Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse),

Cranston, Peter S., Martin, Jon & Spies, Martin, 2016, Cryptic species in the nuisance midge Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the status of Tripedilum Kieffer, Zootaxa 4079 (4), pp. 429-447: 434-438

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Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse)


Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) 

( Figs 1B, E, HView FIGURE 1; 2A, D; 3A, B, D; 4A, C,E; 5A) urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:

Chironomus nubifer Skuse, 1889  ( Skuse, 1889, description of both adult sexes).

Chironomus (Polypedilum) octoguttatus Tokunaga, 1936  ; Sasa (1979, description of all stages).

Remaining synonymy as in Freeman (1961), Sasa & Sublette (1980), Kobayashi & Endo (2008), Cranston et al. (2013).

Type material. Lectotype ♂, of Chironomus nubifer  , designated by Freeman (1961), slide mounted in Euparal (by PSC), [ AUSTRALIA: New South Wales] Berowra, F.A.A. Skuse ( ANIC). 

Other material. Paralectotypes 1♂, 3♀♀, slide mounted in Euparal (by PSC), [New South Wales] Wheeney (sic! = Wheeny), Jan. [F.A.A. Skuse] ( ANIC). 

Lectotype ♂ of Polypedilum pelostolum Kieffer  , hereby designated, slide mounted in Euparal (by PSC), label data verbatim ‘Tainan / Formosa / H. Sauter (print), XI, 09’ (ink), ‘Kieffer det’ (print), ‘ COTYPUS’, ‘paratypus’ (print), ‘DEI Müncheberg / Dip-00019’.

Paralectotypes (only those examined on slide mounts in Euparal (PSC)), 1♀, same slide as Lectotype; same data except ‘ DEI Müncheberg / Dip-00018’  ; 1♂, same data as Lectotype except ‘ DEI Müncheberg / Dip-00009’  ; 1♂, ‘ Formosa, Sauter’ , ‘ Tainan 902IV’, ‘ pelostolum Kieff.  [ink] det. Kieffer’, ‘ Purchd. from Budapest Mus. B.M. 1922-72 ’ ‘ BMNH (E) 1240747’  ; 1♀, same, except BMNH (E) 1240748’.


Additional material, examined for mensural ( Table 1) and molecular vouchering.

AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Werribee, ‘ Metropolitan Farm’, 23.iv.1970 ( Martin ), many ♂ ♀ reared from individual egg masses ( ANIC)  ; New South Wales, Yanco Agricultural Institute, reared ex egg masses from rice fields ( Stevens ) ( ANIC) (L, MV)  ; South Australia, Bolivar lagoon 32, 2.v.2013 ( Hincks ) ( ANIC-MV) (Larvae)  ; Western Australia, Cockburn City, Yangebup Lake,. i.2014 ( Harris ) ( ANIC-MV) (Larvae)  ; Northern Territory, Palm Valley, 24°03'N 132°42'E, 29.v.1992 (Cranston), reared from egg mass ( Martin ); Pe, Ranger Uranium Mine Retention Pond 1, 31.v.1988 (Cranston)( ANIC)GoogleMaps  .

SINGAPORE: Pandan Reservoir , 1°19'7"N 103°44'35"E, multiple dates from. xi.2012 andGoogleMaps  . v.2014 (NUS team) (ANIC, BMNH, most to RMBR) (all life stages, MV).

JAPAN: Okinawa: Yonaguni Is., Iriomote Is., Miyako Is.  , Okinawa Is, Kume Is  ; Kagoshima: Amami Is., Tanegashima Is.  ; Miyazaki: Nichinan Coast  ; Yamaguchi, R. Oze  ; Hiroshima: R. Gonogawa, R. Ashida, R. Nuta  ; Shiga: L. Biwa  ; Gifu: R. Nagara (K. Kawai) ( ANIC), 1♂, slide mounted, from each location. 

ISRAEL: Bief Netufa, Biq`at Valley area , 32°46’N 35°15’E, 15.ix.1968 (J. Kugler) ( ANIC), 2♂, ♀, L(cytology); Kazorea Waste Pond (L, MV); Elroi Spring, Kiryat TivonGoogleMaps  , 32°43’N 35°7’E 20.viii.2005 (L. Meltzer) ANIC) L; Kfar Yehoshua, 32°41’N 35°9’E 19.vi.2007 (N. Meltzer) (ANIC) L (MV). HAWAI’I: Kealia Pond, Kihei, Maui, 20°47’06” 156°27’56”, 8.xi.1999 (M. Nishimoto) (L, MV). 

Description. Adults ( Figs 1B,E, HView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2, 5AView FIGURE 5). For mensural features of specimens of both sexes in the type series and various geographic populations, see Table 1. Descriptions by Sasa (1979) and Sasa & Sublette (1980) are not contradicted. Frontal tubercles digitiform, 10–30 µm long. Fore tibial apex a rounded scale without spine ( Fig. 1BView FIGURE 1). Pulvillus ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5) divided in 2 parts; outer densely plumose but not forming ‘pad’, not extending to tip of claw; inner part longer and multiple branched; empodium narrow, weakly plumose and extending slightly beyond inner pulvillus branch. Tergite IX with ovoid pale setiferous area (TIX, Table 1). Male genitalia as in Fig. 1EView FIGURE 1. Anal point parallel-sided. Gonocoxite bulging outward, broadly connected to gonostylus by pale membranous area. Gonostylus broad, distally with weak to strongly bilobed apex. Superior volsella narrow and sinuous, its shape varying according to aspect, apex upcurved; no seta at mid-length.

The female genitalia (of a paralectotype) are illustrated for the first time in detail ( Figs 1HView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2) to allow comparison to congeners. Seminal capsules located near anterior end of notum, pale, ovoid, c. 100 x 70 –80 µm; seminal ducts short, straight, leading directly to separate openings. Cerci rounded rectangular, 85–100 µm long x 60 –70 wide. Gonapophysis VIII lobes ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2): apodeme lobe not visible, dorsomesal lobe (DmL) strongly developed, almost rectangular on inner contour, densely setose with apical setae curved mesad; ventrolateral lobe (VlL) c. 60–70 µm long, densely setose with apical setae directed more posteriad than mesad. VlL extended more posteriorly than DmL, but both ‘large’. Postgenital plate with distinct, strongly setose projection.

Pupa ( Figs 2DView FIGURE 2, 3A, B, DView FIGURE 3). Exuvial length 5.5–7.5 mm. Pale yellow with golden-brown highlights (spinules, hooklets, cephalic tubercles, wing and antenna sheath margins, apophyses), and medium to dark brown caudolateral ‘comb’. Cephalic tubercles ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3) triangular, 55–72 µm long and about equally wide at base, subapically bearing 25–32 µm long frontal seta inserted on tubercle just subapically. Thoracic horn highly plumose, arising from golden, oval basal ring. Thorax near dorsal midline with small tubercles aligned in unibiserial row. Abdominal tergite spine/spinule pattern and setation as in Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3. Hook row on segment II c. 60–65% of tergite width, with c. 76–88 hooklets. Caudolateral ‘comb’ on VIII ( Figs 2DView FIGURE 2, 3DView FIGURE 3) extends from L4 setal base on broad dark apophysis, with dominant (apical-most) spine and several subsidiary spines extending along strongly darkened submargin. Anal lobe fringe unevenly bi-serial, especially posteriorly, with 44–75 taeniae, without dorsal seta.

Larva ( Fig. 4A, C, EView FIGURE 4). For mensural features see Table 2. Head golden yellow, with dark, broad occipital margin ( Table 2, oml) and usually substantially dark brown to black postmentum. Antenna ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4) with alternate Lauterborn organs on a segment that might be either a more or less divided 2nd segment; blade extending no further than apex of this segment. Mentum ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4) with paired median teeth, and 7 pairs of laterals of which 1 st are  very small, 2nd as high as medians, and 6th higher than 4th, 5th and 7th laterals. Microsculpture of ventromental plate ( Fig. 4EView FIGURE 4): with dense striae, terminating anteriorly on outer (lateralmost) corner of plate in elongate lamellae without hooks or lobes. Body conventional for the genus.


Australian National Insect Collection


Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut














Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse)

Cranston, Peter S., Martin, Jon & Spies, Martin 2016

Chironomus (Polypedilum) octoguttatus

Tokunaga 1936

Chironomus nubifer

Skuse 1889