Hoplopholcus longipes ( Spassky, 1934 )

Huber, Bernhard A., 2020, Revision of the spider genus Hoplopholcus Kulczyński (Araneae, Pholcidae), Zootaxa 4726 (1), pp. 1-94: 62-66

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Hoplopholcus longipes ( Spassky, 1934 )


Hoplopholcus longipes ( Spassky, 1934)  

Figs 199 View FIGURES 194–199 , 294–321 View FIGURES 294–302 View FIGURES 303–311 View FIGURES 312–321

Holocnemus longipes Spassky, 1934: 366   , figs 4–7 (♂ ♀). Spassky 1937: 135. Charitonov 1946: 146. Charitonov 1947: 15. Mcheidze 1997: 65, figs 56–57.

Hoplopholcus longipes   — Brignoli 1978: 493, figs 50–56. Kovblyuk et al. 2011: 38, figs 6–34. Otto 2018.

Probable misidentifications (see Distribution below).

Hoplopholcus longipes   — Koçyiğit et al. 2016: 22. Naumova et al. 2016: 434.

Diagnosis. Distinguished from known congeners by shapes of procursus and bulbal processes ( Figs 312–313, 316– 319 View FIGURES 312–321 ): distal ventral spine of procursus short and almost straight in lateral view; ventral ‘knee’ of procursus indistinct; procursus tip simple, without dorsal process and without prolateral process; ventral bulbal sclerite strongly widened distally (dorsal/ventral views, Figs 316, 318 View FIGURES 312–321 ); also by male chelicerae: median margins protruding and visible in lateral view (arrows in Figs 314–315 View FIGURES 312–321 ). Females are difficult to distinguish externally from congeners; median pouch of uterus externus large, usually angular or M-shaped anteriorly and visible in uncleared specimens ( Figs 294 View FIGURES 294–302 , 303 View FIGURES 303–311 , 320 View FIGURES 312–321 ).

Type material. Large number (“exempla multa”) of syntypes from “Transcaucasia occidentalis, ad Mare Ponticum, Chosta” [ Russia, Krasnodar Region, Khosta, ~ 43.52°N, 39.87°E], “in doliario” (in a wine cellar), viii.1927 – 1930, leg. S. Spassky. Depository of most syntypes unknown, but the following might be syntypes and were examined: 2♂ 2♀, MNHN (Ar 10345), “ Holocnemus longipes Spassky, Transcaucasia   occidentalis”, no further data. 1♂ 1♀, SMF (19421/2), “ Holocnemus longipes Spassky   , 1♂ 1♀, Spassky leg., ded. VIII. 1927 /1930; det.—Slg. Wiehle”, no further data.

Other material examined. RUSSIA, Krasnodar Region: 1♂, ZFMK (Ar 20957), Sochi, Khosta , Yew-box Grove (43.522°N, 39.869°E), leg. Y.A. Chumachenko, don. Ponomarev x.2013 GoogleMaps   . 1♂ 1♀ 1 juv., ZMMU, ~ 15 km E [NE] Adler [~ 43.54°N, 40.045°E], 28.ix.1993 (O.V. Lyakhov) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ 2♀, ZMMU, same locality, Mzymta River , 1.x.1993 (C.V. Ovchinnikov) GoogleMaps   . 1♀, ZIN, Sochi, Psakho Cave [43.538°N, 39.927°E], 30.iv.1998 (A.G. Koval) GoogleMaps   . 1♀, ZIN, Sochi, Alek Mt. Range, Sokolova (Atsinskaya) Cave , 14.iv.1996   (A.G. Koval).

GEORGIA, Abkhazia: 3♀ 1 juv., ZMMU, near Kelasur village, left bank of Kelasur River [42.967°N, 41.070°E], “clay shadowed cliffs”, 11.x.2004 (Y.M. Marusik) GoogleMaps   . 2♀ 2 juvs, ZMMU, near Sochumi (“environs de Sukhumi, vil- lage Upper Kelassuri, Cave Kelassuri ”), 27.x.1981 (S.I. Golovatch)   . 1♂, ZMMU, Sukhumi [=Sochumi] District, near Niznyaya Yashtukha Village [43.027°N, 41.008°E], 17–18.vii.1978 (A.F. Markosyan) GoogleMaps   . 2♂ 1♀ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20958), Ochamchyra District, left bank of Kodor River , environs of Atara-Armyanskaya Vill. and Naa Vill. (42.88– 42.95°N, 41.28– 41.32°E), 140–250 m a.s.l., 24.vii.–4.viii.2009 (M.M. Kovblyuk, N.N. Yunakov) GoogleMaps   .

Imereti: 4♂ 2♀, ZMMU, near Tskaltubo, Sataplia Cave [42.31°N, 42.67°E], in cave, 16.iv.1988 (D. Logunov, A.N. Ivanzow) GoogleMaps   . 1♀ 1 juv., ZMMU, near Tskaltubo, Sataplia Reserve [42.31°N, 42.67°E], creek, 15–17.iv.1988 (D. Logunov, A.N. Ivanzow) GoogleMaps   . 5♂ 4♀, ZMMU, near Kutaisi, 8 km E Orpiri, Tsutskhvati Cave [~ 42.296°N, 42.866°E], 24–25.x.1981 (S.I. Golovatch) GoogleMaps   .

Adjara: 1♀, ZMMU, near Batumi, Chakva, Botanical Garden [41.700°N, 41.719°E], 1.xi.1979 (A. Zyuzin) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20959), and   2♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( G142 View Materials ), Mtirala National Park (41.693°N, 41.823°E), park entrance area, 170 m a.s.l., 17.vii.2018 (H.J. Krammer) GoogleMaps   . 4♂ 2 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( G150 View Materials ), Mtirala Na- tional Park (41.6759°N, 41.8723°E), path to Tsablnari Waterfall, 1 km E of visitor center, 345 m a.s.l., 17.vii.2018 (H.J. Krammer) GoogleMaps   . 4♀ 3 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( G148 View Materials ) [one female abdomen transferred to 80% ethanol, ZFMK (Ar20976)], Kintrishi Protected Area (41.7319°N, 41.9753°E), picnic spot, 21.vii.2018 (H.J. Krammer) GoogleMaps   . 3♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( G149 View Materials ), Kintrishi Protected Area, road to Khino , 6 km WNW of Khino monastery (41.7376°N, 42.0074°E), 640 m a.s.l., 18.vii.2018 (H.J. Krammer) GoogleMaps   .

TURKEY, Artvin: 1♂ 1♀, MHNG, Hopa District [~ 41.39°N, 41.43°E], 19.vi.1969 (P. Brignoli) GoogleMaps   . 1♂, ZFMK (Ar 20960), Şavşat District, Erikli (41.405°N, 42.297°E), 1140 m a.s.l., 12.vi.2009 (Y.M. Marusik) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ 1♀ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20961), Arhavi District, Çöplük Quarter (41.368°N, 41.340°E), 225 m a.s.l., 13.vi.2009 (Y.M. Marusik) GoogleMaps   .

Rize: 1♂, MCVR, Fındıklı District [~ 41.27°N, 41.15°E], “grotticella” (=small cave), 15.vi.1969 (G. Osella) GoogleMaps   .

Redescription. Male (Sataplia Cave, ZMMU). MEASUREMENTS. Total length 6.1, carapace width 2.3. Distance PME-PME 140 µm; diameter PME 180 µm; distance PME-ALE 70 µm; diameter AME 110 µm; distance AME-AME 50 µm. Leg 1: 52.1 (14.3 + 1.1 + 13.9 + 19.3 + 3.5), tibia 2: 10.0, tibia 3: 7.7, tibia 4: 9.3; tibia 1 L/d: 60.

COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace mostly pale ochre-yellow, with median brown band including ocular area, laterally with very indistinct light brown marks; clypeus light brown; sternum mostly brown, lighter toward margins and at labium; legs ochre-yellow, coxae ventrally whitish, darker brown rings subdistally on femora and tibiae and in patella area; abdomen gray, with regular pattern of dark marks dorsally and laterally, ventrally with diffuse dark areas anteriorly and posteriorly, three longitudinal parallel marks between gonopore and spinnerets.

BODY. Habitus as in Fig. 199 View FIGURES 194–199 . Ocular area slightly elevated. Deep thoracic pit and indistinct pair of furrows diverging from pit toward posterior margin. Clypeus unmodified. Sternum wider than long (1.7/1.2), unmodified. Abdomen oval, dorso-posteriorly rounded.

CHELICERAE. As in Figs 314–315 View FIGURES 312–321 , with pair of latero-distal apophyses provided with three modified coneshaped hairs each; median margins protruding and visible in lateral view (arrow in Fig. 315 View FIGURES 312–321 ); with stridulatory ridges clearly visible in dissecting microscope.

PALPS. As in Figs 297–299 View FIGURES 294–302 ; coxa with low retrolateral bulge, trochanter barely protruding ventrally, femur with distinct retrolateral dark line and prolateral stridulatory pick; procursus ( Figs 312–313 View FIGURES 312–321 ) with indistinct ventral ‘knee’, short and almost straight (in lateral view) ventral spine, procursus tip without dorsal process and without prolateral process; genital bulb ( Figs 316–319 View FIGURES 312–321 ) with distally strongly widened ventral sclerite, dorsal membranous process strongly developed.

LEGS. Femur 1 with single row of ~23 ventral spines; with curved hairs on tibiae and metatarsi 1–3, few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 7.5%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all leg tibiae; tarsi without distinct pseudosegments but with many small platelets.

Male (variation). Tibia 1 in 20 other males: 10.3–14.3 (mean 11.4). Number of modified hairs on cheliceral apophyses ranging from three on each side to five on each side, often asymmetric (often 3+4 or 4+5, in one male 3+5, in one male 2+5). Fewer spines on femur 1 in small males (e.g., ~10 spines in male with tibia 1 length 10.4). Palpal tibia sometimes widened dorso-distally (as in Fig. 299 View FIGURES 294–302 ): in most specimens from Georgia (except male from near Niznyaya Yashtukha Village) and Turkey (except male from Erikli), but never in males from Russia (see figs 4–5 in Spassky 1934 and figs 14–15 in Kovblyuk et al. 2011 for Russian specimens, and fig. 50 in Brignoli 1978 for a Turkish specimen). Prolateral process of ventral bulbal sclerite (arrow in Fig. 318 View FIGURES 312–321 ) of variable size: large (as shown in Fig. 318 View FIGURES 312–321 ) in most males from Georgia (except males from near Niznyaya Yashtukha Village and from Kintrishi Protected Area) and Turkey (except male from Erikli); smaller in all males from Russia (cf. fig. 24 in Kovblyuk et al. 2011).

Female. In general similar to male but without spines on legs; stridulatory area on chelicerae smaller than in males and with finer ridges. Tibia 1 in 24 females: 7.2–13.6 (mean 10.8).

FEMALE GENITALIA. Epigynum as in Figs 294, 300 View FIGURES 294–302 , 303, 306, 309 View FIGURES 303–311 , with whitish area posteriorly separating pair of sclerotized areas at posterior margin from rest of epigynal plate; internal median pouch usually visible in uncleared specimens, slightly variable in shape, usually angular or M-shaped anteriorly ( Figs 294 View FIGURES 294–302 , 303, 306, 309 View FIGURES 303–311 ), sometimes rounded (e.g., females from Kintrishi Protected Area, Fig. 300 View FIGURES 294–302 ); with pair of light brown weakly bulging areas in front of epigynum and simple, short but wide posterior plate. Internal genitalia with large median pouch of uterus externus of variable shape (see above), pair of lateral pouches of uterus externus variably distinct, sometimes with distinct sclerotized external margins; distance between pore plates variable (compare Figs 305, 308, 311 View FIGURES 303–311 , 321 View FIGURES 312–321 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits caves and cave-like habitats as well as spaces among rocks and other near-ground objects. At Mtirala National Park and Kintrishi Protected Area, the spiders were collected from small cavities in road cuts, among rocks in forest, and in a man-made structure in a picnic area.

Distribution. Widespread around the eastern Black Sea ( Fig. 445 View FIGURE 445 ). I have not checked the specimens cited in Koçyiğit et al. (2016) (from Turkey, Akçakent 2, 38.086°N, 34.115°E) but consider them very likely to be misidentified. The specimens cited in Naumova et al. (2016) (from Turkey, Dupnisa Mağarası) are here considered to represent H. trakyaensis   . For credible but unchecked records shown in Fig. 445 View FIGURE 445 , see Table 2.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg


Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig


Zoological Museum, Moscow Lomonosov State University


Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Zoological Museum


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle














Hoplopholcus longipes ( Spassky, 1934 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2020

Hoplopholcus longipes

Kocyigit, H. O. & Demir, H. & Seyyar, O. 2016: 22
Naumova, M. & Lazarov, S. P. & Petrov, B. P. & Deltshev, C. D. 2016: 434

Hoplopholcus longipes

Kovblyuk, M. M. & Marusik, Y. M. & Ponomarev, A. V. & Gnelitsa, V. A. & Nadolny, A. A. 2011: 38
Brignoli, P. M. 1978: 493

Holocnemus longipes Spassky, 1934: 366

Mcheidze, T. 1997: 65
Charitonov, D. E. 1947: 15
Charitonov, D. E. 1946: 146
Spassky, S. A. 1937: 135
Spassky, S. A. 1934: 366