Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis , Ahad, Sumaya & Ahmad, Wasim, 2016

Ahad, Sumaya & Ahmad, Wasim, 2016, Description of two new and six known species of the genus Tylencholaimus de Man, 1876 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) with a diagnostic compendium and key to species, Zootaxa 4107 (4), pp. 451-490: 477-481

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis

sp. n.

Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis  sp. n.

( Figs. 15View FIGURE 15 & 16View FIGURE 16)

Measurements: See Table 8.

Description. Female: Slender nematodes of small size, under 1 mm long; body cylindrical, tapering gradually towards both extremities, slightly ventrally curved upon fixation. Cuticle with two distinct layers, 2 Μm thick at midbody and 2.5 –3.0 Μm on tail. Outer cuticle thin, finely striated; inner layer thick with distinct radial refractive elements. Lateral chords occupying about 33–38 % of the midbody diameter. Lateral, dorsal and ventral body pores indistinct.

Lip region cap-like, offset by slight constriction, 2.3–2.5 times as wide as high or less than one-third of the body diameter at neck base. Lip region truncate, lips amalgamated, with their inner part somewhat elevated; the submedian lips appear as two round bulges (fig 16 A). Amphids cup-shaped with aperture located at the level of cephalic constriction and occupying about one-third of lip region diameter. Stoma a truncate cone. Odontostyle 1.0– 1.1 times the lip region diameter long, with very narrow but distinct lumen and its aperture more than onefourth of the odontostyle length. Odontophore rod-like with faint basal knobs, 1.0– 1.2 times the odontostyle length. Guiding ring simple, refractive, at 0.6 times lip region diameter from anterior end. Pharynx consists of a slender and weakly muscular anterior part, expanding abruptly into a cylindrical basal bulb, with thick-walled lumen, occupying about 38–45 % of total neck length. Pharyngeal gland nuclei and their orifices are located as follows: DO = 61–63, DN = 63–66, S 1 N 1 = 76–80, S 1 N 2 = 82–84, S 2 N = 95–96, S 2 O = 96–97. Nerve ring located at 38–44 % of neck length from anterior end. Cardia rounded, conoid, somewhat less than one-third to one-half of the corresponding body diameter long.

Genital system didelphic-amphidelphic. Ovaries reflexed, measuring 46–55 µm (anterior) and 37–58 µm (posterior) long, not reaching the oviduct-uterus junction; oocytes arranged in single row except near tip. Oviduct joining the ovary subterminally, measuring 54–70 µm (anterior) and 62–82 µm (posterior), its proximal and distal parts not differentiated. Oviduct-uterus junction marked by well developed sphincter. Uterus short and tubular, measuring 20–23 µm (anterior) and 19–20 µm (posterior). Vagina cylindrical; pars proximalis vaginae 4–6 µm long, its wall encircled by muscles; pars distalis vaginae short, with slightly curved walls; pars refringens absent. Vulva apparently a transverse slit. Prerectum 2.7–3.4 and rectum 0.7–1.1 anal body diameter long. Tail cylindrical, rounded-conoid, 1.1–1.3 times anal body diameter long, with a distinct terminal caudal pores.

Male: Not found.

Type habitat and locality. Soil around the roots of the Populus  sp. near the bank of Suru River, Bulbul Bagh, Kargil, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir state, India.

Type specimens. Holotype female on slide Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis  sp. n. / 1; paratypes females on slides Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis  n. sp. / 2–5; deposited with the nematode collection of the Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, India.

Etymology. The new species is named after its type locality, Ladakh.

Diagnosis and relationships. Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis  sp. n. is characterized by having a small slender body (L = 0.56–0.73 mm, a ratio = 23–36); lip region truncate, set off by a slight constriction; the submedian lips appears as two round bulges; amphid aperture slit-like; odontostyle slender, 7–9 µm long, with comparatively narrow lumen; odontophore 8–9 µm long; pharynx with slender anterior part which expands abruptly into the cylindrical basal bulb, occupying about 38–45 % of total neck length; female genital system didelphicamphidelphic and rounded-conoid tail, with distinct terminal caudal pore.

In the nature of its pharyngeal expansion, amphidelphic gonad and tail shape, the new species comes close to T. cosmos Dhanam & Jairajpuri, 1999  and T. cynodonti Nasira, Erum & Shahina, 2005  but differs from the former in its shape of lip region, comparatively slender odontostyle with narrow lumen (vs comparatively robust odontostyle, with wider lumen); amphid aperture one-third of lip region diameter (vs amphidial aperture almost pore-like) and also in the presence of terminal caudal pore (vs terminal caudal pore absent).

From T. cynodonti  , the new species differs because of its longer and slender odontostyle with narrow lumen, and the absence of characteristic circle of large cells around vagina which is present in T. cynodonti  . The new species further differs from T. cynodonti  in having longer prerectum (vs 21–32 µm) and the presence of a terminal caudal pore.

On the basis of body size, pharyngeal expansion and amphidelphic gonad, the new species also comes close to T. savaryi Loof & Jairajpuri, 1968  . However, it differs from it in having lip region offset by a slight constriction (vs offset by a deep constriction); lips rounded and amalgamated (vs lips moderately separated with the inner part elevated and protruding); odontostyle slender, 7–9 µm long, with comparatively narrow lumen (vs odontostyle relatively robust, 5–6 µm, with clear lumen and aperture); vaginal cells absent (vs large cells present in the vaginal region), and tail rounded-conoid (vs convex-conoid).

In all probability, the single specimen of Tylencholaimus  described by Ahmad et al. (2009) from Korea, for which no species name was given as the description was based on single specimen, belongs to this new species.

Table 8. Morphometrics of Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis sp. n. (All measurements in µm)

Characters Holotype female Paratype females
n 5
L 692 665±57.2 (567-733)
Body diameter at neck base 20 18.8±1.1 (18-21)
Body diameter at mid body 21 19.6±1.0 (18-21)
Body diameter at anus 15 14.6±1.3 (13-17)
a 32.9 33.9±2.8 (28.3-35.8)
b 4.0 3.8±0.2 (3.5-4.3)
c 40.7 38.3±2.9 (35.4-42.8)
c` 1.1 1.1±0.1 (1.0-1.3)
V 61.4 60±1.3 (57.8-61.3)
G1 12.7 12±1.2 (9.9-13.1)
G2 12.2 13.9±0.4 (13.5-14.6)
Lip region diameter 7.5 7.3±0.2 (7-7.5)
Lip region height 3 3
Amphid aperture 2 2.8±0.2 (2.5-3.0)
Odontostyle length 8 7.8±0.4 (7-8)
Odontophore length 9 8.4±0.4 (8-9)
Guiding ring from anterior end 5 5.0±0.3 (4.5-5.5)
Nerve ring from anterior end 69 68.2±4.4 (63-73)
Neck length 171 170.2±12.2 (157-186)
Expanded part of Pharynx 73 70.8±6.8 (60-79)
Cardia length 9 7±0.7 (6-8)
Anterior genital branch 88 79.7±11.7 (64-92)
Posterior genital branch 85 92.2±9.2 (80-103)
Vaginal depth 8 8.4±0.4 (8-9)
Vulva from anterior end 425 400.2±39.6 (328-436)
Prerectum length 48 43±2.3 (39-45)
Rectum length 16 13.4±2.0 (10-16)
Tail length 17 17.4±1.6 (15-19)