Simothraulopsis diamantinensis Mariano, 2010

Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa, 2017, Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae), Zootaxa 4285 (1), pp. 1-81: 30-35

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.828100

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5E5CC15A-009D-4E12-9342-315058D35E98

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA6B06-FF98-6C28-FF0C-FCD8EE22FD1E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Simothraulopsis diamantinensis Mariano, 2010
status

 

Simothraulopsis diamantinensis Mariano, 2010 

( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A, 3A, 19–23)

Simothraulopsis diamantinensis Mariano 2010: 130  .

Diagnosis. Male imago: 1) general coloration: thorax dark brown, abdomen orangish brown ( Figs 19View FIGURE 19 A, B); 2) hind wing with costal projection almost forming a right angle, located approximately 1/2 distance from base to apex of wing, without a cross vein ( Figs 20View FIGURE 20 B, C); 3) terga III–V with anterior region translucent white ( Figs 20View FIGURE 20 A); 4) penis projection spine-like, short (less than the half of total length of penis lobes) and directed to the midline of the body ( Figs 20View FIGURE 20 D, E); 5) penis lobes fused on basal 1/4 ( Figs 20View FIGURE 20 D, E); 6) ventral region of penis lobes without a wellmarked sclerotized region ( Fig. 19View FIGURE 19 D). Mature nymph: 1) hind tibia with a row of spatulate setae with bifid apex on dorsal surface near inner and outer margin ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 C); 2) femur III slender, about four times longer than wide ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 C); 3) posterolateral projections presents on abdominal segments VIII and IX ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 E); 4) gills translucent, slightly washed with grayish brown; tracheal region gray ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 D).

Male imago. Length: body: 4.8–6.0 mm; forewing: 6.0– 6.3 mm; hind wing: 1.2–1.4 mm.

Head. Dorsal region brown lightly washed with orange, with black margins; ventral region yellowish brown, with black marks. Upper portion of compound eyes grayish brown, lower portion black; ocelli whitish surrounded by black. Scape and pedicel of antenna brown, flagellum light gray, translucent at base ( Figs 19View FIGURE 19 A–C).

Thorax. Pronotum yellowish brown, surrounded by grayish brown; with medial stripe and submedial mark dark brown. Mesonotum dark brown; medial longitudinal, anterolateral scutal, lateroparapsidal and medioparapsidal sutures yellowish brown; scuto-scutellar impression light brown and scutellum brown. Pleura dark brown irregularly washed with gray. Metanotum brown. Sterna yellowish brown, sutures dark brown ( Figs 19View FIGURE 19 A–C). Wings membrane hyaline ( Figs 20View FIGURE 20 A–C). Forewing with longitudinal and cross veins yellowish; costal arm and base of veins C, Sc and R1 dark brown; fork of vein MP slightly asymmetric ( Fig. 20View FIGURE 20 A). Hind wing with costal projection well developed, almost forming a right angle, located approximately 1/2 distance from base to apex of wing, without a cross vein ( Figs 20View FIGURE 20 B, C); longitudinal and cross veins light yellow translucent, except base of vein C to costal projection brown; with a slender area of costal region light yellow, lower portion of hind wing almost completely black, except hyaline basal area. Legs. Coxae and trochanters brown. Leg I. femur orangish brown; tibia grayish brown, apical region lighter; tarsus grayish white. Legs II and III: femora yellowish brown; tibiae gray; tarsi grayish white.

Abdomen. Terga orangish brown; posterior margins black. Tergum I completely brown; terga II and VI–VIII with anterior region and lateral margin orangish yellow; terga III–V with anterior region translucent white; tergum X yellowish brown with margins and medial region dark brown. Sterna orangish brown, sterna I–V with anterior region translucent ( Fig. 19View FIGURE 19 A–C). Genitalia ( Figs 19View FIGURE 19 D; 20D, E). Styliger plate yellowish brown, except posterior margin whitish and lateral margin blackish brown. Forceps segment I dark brown, segments II and III whitish gray. Segment II 0.1 length of segment I, 1.08 length of segment III. Penis lobes yellowish brown, separated by approximately width of a lobe and fused on basal ¼; inner margins divergent; each lobe rounded apically, with a short (less than the half of total length of penis lobes) spine-like projection, directed to the midline of the body; ventral region of penis lobes without a well-marked sclerotized region ( Fig. 19View FIGURE 19 D). Caudal filaments yellowish brown, except basal region gray brown and apical margin of each segment dark brown.

Female imago. Length: body: 5.2–6.5 mm; forewing: 6.3–6.6 mm; hind wing: 1.4–1.6 mm. Color pattern similar to male imago, except by coloration lighter. Sterna IX with lateral margin dark gray.

Mature nymph. Length: body, 4.7–5.2 mm; antenna, 2.5–2.7 mm; cerci, 4.4–4.9 mm; Caudal filament, 5.0– 5.3 mm. General coloration yellowish brown ( Figs 21View FIGURE 21).

Head. Brown, irregularly washed with gray and with whitish marks. Upper portion of male compound eyes reddish black, lower portion black. Eyes of female black. Ocelli gray, surrounded with black ( Figs 21View FIGURE 21 A–C). Scape and pedicel of antenna light brown, flagellum translucent. Maximum width of labrum 1.15 times maximum width of clypeus. Labrum ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 A) yellowish brown, basal region with light gray marks; anteromedial emargination broad, with five denticles: three median of equal size and two laterals larger. Mandible ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 B) yellowish brown, translucent near to basal articulation and apical region (except incisors and molar area dark yellow); with a pair of rounded, white marks medially located; outer margin slightly curved, with 5–6 filiform, long, thick setae medially located. Maxilla ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 C) yellowish translucent, outer margin grayish brown. Segment II of maxillary palpi 1.25 length of segment I, 2.3 length of segment III. Hypopharynx as in figure 22D. Labium as in figure 22E.

Thorax. Terga yellowish brown with few gray marks; anterior margin of pronotum with 4–5 spines; pleura brownish; sterna whitish yellow. Coxae and trochanters brown washed with gray; tibia grayish with basal and subapical grayish brown bands; tarsi grayish with a sub-basal brown band. Femora I and II brown, except near dorsal margin and transverse submedial whitish band, apical region with a dark gray mark; femur III almost completely brown with a light gray subapical mark and whitish apical mark; tibiae slightly washed with brown, with a subapical band dark brown; tarsus with a sub-basal band brown. Femur III slender, about four times longer than wide ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 C). Leg I ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 A). Coxa and trochanter bare. Femur: outer margin with apical half with long, stout setae; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with thick bifid setae and spatulate setae of different sizes; region near inner margin with pectinate setae. Tibia: inner margin with pectinate setae; dorsal surface with stout setae near inner margin and filiform setae near outer margin. Tarsus with few short stout setae along inner margin. Leg II ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 B). Coxa bare. Trochanter with short, spatulate setae. Femur: outer margin with apical half with long, stout setae; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with spatulate setae. Tibia: inner margin with pectinate setae, outer margin with filiform setae; dorsal surface with spatulate setae with bifid apex near inner margin. Tarsus with filiform setae along outer margin. Leg III ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 C). Coxa bare. Trochanter with few lanceolate setae. Femur: outer margin with stout setae, apical half with long, stout setae; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with spatulate setae. Tibia: inner margin with pectinate setae; outer margin with a row of teardrop shaped setae and short filiform setae; dorsal surface with spatulate setae with bifid apex near inner and outer margins. Tarsus with few short stout setae along inner margin and short setae on outer margin.

Abdomen. General coloration yellowish brown, central area washed with gray; posterior margins of terga dark gray; tergum VIII with a yellowish mark on medial region; tergum X yellow, with margins black and a rounded macula near apical margin ( Figs 21View FIGURE 21 A–C). Gills translucent, slightly washed with grayish brown; tracheal region gray ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 D). Posterolateral projections present on abdominal segments VIII and IX ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 E). Caudal filaments yellowish, basal area darker.

Life cycle association. Reared.

Comments. S. diamantinensis  was widely collected in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo ( Fig. 28View FIGURE 28). The nymphs were collected in different environments, from small to large rivers. However, the greatest abundance of nymphs occurs in high altitude rocky bottom rivers.

Imagos of S. diamantinensis  are similar to those of S. eurybasis  sp. nov., since the spine-like projections of the penis lobes, in both species, are short and directed to the midline. Despite that, they can be distinguished from each other by the distance between the penis lobes, which is widely separated in S. eurybasis  sp. nov. ( Figs 20View FIGURE 20 D; 40D) and by the abdominal coloration, lighter in S. diamantinensis  ( Figs 19View FIGURE 19 A, B; 39A, B). Nymphs of these two species can be separated from each other by the general coloration: in S. diamantinensis  the thorax is less marked and the abdomen is lighter ( Figs 21View FIGURE 21 A, E; 41A, E).

Material examined: BRAZIL: Bahia State: Abaíra: stream in road for Inúbia (S 13°17'09.5"; W 41°52'08.2"; 1115m) 27/v/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂, 1 ♀; Lençóis: Ribeirão river (S 12°35'12.3"; W 41°23'22.5"; 381m) 28/v/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 1 I ♂, 1 ♀, 7 N; 23/ x/2008, Calor AR, Mariano R & Mateus S cols: 2 I ♂. Palmeira: stream in Pousada do vale do Capão (S 12°37'20.9"; W 41°29'13.2"; 909m) 29/v/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO cols: 5N; Preto river (S 12°33'03.7"; W 41°33'36.7"; 686m) 29/v/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO colsGoogleMaps  : 1 I ♂; stream in Morro do Capão (S 12°39'14.8"; W 41°29'13.6", 918m) 29/v/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO cols: 12 N; Andaraí: Garapa river (S 12°44'47.7"; W 41°20'53.6"; 323m) 27/v/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC, cols: 15 N; Catolés: Catolés de Cima stream (S 13°17'18.7"; W 41°52'29.5"; 593m) 26/v/2013, 9 N; Rio de Contas, stream in road (S 13°28'55"; W 41°51'54.7"; 473m) 06/vi/2013, Hamada N, Nascimento JMC & Silva, JO cols: 7N. Espírito Santo State: Afonso Cláudio: Funil waterfall (S 20°08'35.1"; W 41°09'02.0"; 446m) 27/iii/2011, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Massariol FC & Bertazo K colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂; Alegre: Fumaça waterfall (S 20°37'52.1"; W 41°36'18.8"; 447m) 28/v/2011, Nascimento JMC, Massariol FC, Barcelos-Silva P, Angeli K & Bertazo K colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂; Sooretama: São José  river (S 19°07'33.1"; W 40°14'26.1"; 24m) 05/iii/2013, Salles FF & Nascimento JMC cols: 7 I ♂, 3 ♀, 5 N; 19/v/2011, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P, Azeredo J & Rizzi EA cols: 13 I ♂, 2 ♀, 7 N; 20/ iv/2012, Massariol FC & Angeli, cols: 8 N; 09/ix/2010, Nascimento JMC, Massariol FC & Angeli, cols: 1 N; Santa Teresa: Água Limpa stream (S 18°22'04.1"; W 40°08'23.8"; 760m)GoogleMaps  , 18/i/2008, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Boldrini R & Massariol cols: 8 N; Grande waterfall (S 19°52'30.8''; W 40°31'56.6''; 712m) 20/i/2008 Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Boldrini R & Massariol cols: 7 N; Escavado stream, Poção (S19°52'31.7''; W40°31'47.3''; 705m) 19/ii/2009 Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Soares EDG & Farias-Jr LR cols: 13 N; Reserva Biológica Augusto Rusch, Augusto Rusch waterfall (S19°55'30.1''; W40°32'21.9''; 704m) 20/ii/2009, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC & Rúdio JA cols: 7 N.GoogleMaps 

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Ephemeroptera

Family

Leptophlebiidae

Genus

Simothraulopsis

Loc

Simothraulopsis diamantinensis Mariano, 2010

Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa 2017

2017
Loc

Simothraulopsis diamantinensis

Mariano 2010: 130