apex of wing ( Figs 15View FIGURE 15 B, C); 4) abdominal segments I –V with translucent white basal bands ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14 A); 5) forceps: basal region of segment I with a small concavity ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15 D); 6) penis projection spine-like, of median size (approximately half of the total length of penis lobes) and anteriorly directed ( Figs 15View FIGURE 15 D, E); 7) penis lobes fused on basal 1/2 ( Figs 15View FIGURE 15 D); 8) ventral region of penis lobes without a well-marked sclerotized region ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14 D). Mature nymph: 1) mesonotum with oval, submedial mark ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 A); 2) inner margin of fore tibia with stout setae; 3) femur III relatively slender, about three times longer than wide ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 C); 4) posterolateral projections presents on abdominal segments VIII and IX ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 E); 5) gills purplish gray ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 D).

Male imago. Length: body: 4.5–5.8 mm; forewing: 4.6–4.9 mm; hind wing: 0.5–0.6 mm.

Head. Dorsal region orangish with both gray and brown marks; ventral region whitish with dark gray marks. Upper portion of compound eyes orangish brown, lower portion black; ocelli whitish gray surrounded by gray. Scape and pedicel of antenna light brown, flagellum whitish.

Thorax. Pronotum yellowish brown with margins and submedial stripes dark brown. Mesonotum orangish yellow; longitudinal medial, medioparapsidal and lateroparapsidal sutures yellowish brown; scutellum brown, infrascutellum black. Pleura yellowish brown; membranous area grayish; with a whitish mark near wing base. Sterna yellowish, sutures brown. Wings membrane light yellow translucent ( Figs 15View FIGURE 15 A –C). Forewing with longitudinal and cross veins yellowish; base of veins C, Sc and anal section dark brown; with two costal cross veins basal to bulla; fork of vein MP symmetric. Hind wing with costal projection well developed, forming an acute angle, located approximately 2/3 distance from base to apex of wing; longitudinal and cross veins brown, except base of vein C to costal projection black; costal region black, lower portion of hind wing completely brownish black. Legs. Coxae and trochanters yellowish. Femora orangish with basal and apical whitish bands. Tibiae: tibia I orangish black with an apical white band; tibiae II and III black, with slender apical grayish band. Tarsi white.

Abdomen. Terga orangish brown, posterior margins dark brown. Tergum I brown, except basal white band; terga II and III dark brown with a slender, translucent white basal band; tergum IV almost completely translucent white, except a slender apical orangish brown band; tergum V with white basal band; posterior region of tergum VIII and basal margin of tergum IX blackish; tergum X yellowish, basal region with medial and lateral brown marks. Sterna I –III translucent, others orangish. Genitalia ( Figs14View FIGURE 14 D; 15D, E). Styliger plate yellowish brown. Forceps segments I blackish brown; segments II and III light grayish brown. Segment II 0.15 length of segment I, 1.3 length of segment III. Basal region of segment I with a small concavity ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15 D). Penis lobes yellowish brown, fused on basal half, inner margins divergent; each lobe rounded apically, with an anteriorly directed spinelike projection of median size (approximately half of the total length of penis lobes); ventral region of penis lobes without a well-marked sclerotized region ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14 D). Caudal filaments whitish, basal region brown.

Female imago. Length: body: 5.2–5.6 mm; forewing: 5.5–5.6 mm; hind wing: 0.63–0.65 mm. General coloration similar to male imago, except: pronotum light brown with brown marks; tibiae dark brown on basal half and white on apical half; abdomen without whitish basal bands ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14 C).

Mature nymph. Length: body, 5.2–6.2 mm; antenna, 2.9–3.0 mm; cerci, 6.1–6.3 mm; caudal filament, 6.4–6.8 mm. General coloration yellowish brown ( Figs 16View FIGURE 16).

Head. Orangish brown, with dark brown and black marks, region near ocelli yellowish. Upper portion of male compound eyes reddish brown, lower portion black. Eyes of female black. Ocelli light gray, surrounded by black on male and gray on female. Scape of antenna light brown, pedicel and flagellum whitish. Maximum width of labrum 1.2 times maximum width of clypeus. Labrum ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 A) brown, with gray marks on basal region; anteromedial emargination broad, with five denticles of equal size. Mandible ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 B) brown with gray marks, except apical region and basal angle translucent; with large part washed with dark gray; with a rounded, yellowish mark medially located; margin slightly curved, with 5–7 filiform, long, thick setae medially located. Maxilla ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 C) yellowish translucent, outer margin brown, with dark gray marks. Segment II of maxillary palpi 1.05 length of segment I, 1.9 length of segment III. Hypopharynx as in figure 17D. Labium as in figure 17E.

Thorax. Terga brown with margins and marks black; medial suture yellowish; anterior margin of pronotum with three spines; posterior region of pronotum with a small yellowish mark on medial region; mesonotum with a pair of oval yellowish mark on submedial region; pleura brown, slightly washed with orange and with gray marks; sterna whitish yellow. Legs. Coxae and trochanters whitish, with brown marks. Femora whitish yellow with medial and subapical well-marked brown band. Tibiae brown, with apical white band and sub-basal dark brown band. Tarsi white with light brown basal band. Femur III relatively slender, about three times longer than wide ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 C). Leg I. ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 A). Coxa with inner margin with few filiform setae. Trochanter with thick and thin filiform setae. Femur: outer margin with basal half with short stout setae and apical half with long, stout setae; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with lanceolate and spatulate setae with bifid apex; with two basal rows of pectinate setae near inner margin. Tibia: inner margin and dorsal region near inner margin with stout setae; outer margin with few filiform setae; apical region with pectinate setae. Tarsus with few short stout setae along inner margin Leg II ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 B). Coxa bare. Trochanter with lanceolate setae. Femur: outer margin with apical half with stout setae; basal half with short stout setae; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with few spatulate setae. Tibia: inner margin with stout setae and outer margin with few filiform setae. Tarsus with few filiform, thick setae near inner margin; outer margin bare. Leg III ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 C). Coxa bare. Trochanter with filiform setae on distal margin. Femur: outer margin with short stout setae along its entire length, apical half with long, stout setae; inner margin with few short stout setae; dorsal surface with lanceolate setae and stout setae. Tibia: inner and outer margin with few short stout setae; outer margin with filiform setae. Tarsus with few stout setae on inner margin; outer margin with few filiform setae.

Abdomen. Terga orangish brown, margins black; with medial orangish stripe; tergum IX yellowish, anterior margin white, posterior margin dark brown; with a rounded anterolateral brown mark. Sterna yellowish brown. Gills purplish gray, with tracheal region dark gray ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 D). Posterolateral projections present on abdominal segments VIII and IX ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 E). Caudal filaments brown.

Life cycle association. Reared.

Comments. The distribution of S. sabalo  appears to be restricted to the Amazon biome, just like S. plesius  ( Fig. 49View FIGURE 49). Additionally, this species is associated with small streams and was collected mainly on submerged logs and marginal vegetation.

Imagos of S. sabalo  are similar to those of S. demerara  , sharing characteristics such as shape of penis lobes and long spine-like projections on penis lobes ( Figs 14View FIGURE 14 D, E; 15D, E). Imagos of S. sabalo  , however, can be distinguished by their general orangish coloration and by the small basal concavity of forceps segment I ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15 D). Nymphs of both species can be separated from each other by the presence on the mesonotum of a pair of submedial, yellowish oval marks in S. sabalo  (this mark is absent in S. demerara  ), by the differences on general coloration of legs and abdomen ( Figs 6View FIGURE 6, 16View FIGURE 16), and by type and arrangements of setae of legs ( Figs 8View FIGURE 8; 18).

Material examined: BRAZIL: Amazonas State: Barcelos: Jauari river Comunidade Ucuqui, 02/viii/2009, Hamada N, Salles FF, Pes AM, cols: 1 I ♂, 1 SI ♀, 3 N; Serrinha stream (N 00°24'29.7"; W 63°23'12.0"; 54m), Hamada N, Salles FF, Pes AM, cols: 3 I ♂GoogleMaps  ; Manaus: Br 147, Km 18,5 stream (S 02°49'0,8"; W 60°02'05,6"; 87m) 22/i/2009, Salles FF col: 4 I ♂GoogleMaps  ; 22/i/2009, Salles FF col: 3 I ♂; 26/x/2009, Salles F & Boldrini R cols: 7 I ♂; 26/ix/ 2009, Salles F, Cruz PV & Boldrini R cols: 3 I ♂; 21/xii/2012, Nascimento JMC, Salles FF, Boldrini R & Pes AMO cols: 12 I ♂, 6 N  ; 31/xii/2013, Nascimento JMC, Pes AMO & Silva, JO cols: 9 I ♂  , 11 I ♀, 5 N.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Ephemeroptera

Family

Leptophlebiidae

Genus

Simothraulopsis

Loc

Simothraulopsis sabalo Kluge, 2007

Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa 2017
2017
Loc

Simothraulopsis sabalo

Lima 2012: 311
Mariano 2010: 134
Kluge 2007: 389
2010